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2 AHMAD et al. / Int. J. Agri. Biol., Vol.6, No. 3, 004 Body Mass Index (BMI), the index is calculated by dividing weight (W) measured in kilograms by height (H) squared measured in meters. W BMI H Depending upon the degree of under-nutrition or obesity of the subject, the BMI can take values between 15 and 40. For this purpose, following classification has been proposed: Below 16 Severe chronic malnutrition Chronic malnutrition with wasting Chronic malnutrition with underweight Normal 5-30 Overweight Over 30 Obese According to BMI, the people having index less than 18.5, was considered undernourished. G is measure of extent of the food gap of the average undernourished shortfall in dietary energy supplies from national average requirements for dietary energy? National average requirements were considered to be equal to 1. The extent of food gap was measured by taking undernourished shortfall as a proportion of national average requirements. I P is a measure of inequality in the distribution of individual food gaps of the undernourished, based on the Gini-coefficient. Gini-coefficient was calculated by drawing Lorenz curve. To draw the Lorenz Curve, the calories availability to the sample individuals were arranged in ascending order and deciles were made. The total calories availability to the individuals was calculated and percentage availability of calories to every decile was determined. The deciles of population and calories availability in cumulative percentages were used to construct the Lorenz Curve. The percentages of the population were plotted on horizontal axis and percentage of food availability in calories were plotted at vertical axis. The entire figure was enclosed in a square and a diagonal line was drawn from the lower left corner of the square to the upper right corner. That diagonal line acted as line of equality. The Ginicoefficient was determined by the formula. Gini-coefficient Total area under line of equality (a triangle area) (Todaro, 1997) Ω is the coefficient of variation in dietary energy supplies, which gives the probability of facing temporary food shortage. The formula for the coefficient of variation is Coefficient of variation x 100 X Where, S.D Standard deviation X Arithmetic mean the values of four variables of AHFSI were calculated and by putting these values, the AHFSI was calculated. The value of this index ranges from 100, which represents complete, risk free food security to zero, which would presumably total famine. RESULTS H - The BMI of 60 families or 35 individuals was calculated. Out of 35, 86 individuals were found undernourished. The results of BMI show that 36% population was undernourished and, if we consider, the total population equal to 1, then the undernourished population will be 0.36, which is value of H. G - To estimate G, food consumption survey was undertaken. The caloric intake of 35 individuals was calculated with the help of food balance sheets. Then average caloric intake of 86 undernourished individuals was calculated, which was 034 k. cal / day / individual. The national average caloric requirement for Pakistan on per individual basis is 310 k. cal / day (FAO, 1983). the gap between average requirement and average availability of food was 75 k. cal. The gap between average requirement and average availability was 11.9%. If the average requirement is considered equal to 1, then the gap will be and average availability of food for consumption will be I P - is a measure of inequality in the distribution of individual food gaps of the undernourished, based on the Gini-coefficient. It tells us about the distribution of food. To determine the Gini-coefficient, it was necessary to arrange all the individuals with ascending intake of food and the population was divided into successive deciles according to the ascending order of food intake, then the proportion of total food intake by each group was determined. Table I. Percentage food intake by percentage of population (in deciles) of target area Percentage of population Percentage of food intake The above table shows the distribution of food among the different groups. on the basis of cumulative percentage Lorenz Curve was drawn. The vertical axis shows the percentage of population of target area. It was cumulative up to 100% meaning that both axis were equally long. The entire figure was enclosed in a square and diagonal line was drawn from lower left corner (the origin) to the upper right corner. At every point on that diagonal the percentage of food received was exactly 484

3 ESTIMATION OF FOOD SECURITY / Int. J. Agri. Biol., Vol.6, No. 3, 004 Lorenz curve of the distribution of food among the different groups in the target area equal to the percentage of population. The Lorenz curve shows the actual quantitative relationship between the percentage of population and percentage of total food intake. Lorenz curve represents the inequality and on the basis of Lorenz Curve Gini-coefficient was calculated. Gini-coefficient Total area under line of equality (a triangle area) Area between line of equality and Lorenz Curve Total area of triangle BCD Area under the Lorenz Curve So to determine the total area of triangle BCD Area of triangle BCD ½ Area of Square ABCD 1/ (1.8 x 1.8) 1/ (163.84) 81.9 cm Area under the Lorenz curve Area of rectangle I + Area of rectangle II + Area of rectangle III + Area of rectangle IV + Area of triangle 1 + Area of triangle + Area of triangle 3 + Area of triangle 4 + Area of triangle Area of rectangle I. x cm. Area of rectangle II 5.9 x cm 3. Area of rectangle III 4.15 x cm 4. Area of rectangle IV 1.5 x cm Area of triangle s ( s-a ) ( s-b) ( s-c ) Where, a Base b Perpendicular Area of triangle s ( s-a ) ( s-b) ( s-c ) Where, c Hypotenuse a + b+ c s Areaof Triangle1 Areaof Triangle Areaof Triangle3 Areaof Triangle4 Areaof Triangle5 Area under the Lorenz curve cm Area between line of equality and Lorenz Curve Area of triangle BCD Area under the Lorenz Curve cm Gini-coefficient Area of triangle BCD x Ω - is the coefficient of variation in dietary energy supplies, which gives the probability of facing temporary food shortage. The formula for the coefficient of variation is Coefficient of variation x 100 _ Where, _ x.75 4(1.5)(1.8)(0.7) cm 7.69 cm cm X cm Standard Deviation Arithmetic mean 6.375(.57)(.7)(1.07) 6.7(.9)(.65)(1.15).5 (0.95)(0.95)(0.35) cm.157(1.075)(0.775)(0.35) 485

5 ESTIMATION OF FOOD SECURITY / Int. J. Agri. Biol., Vol.6, No. 3, 004 from 100, which represents complete, risk free, food security, to 0, which would presumably represents total famine. Between 65 and 75 is categorized as low level of food security. By putting all these values in formula we found That the value of AHFSI was 70.18, which is between 65 and 75 and showed that there was low level of food security in our target area. The main reason for the low level of household food security was the low level of per capita income in target area. As people in rural areas spend the 54% of their income on the consumption of food items. So the situation can be improve by increasing the per capita income. And this can be done First by enhancing income productivity of small farmers (up to 1.5 acres) for poverty alleviation by providing an effective infrastructure particularly roads, electricity, drinking water, literacy level, and educational and health facilities. nd through diversification of on-farm and off-farm income generation activities. i.e. encouragement of small enterprises, rural poultry, dairy farming, women involvement in household decisions and income generations etc. 3 rd to create awareness at grass root level. Engage community members, school teachers and students in all activities including training, education and resource access to promote production, processing and consumption of calories rich foods. REFERENCES FAO, Women and Sustainable Food Security, {http: // FAO, 00. The State of Food Insecurity in the World 00, An Annual Report; {http: // FAO, The State of Food and Agricultural, World Review and Regional Review of Energy and Agriculture. FAO, Rome. Govt. of Pakistan, Pakistan Economic Survey, Economic Advisor s Wing, Finance Division, Islamabad. Thomsan, A. and M. Metz, Implication of Economic Policy for Food Security; A training manual, training material for Agricultural planning,40, FAO, Rome. PP Todaro, M.P., Agricultural Transformation and Rural Development, Economic Development, 6 th Edn. Addision Wesley Reading, Masschusetts, USA , United Nation,, 001. United Nations statement on Food security in Pakistan; Thematic Group on Rural Development and Food Security. (Received 0 October 003; Accepted 8 April 004) 487

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