# Game playing. Chapter 6. Chapter 6 1

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1 Game playing Chapter 6 Chapter 6 1

2 Outline Games Perfect play minimax decisions α β pruning Resource limits and approximate evaluation Games of chance Games of imperfect information Chapter 6 2

3 Games vs. search problems Unpredictable opponent solution is a strategy specifying a move for every possible opponent reply Time limits unlikely to find goal, must approximate Plan of attack: Computer considers possible lines of play (Babbage, 1846) Algorithm for perfect play (Zermelo, 1912; Von Neumann, 1944) Finite horizon, approximate evaluation (Zuse, 1945; Wiener, 1948; Shannon, 1950) First chess program (Turing, 1951) Machine learning to improve evaluation accuracy (Samuel, ) Pruning to allow deeper search (McCarthy, 1956) Chapter 6 3

4 Types of games perfect information imperfect information deterministic chess, checkers, go, othello battleships, blind tictactoe chance backgammon monopoly bridge, poker, scrabble nuclear war Chapter 6 4

5 Game tree (2-player, deterministic, turns) MA () MIN (O) MA () O O O... MIN (O) O O O TERMINAL Utility O O O O O O O O O O Chapter 6 5

6 Minimax Perfect play for deterministic, perfect-information games Idea: choose move to position with highest minimax value = best achievable payoff against best play E.g., 2-ply game: MA 3 A 1 A 2 A 3 MIN A 11 A 13 A 21 A 22 A 23 A 32 A 33 A 12 A Chapter 6 6

7 Minimax algorithm function Minimax-Decision(state) returns an action inputs: state, current state in game return the a in Actions(state) maximizing Min-Value(Result(a, state)) function Max-Value(state) returns a utility value if Terminal-Test(state) then return Utility(state) v for a, s in Successors(state) do v Max(v, Min-Value(s)) return v function Min-Value(state) returns a utility value if Terminal-Test(state) then return Utility(state) v for a, s in Successors(state) do v Min(v, Max-Value(s)) return v Chapter 6 7

8 Properties of minimax Complete?? Chapter 6 8

9 Properties of minimax Complete?? Only if tree is finite (chess has specific rules for this). NB a finite strategy can exist even in an infinite tree! Optimal?? Chapter 6 9

10 Properties of minimax Complete?? Yes, if tree is finite (chess has specific rules for this) Optimal?? Yes, against an optimal opponent. Otherwise?? Time complexity?? Chapter 6 10

11 Properties of minimax Complete?? Yes, if tree is finite (chess has specific rules for this) Optimal?? Yes, against an optimal opponent. Otherwise?? Time complexity?? O(b m ) Space complexity?? Chapter 6 11

12 Properties of minimax Complete?? Yes, if tree is finite (chess has specific rules for this) Optimal?? Yes, against an optimal opponent. Otherwise?? Time complexity?? O(b m ) Space complexity?? O(bm) (depth-first exploration) For chess, b 35, m 100 for reasonable games exact solution completely infeasible But do we need to explore every path? Chapter 6 12

13 α β pruning example MA 3 MIN Chapter 6 13

14 α β pruning example MA 3 MIN Chapter 6 14

15 α β pruning example MA 3 MIN Chapter 6 15

16 α β pruning example MA 3 MIN Chapter 6 16

17 α β pruning example MA 3 3 MIN Chapter 6 17

18 Why is it called α β? MA MIN MA MIN V α is the best value (to max) found so far off the current path If V is worse than α, max will avoid it prune that branch Define β similarly for min Chapter 6 18

19 The α β algorithm function Alpha-Beta-Decision(state) returns an action return the a in Actions(state) maximizing Min-Value(Result(a, state)) function Max-Value(state, α, β) returns a utility value inputs: state, current state in game α, the value of the best alternative for max along the path to state β, the value of the best alternative for min along the path to state if Terminal-Test(state) then return Utility(state) v for a, s in Successors(state) do v Max(v, Min-Value(s, α, β)) if v β then return v α Max(α, v) return v function Min-Value(state, α, β) returns a utility value same as Max-Value but with roles of α, β reversed Chapter 6 19

20 Pruning does not affect final result Properties of α β Good move ordering improves effectiveness of pruning With perfect ordering, time complexity = O(b m/2 ) doubles solvable depth A simple example of the value of reasoning about which computations are relevant (a form of metareasoning) Unfortunately, is still impossible! Chapter 6 20

21 Resource limits Standard approach: Use Cutoff-Test instead of Terminal-Test e.g., depth limit (perhaps add quiescence search) Use Eval instead of Utility i.e., evaluation function that estimates desirability of position Suppose we have 100 seconds, explore 10 4 nodes/second 10 6 nodes per move 35 8/2 α β reaches depth 8 pretty good chess program Chapter 6 21

22 Evaluation functions Black to move White slightly better White to move Black winning For chess, typically linear weighted sum of features Eval(s) = w 1 f 1 (s) + w 2 f 2 (s) w n f n (s) e.g., w 1 = 9 with f 1 (s) = (number of white queens) (number of black queens), etc. Chapter 6 22

23 Digression: Exact values don t matter MA MIN Behaviour is preserved under any monotonic transformation of Eval Only the order matters: payoff in deterministic games acts as an ordinal utility function Chapter 6 23

24 Deterministic games in practice Checkers: Chinook ended 40-year-reign of human world champion Marion Tinsley in Used an endgame database defining perfect play for all positions involving 8 or fewer pieces on the board, a total of 443,748,401,247 positions. Chess: Deep Blue defeated human world champion Gary Kasparov in a sixgame match in Deep Blue searches 200 million positions per second, uses very sophisticated evaluation, and undisclosed methods for extending some lines of search up to 40 ply. Othello: human champions refuse to compete against computers, who are too good. Go: human champions refuse to compete against computers, who are too bad. In go, b > 300, so most programs use pattern knowledge bases to suggest plausible moves. Chapter 6 24

25 Nondeterministic games: backgammon Chapter 6 25

26 Nondeterministic games in general In nondeterministic games, chance introduced by dice, card-shuffling Simplified example with coin-flipping: MA CHANCE MIN Chapter 6 26

27 Algorithm for nondeterministic games Expectiminimax gives perfect play Just like Minimax, except we must also handle chance nodes:... if state is a Max node then return the highest ExpectiMinimax-Value of Successors(state) if state is a Min node then return the lowest ExpectiMinimax-Value of Successors(state) if state is a chance node then return average of ExpectiMinimax-Value of Successors(state)... Chapter 6 27

28 Nondeterministic games in practice Dice rolls increase b: 21 possible rolls with 2 dice Backgammon 20 legal moves (can be 6,000 with 1-1 roll) depth 4 = 20 (21 20) As depth increases, probability of reaching a given node shrinks value of lookahead is diminished α β pruning is much less effective TDGammon uses depth-2 search + very good Eval world-champion level Chapter 6 28

29 Digression: Exact values DO matter MA DICE MIN Behaviour is preserved only by positive linear transformation of Eval Hence Eval should be proportional to the expected payoff Chapter 6 29

30 Games of imperfect information E.g., card games, where opponent s initial cards are unknown Typically we can calculate a probability for each possible deal Seems just like having one big dice roll at the beginning of the game Idea: compute the minimax value of each action in each deal, then choose the action with highest expected value over all deals Special case: if an action is optimal for all deals, it s optimal. GIB, current best bridge program, approximates this idea by 1) generating 100 deals consistent with bidding information 2) picking the action that wins most tricks on average Chapter 6 30

31 Example Four-card bridge/whist/hearts hand, Max to play first Chapter 6 31

32 Example Four-card bridge/whist/hearts hand, Max to play first MA MIN MA MIN Chapter 6 32

33 Example Four-card bridge/whist/hearts hand, Max to play first MA MIN MA MIN MA MIN Chapter 6 33

34 Commonsense example Road A leads to a small heap of gold pieces Road B leads to a fork: take the left fork and you ll find a mound of jewels; take the right fork and you ll be run over by a bus. Chapter 6 34

35 Commonsense example Road A leads to a small heap of gold pieces Road B leads to a fork: take the left fork and you ll find a mound of jewels; take the right fork and you ll be run over by a bus. Road A leads to a small heap of gold pieces Road B leads to a fork: take the left fork and you ll be run over by a bus; take the right fork and you ll find a mound of jewels. Chapter 6 35

37 Proper analysis * Intuition that the value of an action is the average of its values in all actual states is WRONG With partial observability, value of an action depends on the information state or belief state the agent is in Can generate and search a tree of information states Leads to rational behaviors such as Acting to obtain information Signalling to one s partner Acting randomly to minimize information disclosure Chapter 6 37

38 Summary Games are fun to work on! (and dangerous) They illustrate several important points about AI perfection is unattainable must approximate good idea to think about what to think about uncertainty constrains the assignment of values to states optimal decisions depend on information state, not real state Games are to AI as grand prix racing is to automobile design Chapter 6 38

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