P-3: Create objective-driven lesson plans

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1 Decide on Lesson Plan Model While the five step lesson cycle will often efficiently and effectively lead students to mastery of a given objective, successful teachers recognize that other common lesson cycles are more effective in fostering mastery of particular objectives. Regardless of the format, all excellent lessons should satisfy the key purposes listed on the P-3 main page. Click on a common lesson plan format to learn more: 5-STEP & 7-STEP Generic, basic; good for most contexts SHARED READING AND READ ALOUD Elementary reading comprehension 5E & 7E Inquiry-based or discovery math and science READER S/WRITERS WORKSHOP Reading & Writing strategies; all grade levels PHONEMIC AWARENESS Pre-K 1 st Grade Reading Comprehension How do you decide between using a 5-step and a discovery learning (or 5-E ) lesson model? 5 and 7 Step The 5 Step and 7 Step Lesson Plan formats are recognized as two of the most effective structures for lessons in a wide variety of grade levels and content areas. They are especially suited for lessons involving direct instruction. The 5 Step Lesson Plan: o Opening o Introduction to New Material o Guided Practice o Independent Practice o Closing The 7 Step Lesson Plan: o Objective o Motivation o Directed Lesson Sequence o Guided Practice o Independent Practice o Alternate and Supplementary Activities o Assessment

2 5-Step Template OBJECTIVE. What will your students be able to do? CONNECTION TO ACHIEVEMENT GOAL. How does the objective connect to your achievement goal? PRE-PLANNING ASSESSMENT. How will you know whether your students have made progress toward the objective? How and when will you assess mastery? KEY POINTS. What three to five key points will you emphasize? OPENING. ( min.) How will you communicate what is about to happen? How will you communicate how it will happen? How will you communicate its importance? How will you communicate connections to previous lessons? How will you engage students and capture their interest? MATERIALS. INTRODUCTION OF NEW MATERIAL. ( min.) What key points will you emphasize and reiterate? How will you ensure that students actively take-in information? How will you vary your approach to make information accessible to all students? Which potential misunderstandings will you anticipate? LESSON CYCLE GUIDED PRACTICE. ( min.) How will you clearly state and model behavioral expectations? How will you ensure that all students have multiple opportunities to practice? How will you scaffold practice exercises from easy to hard? How will you monitor and correct student performance? INDEPENDENT PRACTICE. ( min.) How will you clearly state and model behavioral expectations? In what ways will students attempt to demonstrate independent mastery of the objective? How will you provide opportunities for extension?

3 CLOSING. ( min.) How will students summarize what they learned? How will students be asked to state the significance of what they learned? How will you provide all students with opportunities to demonstrate mastery of (or progress toward) the objective? REINFORCEMENT HOMEWORK (if appropriate). How will students practice what they learned? The Seven Step Lesson Plan THE STRUCTURE Lesson Opening (1) Objective Defines the specific, measurable skills or behaviors students will know and be able to do by the conclusion of the lesson. You might also include how the objective connects and leads to the attainment of the broader curricular goal. (2) Motivation Also called the focus or hook, this describes how you will hook students into the lesson. A motivation can work by investing the students in the relevance of the materials to be covered, piquing their curiosity, or simply warming them up to the lesson. Introduction to New Material (3) Introduction of New Material / Directed Lesson Sequence Describes the instructional strategies or activities through which the bulk of the new knowledge will be conveyed to students. The strategies can take the form of direct instruction, a teacherfacilitated discussion, or student-driven learning activities like experiments, peer learning, or the reading of secondary source books. Student Practice of New Material (4) Guided Practice Articulates what activities you will use to enable students to apply new knowledge or practice new skills with close guidance and feedback from you and from peers. (5) Independent Practice Outlines how students will practice their new skills or knowledge independently to reinforce and demonstrate individual achievement of the specific objective. This step may include homework. (6) Alternate and Supplementary Activities Identifies additional activities that can provide enrichment or reinforcement of the lesson just taught. Closing (7) Assessment Outlines the assessment strategies that will be used to measure student achievement of the specific objective.

4 Shared Reading and Read Aloud The Shared Reading and Read Aloud Lesson Plan formats are best suited for teaching reading comprehension in the elementary school classroom. These formats facilitate increased student engagement with reading selections through pre-teaching vocabulary words and comprehension strategies. Shared Reading and Read Aloud Lesson Plan: o Objective o Assessment o Pre-Reading Activities o During-Reading Activities o Post-Reading Activities Read Aloud and Shared Reading Template OBJECTIVE. What will your students be able to do? CONNECTION TO THE SUMMER ACHIEVEMENT GOAL. How does the objective connect to the summer achievement goal? PRE-PLANNING (INFORMAL) ASSESSMENT. How will you know whether your students have made progress toward the objective? How and when will you assess mastery? KEY POINTS. What big ideas in the text will you emphasize? What will students learn about using the strategy/ies? LESSON CYCLE PRE-READING. ( min.) What prior knowledge will you activate? Focus on knowledge needed to understand the big ideas. What background information will you share? Which vocabulary words will you pre-teach? Choose 2-3 words that are critical to understanding the big ideas. Which strategy/ies will you introduce? How will you do so? How will you engage students and capture their interest? MATERIALS. What text will you use? What other materials do you need? Title: Author: Other Materials:

5 DURING READING. ( min.) Where will you stop to think aloud about your strategy use? How will your use of strategy/ies facilitate student understanding of the big ideas in the text? Include page numbers and explain your rationale. How will you include students in this process? How will you check for understanding of the strategy/ies? How will you clearly state and model behavior expectations? POST READING. ( min.) How will students summarize what they learned about the strategy/ies and the text? How will students be asked to state the significance of what they learned? How will you provide all students with opportunities to demonstrate mastery of or progress toward the objective? REINFORCEMENT HOMEWORK (if appropriate). How will students practice what they learned? Read Aloud and Shared Reading Example (5th Grade) PRE-PLANNING OBJECTIVE. What will your students be able to do? SWBAT locate cause-and-effect relationships in an expository text. CONNECTION TO THE SUMMER (BIG) GOAL. How does the objective connect to the summer (big) goal? When students use text structures like cause-and-effect to organize their reading and writing, they are more effective readers and writers, improving their ability to independently read and analyze texts. (INFORMAL) ASSESSMENT. How will you know whether your students have made progress toward the objective? How and when will you assess mastery? Students will complete cause-and-effect graphic organizer. KEY POINTS. What big ideas in the text will you emphasize? What will students learn about using the strategy/ies? -Causes have effects and effects have causes. There are reasons or causes why certain things happen; when those things happen, they create a result or an effect. -Authors use particular words to help you identify cause-and-effect relationships. Some of these include cause, effect, if, then, as a result, therefore, and because. LESSON CYCLE PRE-READING. (10 min.) What prior knowledge will you activate? Focus on knowledge needed to understand the big ideas. What background information will you share? Which vocabulary words will you pre-teach? Choose 2-3 words that are critical to understanding the big ideas. Which strategy/ies will you introduce? How will you do so? How will you engage students and capture their interest? MATERIALS. What text will you use? What other materials do you need?

6 Ask a student to act out what would happen if s/he ate too much too fast. Student should act like s/he has a stomachache. Explain that the cause was eating too much, too fast, and the effect was getting a stomachache. CAUSE Renee ate too much too fast! Add this information to the chart. EFFECT Renee got a stomachache. Introduce the graphic organizer to the students. Explain each part of it, and how it will be used. Explain that students already have some knowledge of cause-and-effect because it happens in every day life. Students know that if they do not study for a test, the effect will be that they will not do well. TITLE: Danger! Volcanoes AUTHOR: Seymour Simon OTHER POSSIBLE TITLES: Branley, F.M., Flash, Crash, Rumble, and Roll, Volcanoes, or What Makes Day and Night or any text with clear cause/effect relationships OTHER MATERIALS: Chart Paper with arrow and rectangle Cause-and-Effect T- chart or web determine which is more sensible based on your text Scratch paper They also know that if they bake cookies that come out burnt, the cause was leaving them in the oven too long. Define cause and effect for students: Cause is why something happens Effect is what ends up happening Authors often use cause-and-effect when writing both fiction and non-fiction texts to help you understand the events about which you are reading. We are going to be reading a non-fiction text today called Danger! Volcanoes. The author uses cause-and-effect throughout to help you understand how things really work. Sometimes authors use key words like cause, effect, if, then, as a result, therefore, and because to indicate a cause-and-effect relationship. For example, if I were writing a story about Renee, I might say, Renee got a stomachache because she ate too much too fast, or Renee has a stomachache as a result of eating too much too fast. These key words help us identify cause and effect. Write the key words on the chart paper. Let s get started reading the story. Remember to listen for the key words that indicate a cause-and-effect relationship.

7 DURING READING. (15 min.) Where will you stop to think aloud about your strategy use? How will your use of strategy/ies facilitate student understanding of the big ideas in the text? Include page numbers and explain your rationale. How will you include students in this process? How will you check for understanding of the strategy/ies? How will you clearly state and model behavior expectations? Explain that as you read the story, you will be listening for cause-and-effect relationships. When you find one, you will add it to the graphic organizer. See examples at: As you begin to read Danger! Volcanoes by Seymour Simon aloud, model the thought process behind discovering cause-and-effect relationships. For example, say something like, As I begin reading Danger! Volcanoes, I see that there are lots of interesting pictures of volcanoes in this book. I bet I will learn some new information about volcanoes when I read this book. After reading the second page of the book say, I wonder what causes the volcano to erupt. I bet I will learn that when I read further. After reading the next page say, 5-E and 7-E The 5E and 7E Lesson Plan formats are bested suited for inquiry-based instruction in math and science at all grade levels. A distinguishing characteristic of the 5E and 7E lesson plan cycles is that the I Do (Explain) comes after the You Do (Explore), as opposed to the standard 5 step lesson plan cycle. 5E Lesson Plan: o Engage o Explore o Explain o Elaborate o Evaluate 7E Lesson Plan: o Elicit o Engage o Explore o Explain o Elaborate o Evaluate o Extend

8 5-E Lesson Plan model Topic: Objectives: Standards and Benchmarks addressed: Action Phase 1: Engage Capture student attention, activate student prior knowledge, stimulate thinking, raise key questions, etc. 1 Phase 2: Explore Allow students to observe, record data, isolate variables, design and plan experiments, create graphs, interpret results, develop hypotheses, and organize their findings. Phase 3: Explain Introduce laws, models, theories, and vocabulary. Guide students toward coherent generalizations, and help students understand and use scientific vocabulary to explain the results of their explorations Phase 4: Elaborate Provide students opportunity to apply their knowledge to new domains, raise new questions, and explore new hypotheses. May also include related problems for students to solve. Phase 5: Evaluate Administer formative assessment (although checking for understanding should be done throughout the lesson) 1 Phase descriptions adapted from Eisenkraft, Arthur. Expanding the 5 E Model. accessed 1/4/08

9 Reader s/writer s Workshop The Reader s and Writer s Workshop Lesson Plan formats are best suited for teaching reading and writing at any grade level. The workshop format encourages students to participate more wiguth their peers and teachers through discussing the work that is assigned to them and the reading/writing strategies that are taught during mini lessons. Reader s Workshop Lesson Plan: o Connection o Modeling o Link o Work Time o Closing Writer s Workshop Lesson Plan: o Connection o Teaching point o Creating a model o Active Engagement o Link o Independent Work Time o Conclusion Phonemic Awareness The Phonemic Awareness Lesson Plan format is best suited for helping K through 1 st Grade students improve their ability to hear and work with individual sounds. These lessons can include the following tasks: Replication: students repeat a sound with correct articulation Isolation: students identify a single sound in a word Identification: students recognize the same sounds in different words Categorization: students recognize the word in a set that has an odd sound The Phonemic Awareness Lesson Plan Format: o Objective o Key Points: Targeted Phonological/Phonemic Awareness Skills o Opening o Tasks o Closing

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