CAREERS Conference Paper Abstracts

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1 CAREERS Conference Paper Abstracts TESTING THE GENERALIZABILITY OF A SUBJECTIVE CAREER MATRIX: FRAMEWORK OF CAREER MIST AND DRIFT Kato, Ichiro; Kushiro Public U. of Economics; Suzuki, Ryuta; Kobe U.; This paper reports the development and validation of the Subjective Career Matrix (SCM), a new conceptual framework which was designed to exhibit the perceptions of uncertainty and the will to design one's career. SCM consists of two new concepts, namely career mist and career drift. Career mist is a concept to describe the uncertainty which an individual subjectively recognizes at a certain point of time. On the other hand, career drift is a concept describing a certain state of mind in which an individual lacks the interest in managing his or her own career. Both concepts were derived from former qualitative studies which had been intended to understand the unique conditions in which the Japanese white-collars are embedded. The matrix intends to comprehend the subjective condition of a career, and also to depict the motivational mechanism of actions to manage one's own career. The SCM has been tested using 113 Japanese white-collar workers. The results indicated that career mist and career drift could be reliably operationalized. Also, data found no correlation between career mist and career drift, and the samples were distributed over the framework. The result also suggested that the change of subjective state of mind formed the shape of a reversed letter N inside the matrix. Future possibilities are also discussed based on findings. Keywords: Japanese, subjective career matrix, career drift INFLUENCE OF CAREER-PLATEAUED ON ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIORS AND THE MODERATING ROLE OF SELF- PLATEAUING Tremblay, Michel; HEC Montreal; This study examines the influence of three forms of plateauing-structural, content and pay on the attitudes and behaviors of 900 Canadian engineers. The results show that each of the three forms of plateauing is related to several attitudinal variables(e.g.career and firm satisfaction, interpersonal and life success,organizational commitment,perception of fairness system)and also to behavioral propensities (e.g.intention to quit and extra-role behaviors). Of the three forms of plateauing identified, the findings show that engineers'attitudes and behaviors are best explained by content plateauing. Morever,selfplateauing has a significant moderating effect on some relationships between career dimensions and outcomes studied. Keywords: career, engineers, plateauing Careers Paper Abstracts -- 1

2 CROSS-CULTURAL MENTORING IN INTERNATIONAL JOINT VENTURES Yan, Aimin; Boston U.; Shen, Yan; Boston U.; The classic literature on mentorship has offered one-way mentoring models, and seldom reached beyond the domestic or single organizational boundaries; and in studies of international joint ventures (IJVs), little research has been conducted on how the mentoring relationships between the venture's expatriate and local managers contribute to venture success. Adopting a mentorship perspective, this paper develops a conceptual model of cross-cultural mentoring and development in the context of IJVs, in which individual development and organizational learning and knowledge transfers are achieved through two-way, reciprocal mentoring. Key individual and interpersonal variables (e.g., cross-cultural sensitivity, communicational skills, social relation skills, symmetry in prior mentoring experiences and career stages, and complementary knowledge bases) are depicted as predictors of mentorship quality, which in turn, affects IJV success. We also propose several organizational variables (e.g., parent control structure, environment uncertainty, and congruence in parent objectives) that moderate mentorship quality. A set of propositions are offered for future research. Keywords: Mentorship, International Joint Ventures, Cross-Cultural Management A NEW VISION OF MANAGEMENT IN THE 21ST CENTURY: DIVERSITY AND CAREER CHOICE ISSUES FOR YOUNG WORKERS Bell, Myrtle P; U. of Texas, Arlington; Young workers are a significant portion of the current and future workforce but are grossly absent from diversity and career research in the Academy. An estimated 2.8 million 16 and 17 year olds were employed in 2000 and 80% of all teenagers will work at some point during high school (Nester, 2003). The U. S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission's Initiative,launched in September 2004, is designed to educate young workers--the next generation of managers, business leaders, and entrepreneurs--about diversity, fairness, and inclusion in workplaces. This initiative began in response to increases in reports of sexual harassment against young workers, who are often unaware of their rights and responsibilities. In a novel approach, this manuscript considers the need for early career diversity education that will have two key effects. First, such education will educate young workers about diversity, fairness, and inclusion. Second, education will help young workers make more knowledgeable early career choices that will positively affect their individual opportunities and lifetime incomes, earnings, and potential. Early career knowledge about discrimination, harassment, and gender-role socialization will enable youth make occupational and educational choices that will maximize their career success while minimizing the negative impacts of those diversity issues. The manuscript concludes with specific suggestions for management scholars desiring to participate in a new vision of management for the 21st century for this underserved, but increasingly important, segment of workers. Keywords: sexual harassment, career choice, young workers Careers Paper Abstracts -- 2

3 CAREER COUNSELING IN THE NEW CAREER ERA: CAREER TYPES AND THE PERCEIVED NEED FOR CAREER COUNSELING Forrier, Anneleen; Catholic U. of Leuven; Sels, Luc; Katholieke U. Leuven; Verbruggen, Marijke; Catholic U. of Leuven; In this study, we investigate whether the perceived need for neutral (employer-independent) career counseling differs between individuals according to their career type. We identify six different career types, basically varying in terms of career path and career aspirations: the bounded, boundaryless, staying, homeless, trapped and released career type. We include mediating and moderating factors in the relationship between career types and the perceived need for career counseling. (1) We investigate whether career satisfaction mediates the relationship between the career type and the perceived need for career counseling. (2) In addition, we study whether the relationship between career satisfaction and the perceived need for career counseling is moderated by the career support people get from their organization (Organizational Career Management) and by their career self-management (Individual Career Management). We use data from a representative sample of 957 Belgian employees. The study reveals that people in homeless, released and boundaryless careers are most likely to participate in career counseling. Moreover, the results strengthen the argument that lifelong access to neutral ca-reer counseling is valuable in the current career era. Career counseling fulfils a need of people who are not satisfied with their career. This need cannot fully be met by organizational career management activities. The study moreover sheds light on a potential pitfall of career counseling. Although career counseling aims at enhancing people's career competencies, it runs the risk of failing to reach those who lack these competencies. Keywords: career type, counseling, ICM/OCM CHALLENGING EXPERIENCES AS CUES FOR PROMOTION EVALUATIONS: A NEW PERSPECTIVE ON THE GLASS CEILING De Pater, Irene E.; U. of Amsterdam; Van Vianen, Anna; U. of Amsterdam; Fischer, Agneta H.; U. of Amsterdam; Despite the fact that it has generally been accepted that challenging experiences are an important prerequisite for career advancement, few studies have examined this relationship empirically. To fill this gap, we empirically established support for this notion, by performing two studies that examined the relationship between employees'challenging job experiences and their performance and career potential evaluations as provided by their supervisors. Furthermore, we empirically examined possible gender differences in challenging experiences at three distinct job levels, in an attempt to clarify inconsistent results of previous research. Our results showed that job challenge is positively related to the evaluation of employees'career potential, but not related to the evaluation of their current performance. We furthermore found that at middle job levels, women had less challenging experiences than men had, which might partly explain the gender gap in upward career mobility. Keywords: advancement, gender, challenge Careers Paper Abstracts -- 3

4 ANTECEDENTS AND CONSEQUENCES OF CAREER SELF- MANAGEMENT BEHAVIORS Raabe, Babette; Siemens AG; Beehr, Terry A; Central Michigan U.; The responsibility for managing careers has shifted from employers to adaptive and proactive employees. A career management intervention trained employees to engage actively in their own career development by increasing their self-knowledge, career goal commitment, and career plan quality. As hypothesized by action regulation theory, these three variables were positively related to subsequent career selfmanagement behaviors. Path-analysis clarified the relationships of self-management behaviors to the subsequent outcome of career satisfaction. Both a direct path from career self-management behaviors to career satisfaction and a path mediated by organizational responsiveness and pay increases were supported. A third path from career self-management behaviors to career satisfaction via the mediators career plan implementation and speed in job transition was not confirmed, however. Keywords: career, self-management, training evaluation SOCIAL NETWORKS AND JOB SEARCH AFTER NON- NETWORK-BASED MIGRATION: HIGH-SKILLED CHINESE IN BOSTON Qin, Fei; Massachussetts Institute of Technology; This study examines the pattern of social network development and the impact of social network composition on important labor market outcomes for highly skilled immigrants, whose migration is not initially channeled by social networks and thus are not covered in the traditional chain migration model. The paper argues that the dispersion of the co-ethnic network, as assumed in the assimilation view, is not true for skilled immigrants, but rather that the exposure to co-ethnics would be sustained over time or even get enhanced, because such a network provides migrants with the information bases and supporting mechanisms that are valuable throughout migrants?careers: social connections play an important role in job searching and help migrants to locate better jobs. Using data from a survey of 169 Chinese professionals in Boston, the study investigates two phases of a migrant's career: the first professional job in the U.S. and the most recent job. The study finds that the proportion of Chinese in a migrant's social network does not decrease over time when searching for the most recent job; the analysis further shows that the odds of finding a job through Chinese networks increase with the proportion of Chinese in an individual's social circle, and that odds are greater for the most recent job than for the first job. Finally, a positive relationship is identified between jobs found through Chinese networks, versus formal channels, and real wages. Keywords: Job Seach, Social Networks, High Skilled Migration REWORKING CONTINGENT EMPLOYMENT Bidwell, Matthew James; INSEAD; Modern theories in human resource management have focused on the role of firms'administrative, internal labor markets in determining employment outcomes. In recent years, firms have made increasing use of contingent workers who are formally outside these internal labor markets. Theorists have argued that the different formal relationship under which these workers are employed will have important Careers Paper Abstracts -- 4

5 consequences for how they are managed, and their eventual employment outcomes. In this paper, I examine how employment relationships shape the way that contingent workers and regular employees are assigned to work and laid off, through a detailed case study of how IT consultants are used in a large financial services institution. I use extensive interviews and observation, a survey of project managers and archival data to document the differences between how consultants and employees are treated, and to trace out the processes that shape the distinction between these two groups. Although there are sharp differences between the terms of the formal employment relationships with consultants and regular employees, I find many similarities in how they are managed, particularly regarding their flexibility. I show how two dynamics compete with formal employment relationships in shaping how workers are used, and extensively blur the boundaries between consultants and employees: individuals'accumulation of rolespecific knowledge and the factoring of decision-making among senior management and frontline managers. These findings demonstrate the importance of role-specific knowledge and decision-making processes, rather than formal HR practices or external labor markets in determining employment outcomes in high skilled work. Keywords: contingent work, flexibility, role-specific knowledge MAKING SENSE & MAKING CHOICES: CONSTRUCTING INSTITUTIONAL AND INDIVIDUALIZED CAREERS Craig, Elizabeth; Boston U.; In this study, I develop a grounded theory that describes and explains how members of a sample of highly educated young adults organize and give meaning to their work careers in the contemporary milieu. Drawing upon in-depth interviews with 24 graduates from Harvard University's Class of 1996, I inductively derive a typology of strategies for constructing work careers in the contemporary context. The strategies represent differing degrees of agency in the career construction process, ranging from minimal active construction associated with enacting institutional careers to actively constructing individualized careers. I then draw on career and life course theories to link the individuals' approach to constructing their work careers with their personal backgrounds and experiences. Informants who are constructing individualized careers differ from their counterparts who enact institutional careers in the complexity of their sense of career possibilities, the diversity of careers in their social networks, their self-referent career goals, and their strategic use of social resources to construct their careers. Keywords: careers, life course, agency and structure THE PLEASURE AND PAIN OF SOCIAL COMPARISONS: THE EFFECTS OF SOCIAL COMPARISONS ON MANAGERIAL CAREERS Eddleston, Kimberly Ann; Northeastern U.; This paper applies social comparison theory to the study of managerial careers. Specifically, it is proposed that how managers evaluate their career progression in comparison to the accomplishments of others may have a profound effect on how they feel about their careers and organizations. Study results showed that upward and downward comparisons affected managerial salary progression, turnover intentions and status-based career satisfaction. The competitiveness of the managers work group and their enacted aspirations were also found to be significant moderators. Our findings emphasize the importance of social processes, and specifically relative standards, in predicting managerial career behaviors and attitudes. Furthermore, our results indicate that the affects of upward and downward comparisons on managerial careers are complex. Upward comparisons do not necessarily lead to feelings of deprivation and downward comparisons are not necessarily indicative of a lack of motivation. Careers Paper Abstracts -- 5

6 Rather, upward comparisons can be associated with the pleasures of satisfaction while downward comparisons can be associated with the pains of increasing performance. Implications for theory and research are also discussed. Keywords: managerial careers, social comparisons, career satisfaction and success BEYOND ORGANIZATIONAL CAREERS: INFORMATION, LEARNING AND TRUST IN MEDIATED EMPLOYMENT ARRANGEMENTS Fernandez-Mateo, Isabel; London Business School; Careers outside organizations are very often mediated by the activities of intermediaries that place workers in projects across firms. This paper analyzes the role of such intermediaries i.e. staffing agencies in high-skill contractors' careers. As opposed to commonly held conceptions of mediated employment as atomistic, arms -length transactions, I present a picture of this type of work as a relatively organized and socially structured system. I argue that staffing firms may end up reproducing some of the artifacts that we generally associate with organizational career systems, even in a context that is in principle very different from an internal labor market. I draw on learning theories of the employment relationship in order to explain the emergence of bureaucratic structures in this context, and complement these with an emphasis on the relational and social aspects in which mediated work takes place. I analyse client records and individual job histories from a sample of 329 creative IT contractors - web designers, programmers, etc - placed in 2,092 projects by a staffing agency over a 4-year period. I complement these data with insights from 43 semi-structured interviews. Using both quantitative and qualitative analyses, I demonstrate the value of long-term employment for both the staffing agency and its contractors, and explore a number of mechanisms through which tenure premiums arise. I discuss the implications of this study for our theories of careers within and across organizations. Keywords: Internal Labor Markets, Intermediaries, Learning processes NEVER A GOOD TIME? EXPLORING RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN TIMING CHILDBIRTH AND PERCEIVED CAREER SUCCESS Ladge, Jamie Jocelyn; Boston College; Existing research on how timing childbirth impacts career success is lacking. Economics and sociology scholars have addressed the issue but little headway has been made in understanding implications for starting a family on women's careers. A handful of studies have used wages as the dependent variable as opposed to other more comprehensive measures of career success. The purpose of this paper is to identify a more salient conceptual understanding of how timing childbirth influences perceived career success for working women. I also explore the situational factors that moderate the relationship between age at first birth and perceived career success including job class, family-friendly work policies and career transitions. I begin by reviewing the current literature and identify the inherent gaps. I then develop a model with testable propositions that can be used as a starting point for future research on timing childbirth and careers. Finally, I conclude with theoretical implications and a call for action targeted towards careers scholars and practitioners. Keywords: Timing Childbirth, Career Development, Working Women Careers Paper Abstracts -- 6

7 RELATIONSHIPS AMONG ETHNICITY, GENDER, AND BELIEFS, ATTITUDES AND INTENTIONS TO SEEK IT CAREERS Johnson, Richard D; U. of Central Florida; Stone, Dianna L; U. of Central Florida; Phillips, Tangela Nichole; U. of Central Florida; Using data from 160 African-American and 98 Anglo-American men and women, we examined the relationships between (a) ethnicity, (b) gender, (c) IT self-efficacy beliefs, (d) stereotypes of workers in IT, (e) attitudes toward jobs in IT, and (f) intentions to pursue careers in IT. Results revealed there were ethnic and gender differences in IT self-efficacy beliefs, and stereotypes of IT workers. Surprisingly, African-American men reported higher levels of IT self-efficacy than Anglo-American men, Anglo- American women, or African-American women. Furthermore, Anglo-Americans had more negative stereotypes of IT professionals than African-Americans. In addition, IT self-efficacy beliefs and occupational stereotypes were related to attitudes toward IT jobs, and these attitudes were positively related to intentions to pursue careers in IT. These results have important implications for understanding ethnic and gender differences in beliefs, attitudes, and intentions to pursue IT careers. In particular, these results suggest that IT self-efficacy beliefs may be more likely to influence women's IT career intentions than men's. In addition, IT self-efficacy beliefs and occupational stereotypes may have more of an effect on Anglo-Americans'IT career intentions than those of African-Americans. A different set of factors may affect African-Americans' IT career intentions including perceptions of unfair discrimination and a chilly climate in the field. Keywords: digital divide, IT careers, african-americans MANAGING INCIDENTS OF TIME-BASED WORK-FAMILY CONFLICT: A THREE-STAGE PROCESS Powell, Gary N; U. of Connecticut; Greenhaus, Jeffrey; Drexel U.; The literature on the interface between work and family roles has been dominated by a focus on workfamily conflict. However, prior theories and research have generally examined ongoing or chronic conflict, not specific incidents of conflict. The present study proposed a model of a three-stage process by which individuals manage incidents of time-based work-family conflict, i.e., incidents in which they face a choice between participating in a work activity and participating in a family activity. It examined decisions about whether to attempt to reschedule activities and the outcomes of such attempts, decisions to participate in one or some combination of the two activities, and evaluations of the incident's resolution. According to analyses of critical incidents provided by managers and professionals, these decisions and outcomes were influenced by personal factors reflecting the priorities of the individual facing the conflict situation (e.g., importance of each activity and salience of each role), role sender factors reflecting the priorities of involved parties in the individual's work and family roles (e.g., role pressure and role support), and role activity factors reflecting practical aspects of the situation (e.g., whether each activity could be conducted without the individual or at a different time). Contrary to what gender roles would suggest, decisions and outcomes did not differ according to respondents?gender. Overall, the linkages found among variables in our model offered general support for the proposed three-stage process. Keywords: work-family conflict, coping strategies, participation decisions Careers Paper Abstracts -- 7

8 CUSTOMIZED CAREERS Valcour, P. Monique; Boston College; Bailyn, Lotte; Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Quijada, Maria Alejandra; Massachusetts Institute of Technology; We introduce the concept of customized careers as a new framework for thinking about contemporary career patterns. Customized careers are unconventional patterns of workforce engagement by individuals who would ordinarily be expected to adhere to traditional career paths (e.g., managers and professionals). Customized careers differ from traditional careers on one or more of the following three dimensions: work time (e.g., working reduced hours rather than full time), timing (e.g., late entry into the workforce or taking time out of the workforce in the middle of one's career rather than maintaining continuous employment), and type of employment relationship (e.g., independent contracting work as opposed to long-term organizational employment). Customized careers are defined by their contrast to the traditional or orderly career, a pattern of work involving intense commitment to and continuous engagement with the occupational world, along with a striving for upward mobility and achievement of external markers of success. Our review of the literature emphasizes four themes: the role of choice and control in pursuing customized careers; the need for a longitudinal perspective, the interrelatedness of work and nonwork roles; and the way in which the non-institutionalized nature of customized careers demands persuasion, negotiation, and active career crafting on the part of their incumbents. We review the individual, family, and organizational factors that are associated with people's pursuit of customized careers. We also consider the effects of customized career arrangements on career outcomes and the work-life interface. We conclude with implications for future research. Keywords: customized careers, work-family, identity FAMILY-FRIENDLY EMPLOYMENT PRACTICES: IMPORTANCE AND EFFECTS IN CHINA, INDIA, KENYA AND THAILAND Wang, Peng; Jackson State U.; Walumbwa, Fred Ochieng; U. of Nebraska, Lincoln; Lawler, John; U. of Illinois; Shi, Kan; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Piao, Ming; Northwestern U.; This study examined the relationships between six family-friendly policies and organizational commitment in four developing nations: China, India, Thailand and Kenya. Results showed that childcare benefits program was positively related to organizational commitment. This relationship was more positive in Kenya and Thailand than in China and India. Work flexibility was not related to organizational commitment in any country. The effects of childcare and work flexibility benefits on organizational commitment were positive when these policies were perceived as more important and negative when perceived as less important (note: perceived importance refers to the rated importance of the programs by workers). This study also found disparate effects of family-friendly policies on organizational commitment among employees with different demographic characteristics. Implications and directions for future research are discussed. Keywords: family-friendly policies, organizational commitment, developing nations Careers Paper Abstracts -- 8

9 INDIVIDUAL AND CROSSOVER EFFECTS OF WORK AND BOUNDARY STRESSORS ON DUAL-EARNER COUPLES Desrochers, Stephan; U of Maine; Sargent, Leisa D; U. of Melbourne; This paper examines the within individual and crossover effects of work stressors (work hours and job insecurity), and work-family boundary stressors (family-unfriendly work culture and work-family blurring) on perceptions of performance, career satisfaction and family functioning. Moreover, we also proposed that personal mastery would mitigate the transmission of crossover stressors. To test these predictions, a study was carried out among 403 married dual-earner couples. Regression analyses controlled for demographic variables; when both sets of stressors were entered, we found that family unfriendly work culture crossed over from women to men and vice versa, when predicting family functioning. Interestingly men's work hours were also negatively related to women's perceived work performance and career satisfaction but this was not evident for men, suggesting a uni-directional crossover effect. Within individual effects were also present for men and women, though women reported experiencing more detrimental effects. Finally there was no support for the crossover benefits of personal mastery between spouses; only within individual effects were found. The findings indicate that men's and women's experience of work and boundary stressors are distinct. Keywords: crossover, stressors, dual-earner couples THE CAREER CAPITAL OF MANAGERS WITH GLOBAL CAREERS Suutari, Vesa; U. of Vaasa; Makela, Kristiina; Helsinki School of Economics; The importance of understanding the careers of global leaders, who typically have careers including various international positions and assignments, has increased due to the globalisation of business. One relevant approach to such careers is the career capital approach, which adopts an individual perspective to explain how actors consciously gain portable capabilities, construct networks and identify their own motivations and apply these in their work context. In light of this approach, the goals of the present study are to investigate a) what kind of impact a global career involving multiple international relocations has on the career capital of the individual manager?, and b) what kind of explanatory factors, i.e. drivers of development, can be identified from the international work experiences of managers? The study adopts a qualitative research design based on interviews of MNC managers with a global career involving multiple international assignments. The results indicate that international work experiences have an extensive developmental impact on the career capital of managers. Firstly, the respondents reported that their global careers had strongly increased their self-awareness, i.e. knowing-why career capital. With regard to knowing-how career capital, the managers reported that their experience had considerably developed their competencies. The key drivers behind such developments were breadth of responsibilities, the nature of the international environment, the high level of autonomy, and cross-cultural differences. In terms of knowing-whom capital, the results of the study indicate that the contact network they had acquired during their international careers was of very high importance in their future career. Keywords: global career, career capital Careers Paper Abstracts -- 9

10 A CAREER TYPOLOGY FOR THE 21ST CENTURY ENTREPRENEURIAL WOMAN Moore, Dorothy Perrin; Citadel School of Business Administration; This paper examines research across disciplinary areas to identify elements that impact the career development of successful women entrepreneurs. Recent findings in the careers literature hold that career progression depends not only on the anchors of one's interests, abilities, preparation, circumstances and opportunities but also on massive changes in the external environment. Studies in the field of gender and diversity note that the career patterns of women differ distinctly from those of men. Field studies of female entrepreneurs have revealed that they come in a wide variety of types, have followed diverse paths to business ownership, and sometimes move on to another career from there. Collectively, the research suggests that, foregoing both the traditional, male-based career paths and the mommy track, increasing numbers of women are developing new approaches that strip the old classifications of all meaning. Career development, in essence, increasingly has become a career trajectory, a passage through different stages made possible by the evolving nature of jobs and organizations, or required by such social changes as family structures, and strongly influenced by environmental shifts resulting from new technologies and the rapidly evolving globally interdependent economy. The study suggests a typology and a model. Keywords: Typology, Career, Entrepreneurial BEYOND A DICHOTOMY: EXPANDING OUR ABILITY TO UNDERSTAND PART-TIME AND FULL-TIME WORK ARRANGEMENTS Barringer, Melissa W; U. of Massachusetts, Amherst; McComb, Sara; U. of Massachusetts; Bourne, Kristina A.; U. of Massachusetts, Amherst; Although considerable research has examined part-time workers since Rotchford and Roberts (1982) first declared them missing persons more than 20 years ago, results have been mixed. Part of the problem is that much of the research has focused on simple comparisons of employees in part-time and full-time work arrangements, and, consequently, significant within-group variation has been ignored. The present study focuses on variability in employees' work schedule (hours worked per week), and in their individual circumstances. Using survey data obtained from a sample of 375 part-time and full-time service employees, we examine 1) the utility of using a continuous rather than a dichotomous measure of work schedule, and 2) the extent to which the relationship between work schedule and workplace attitudes is moderated by employee preferences and peripherality. Results suggest that the traditional treatment of work schedule as a simple dichotomy (part-time versus full-time) may be misleading because it fails to consider significant within group variation. Specifically, we find that the continuum of hours worked is a more useful predictor of employee attachment to the organization than is a dichotomous measure. We also find that the relationship between hours worked and employee attachment is moderated by work schedule preferences, but not by worker peripherality. Post hoc analysis suggests that dichotomous measures of work schedule preferences may also miss important sources of variation, and that a measure which captures differences in workers?reasons for preferring a part-time or full-time schedule may be more useful. Implications for research and practice are discussed. Keywords: dichotomy, part-time/full-time, preferences Careers Paper Abstracts -- 10

11 WORK-FAMILY CONFLICT: THE IMPORTANCE OF FAMILY- FRIENDLY PRACTICES AND SUPPORTIVE SUPERVISORS Breaugh, James A; U. of Missouri, Saint Louis; Frye, Kathleen; U. of Missouri, Saint Louis; The study reported in this paper examined a number of hypothesized predictors (i.e., reporting to a family-supportive supervisor, number of hours worked, having childcare responsibility, and having nonchild responsibility) of the use of family-friendly practices (i.e., telecommuting, ability to take work home, job sharing, flextime, and family leave) and of work-family conflict. We found that reporting to a familysupportive supervisor was highly predictive of the use of family-friendly practices. We also found that reporting to a supportive supervisor and the use of family-friendly practices predicted subsequent workfamily conflict. Finally, we found that reporting to a supportive supervisor, the use of family-friendly practices, and work-family conflict were predictive of job satisfaction. We believe our study extends previous research in a number of ways. We believe a particular strength of our study is that, unlike most previous research in this domain, it incorporated data gathered at different points in time and from more than one source. Keywords: work-family conflict, family-supportive supervisor, family-friendly practices SOCIAL NETWORKS, SELF-PERCEPTIONS, AND JOB SEARCH SUCCESS FOR ENTRY-LEVEL JOB SEEKERS Cheung, Yu Ha; U. of Missouri, Columbia; Dougherty, Thomas W; U. of Missouri, Columbia; Job search is thought to be highly relevant to, or dependent on, one's social network. This paper specifies the process by which job seekers compare their job search performance with members of their social network, which impacts their self perceptions (i.e., job search self-efficacy and self-esteem), positive affect, and ultimately influences their job search success. We propose a model to provide insights into the role of a job-seeker's social network in providing comparison information for assessing his or her job search performance. This comparative information is linked to perceptions and feelings that are critical for one's job search success. Our model integrates social network theory with current research on social comparison processes. We highlight the importance of the quality of information from one's social network for job seekers when other comparative information is not readily available. The model also proposes that personal goals, (i.e., self-enhancement, self-improvement, and self-evaluation) affect job seekers' choice of subsequent comparison targets. This paper has implications for both theory and practice related to the role of social networks in successful job search. Keywords: social networks, social comparison, job search TRAITS, DOMAIN KNOWLEDGE, INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT AND CAREERS Ackerman, Phillip L.; Georgia Institute of Technology; There has been an increased emphasis in the past decade among the community of industrialized countries regarding the goals of lifelong learning (e.g., OECD, 2003), especially in the context of projected demographic changes to the workforce -- namely the increased average age of workers. Although goals for lifelong learning can be easily articulated (e.g., literacy, occupational knowledge Careers Paper Abstracts -- 11

12 updating, new skill development and maintenance), effecting such changes depends critically on an understanding of the nature of age-related changes to the underlying determinants of knowledge and skill acquisition. This paper reviews two different forms of knowledge (declarative and procedural), the effects of aging on skill and knowledge acquisition, and the critical families of individual differences determinants of skill learning and domain knowledge acquisition. A theoretical framework for adult intellectual development is provided -- called PPIK, for intelligence-as-process, Personality, Interests, and intelligence-as-knowledge. Results from recent empirical investigations are discussed in the context of the interplay between trait determinants and age correlates of knowledge and skill acquisition. These factors are considered in a life-span perspective, with a discussion of implications for individual career development and approaches to life-long learning in the workplace. Keywords: careers, traits, learning, aging, traits, learning COMPLEX OCCUPATIONAL IDENTITIES: INTEGRATING MULTIPLE DISTINCT OCCUPATIONAL IDENTITIES Rothman, Naomi B.; New York U.; People no longer expect to spend their entire working careers in a single occupation, let alone be employed by a single organization. In fact, many individuals now work in multiple occupations simultaneously. Artists, writers, graphic designers and technology workers, often working as part-time workers, traditional employees who moonlight, or freelancers, are examples of individuals who may combine multiple occupations simultaneously. They are dancers who also freelance as IT professionals, or actors who also work as graphic designers. Preliminary research into these career patterns suggests that some individuals have rather multifaceted occupational identities. However, there has been no systematic investigation of workers who combine multiple occupations in different organizations simultaneously, and of the implications for their identities, and their performance, as a result of doing so. In this paper, I introduce the complex occupational identity construct. I define high occupational identity complexity in comparison to low complexity as having: 1) a greater number of occupational identities; 2) a greater distinction between identities; 3) greater associations between identities (integrated identities). I focus on three major questions in this paper: What is a complex occupational identity? Why and how do individuals with complex occupational identities develop and manage their multiple and distinct occupational identities? And, what benefits may derive from this complexity? I hypothesize that having integrated their distinct occupational identities, these individuals may experience performance related benefits, such as knowledge integration and skill transfer across occupational identities, perspective taking and other outcomes that are associated with combining information in innovative ways. Keywords: career, multiple occupations, multiple identities UNDERSTANDING EXPATRIATE SUCCESS USING DEVELOPMENTAL NETWORK AND ADULT DEVELOPMENT LENSES Chandler, Dawn E.; Boston U.; Kram, Kathy E; Boston U.; Prior research has suggested that the presence of a mentor combined with an individual's social network during an international assignment influence an individual's effectiveness as well as organizational outcomes. In this paper, we expand on the recent reconceptualization of mentoring as a developmental network to examine international assignments. We explore how an individual's developmental stage influences the nature of the relationships that comprise his or her developmental network. In turn, the Careers Paper Abstracts -- 12

13 career and psychosocial support offered by an individual's network mediate the relationship between the individual's developmental stage and possible expatriation and repatriation outcomes. We offer propositions related to an individual's stage and his or her developmental network, as well as to how individuals at different stages will likely face certain challenges and possible outcomes associated with international assignments. Finally, we describe organizational implications related to selection and training for expatriate assignments and outline a future research agenda. Keywords: mentoring, developmental networks, international assignments THE DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF SOCIAL SUPPORT AND SOCIAL EMBEDDEDNESS ON EMPLOYEE OUTCOMES Graf, Isabel; AVP - Talent Management; Wayne, Sandy J; U of Illinois at Chicago; Yuan, Ling; U. of Illinois, Chicago; This study examined the impacts of three types of social support (affective, career, and instrumental) from supervisors, upper-level managers, and coworkers and three types of social networks (affective, career, and production) on employee attitudes and behaviors. Based on social support theory, we predicted that social support and social networks would be differentially related to work outcomes. A sample of 214 banking employees and their direct supervisors participated in this study. Regression results indicated that support from supervisors had the strongest effects on the outcomes. Interestingly, coworker support was negatively related to the outcomes. Keywords: Social support, Social network, Career satisfaction TEMPS & CAREERS: FREEDOM ON THE CAREER HIGHWAY OR TRAPPED AT A ROADBLOCK Allen, Belinda C.; U. of Melbourne; The last decade has witnessed substantial growth in "non-standard" or "irregular" forms of work. Globally, one of the fastest growing segments of these new forms of employment is temporary work. Despite this growth existing theorizing and research on the perceptions of temporary workers, particularly in relation to their careers, is extremely limited. Drawing on a multifaceted conceptualization of identity this paper proposes how the protean approach to careers may be used to enhance our understanding of the careers of temporary workers. The theoretical framework outlined in the paper proposes that there are important differences within the temporary employment category, both in terms of the extent to which the decision to work in this manner is voluntary or non-voluntary, and also in terms of the length of time an individual has been engaged in this form of work. These differences are argued to have important effects in terms of whether an individual embraces a protean or traditional career orientation. It is proposed that these differing career orientations will impact the roles individuals integrate into their career related identity. Implications of these differing constructions of career identity for individuals' perceptions of career success are also outlined. Finally, the ways in which the proposed framework can assist us in designing research that generates more nuanced understandings of how temporary employment may differentially affect the careers of those individuals engaged in this growing form of work, are also highlighted. Keywords: Protean Career, Identity, Temporary Workers Careers Paper Abstracts -- 13

14 WORK HARD AND/OR PLAY HARD: PROPENSITY TO WORK LONG HOURS AND THE INFLUENCE OF ROLE POLYCHRONICITY Butts, Marcus; U. of Georgia; The phenomenon of employees working extreme hours is not particularly new; however, there are few theoretical explications of this behavior. Little attention has focused on propensity to work long hours as a central variable of interest and investigated possible antecedents and outcomes of this behavior. Specifically, there is a lack of conceptualization of the relationship between various work and non-work life roles and the propensity to work long hours and subsequent personal outcomes such as intrinsic and extrinsic success. This paper provides a framework for understanding these relationships and introduces the concept of role polychronicity to explain the importance of effectively juggling multiple roles simultaneously in order to influence working long hours and subsequent career success outcomes. Keywords: Life Roles, Career Success, Role Juggling DUAL-EARNER COUPLES? BELIEFS ABOUT ASYMMETRICAL CAREERS AND THE SUPPORT-WELL BEING RELATIONSHIP Purohit, Yasmin S.; Saint Joseph's U.; Simmers, Claire A; Saint Joseph's U.; A plethora of research has examined the impact of social support from partners in dual-earner relationships. Despite all that we know, questions persist about the role of convergence in support types and amounts in the support-well being relationship. Another research gap stems from not examining partners' normative belief systems and their impact on support exchanges. This research examined these gaps by collecting data from 120 partners in dual-earner relationships (60 couples). This study examined the impact of two independent variables (i) convergence in emotional and tangible support provided and (ii) total emotional and tangible support provided, on two well being outcomes - quality of life and marital conflict. The research also investigated the role of individuals' normative belief systems about careers on the support -well being relationship. Our results indicate robust support for the expectation that (i) convergence in both emotional and tangible support provision and (ii) total emotional and tangible support provision would have a significant impact on individuals' quality of life. Additionally, we found that individuals' normative beliefs about careers had a direct impact on quality of life but also moderated the relationship between the two types of support convergence and quality of life. Our results for marital conflict were less robust and indicated that both the types of total support provided had a direct impact on marital conflict. Additionally, we found that normative beliefs about careers had a direct effect on marital conflict. Our paper concluded with a discussion of our findings and implications for future research. Keywords: Asymmetric careers, support convergence, dual-earner relationships PLAYING BY THE RULES: A SOCIAL NETWORK PERSPECTIVE ON PREPARING FOR RADICAL CAREER CHANGE Barbulescu, Roxana; INSEAD; Job seekers undergoing radical career changes face typecasting barriers. Understanding how they overcome these barriers is important both for individuals actively constructing their work lives and for scholars of boundaryless careers. This paper proposes that individuals attempting to conduct radical Careers Paper Abstracts -- 14

15 career changes seek to learn the criteria recruiters use and the associated behavioral norms prior to recruiting. I offer a two-stage learning process in which job seekers first acquire information about what the hiring criteria are, then learn how to present themselves accordingly. During this process, three types of developmental make learning possible. The paper proposes social structural factors that facilitate access to and drive the effectiveness of those relationships. The main contribution of the paper is to the literature on networks and career development. It takes further existing theory of developmental networks by refining the mechanisms that drive existing and new developmental relationships. Keywords: career change, networks, socialization TRANSITIONING FROM WORKING WOMAN TO WORKING MOTHER: RESOCIALIZATION FOLLOWING MATERNITY LEAVE Ladge, Jamie Jocelyn; Boston College; Contrary to the growing body of literature on maternal employment, little research has focused on understanding the re-entry process for women who return to their jobs following maternity leave. In this paper, I have conceptualized this process as a resocialization period in which new mothers experience stages similar to that of socialization including preparation, encounter, adjustment and stabilization (Nicholson, 1987) and grapple with issues related to image and identity change (Ibarra, 1999), reality shock (Van Maanan, 1975, Feldman, 1988) and surprise and sensemaking (Louis, 1980). Similar to other conceptual arguments related to workplace socialization, I focus on these concepts from an individual level of analysis rather than an organizational level. I begin with a review of the literature that highlights the characteristics of professional careers of women. I also review the literature on workplace socialization and professional identity as it relates to new job entry and role transitions. Next, I develop theory relating to the transition form working woman to working mother in which I posit a model that explicates the resocialization process for women returning to work after maternity leave. I conclude with implications for practice and research and highlight avenues for future research on this topic. Keywords: Resocialization, Professional Identity, Maternal Employment INDIVIDUAL TRAITS, HUMAN CAPITAL, OR FAMILY SITUATION: WHICH PREDICTS MALES/FEMALES CAREER SUCCESS? Riordan, Christine Marie; U. of Georgia; Gatewood, Robert Donn; U. of Georgia; Butts, Marcus; U. of Georgia; Stokes, Garnett; U. of Georgia; Using a 27-year longitudinal data set, we examine the differential relationship between three main classes of variables, individual difference, human capital, and family situation, on the career success outcomes of salary, salary growth, promotions, career commitment, perceived career success, and job satisfaction, for males and females. Results indicate that while many of the relationships are similar for males and females, the importance of the sets of predictors to the outcomes differs dramatically between men and women. Specifically, individual difference variables are the strongest predictors of career success for males, followed by human capital variables. Family situation variables have minimal effect. For females, Careers Paper Abstracts -- 15

16 human capital and family situation variables are the strongest predictors of career success, with individual difference variables having minimal predictive power. Keywords: career success, gender differences, family CAREER SYSTEM PRACTICES: A PALLIATIVE OR STRATEGIC APPROACH TO MANAGERIAL LABOR MARKET CHOICES Newton, Schalon Harrison; Case Western Reserve U.; With departments of human resource management (HRM) struggling to establish an equal strategic role with operating and functional specialties, there is ongoing debate regarding the strategic alignment of HRM practices. A manageable domain for studying the impact of HR in supporting organization strategy is that of career system (CS) programs. Investments in CS programs are made in the expectation that there will be a return in the form of internally developed and strategically deployed managerial talent. It is not clear that these systems actually influence internal labor market decisions. Beyond the direct costs associated with CS programs are the indirect costs of poorly conceived programs, including loss of employees due to lack of career advancement and inappropriately promoted managers failing in new roles. The question this study seeks to answer is whether or not the investment in CS practices provides a reasonable return on investment. Another indicator of impact will be the extent to which managers believe that the practices contribute to career progression. A qualitative study is proposed to explore decisions regarding the implementation of CS practices to determine if there is a relationship to corporate strategic planning processes and evaluate the linkage of these practices to utilization of internal and external labor markets. Guided by the strategic linkage theory of Sonnenfeld & Peiperl (1988) and its empirical assessment by Baruch & Peiperl (2003), the study seeks to differentiate across firms by identifying combinations of practices in CS programs that have the greatest impact on internal labor market strategies. Keywords: Career System Practices, Internal Labor Markets, Management Development PREDICTING TEMPORARY WORKERS' IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT BEHAVIORS TOWARDS TEMPORARY FIRMS AND CLIENTS Connelly, Catherine; McMaster U.; As the number of temporary workers increases worldwide, management research to needs to consider how these workers unique experiences may affect their behaviors in the workplace. Specifically, workers' preferences for temporary work or permanent employment may differentially affect their behaviors towards their temporary firms or their client organizations, and in turn be affected by their personalities. This paper uses qualitative and quantitative research methods to address this issue. A qualitative analysis of interviews with current and former temporary workers and supervisors suggests that temporary workers engage in impression management behaviors that appear similar to those engaged in by permanent employees. Building on these findings, a survey of temporary workers (N=157) investigated how workers' preferences for permanent or temporary employment predicted these workers' impression management behaviors, and whether these preferences were predicted by trait positive affectivity. This study controlled for participants' tenures with their temporary firms, their client organizations, and as temporary workers. A preference for temporary work predicted workers' impression management behaviors towards their temporary firms but not their client organizations. A preference for permanent employment predicted temporary workers?impression management behaviors towards their client organizations but not their temporary firms. Trait positive affectivity was not a significant predictor of Careers Paper Abstracts -- 16

17 employment preferences, and tenure was not significantly related to the incidence of impression management behaviors. Keywords: temporary work, impression management, volition OCCUPATIONAL SKILLS, JOB CHANGES AND WAGES Benson, George; U. of Texas at Arlington; Levenson, Alec; U Southern California; Contemporary theory and research on the "boundaryless"career suggest that inter-organizational job changes are becoming more common and more varied than in the past. However, there is little empirical information on how nonlinear transitions to jobs in a different field or types of firm impact the earnings potential of employees. Using theory from human capital economics, five hypotheses are developed to predict the compensation of employees who take jobs in (1) a different field, and (2) different type of firm. Data from a sample of 1,573 former employees of a professional services firm indicate that skills developed in an occupation are broadly transferable depending on whether the employees take managerial jobs. Employees who take managerial jobs in unrelated fields earn similar compensation to those who remain in their same field or type of firm. Employees who take non-managerial jobs in unrelated fields earn less, suggesting that non-managerial skills are less transferable to other fields. Practical implications for employees and theories of career success are discussed. Keywords: job transitions, human capital, compensation THE MODERATING EFFECT OF POS ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT BREACH AND OUTCOMES Zagenczyk, Thomas Joseph; U. of Pittsburgh; The restructuring, downsizing, and outsourcing that have occurred as a result of international competition and advances in technology during the 1980s and 1990s has led to important changes in the careers of many employees. The changing nature of the psychological contract has resulted in high levels of contract breach among employees. Because it is unlikely that organizational will be able to eliminate breach, this exploratory study focuses on ways in which the damaging effects of breach can be minimized. Specifically, this study tests the idea that an employee's global belief that the organization cares about them and values their well-being based on the favorableness of employees' history of treatment by the organization (perceived organizational support) will moderate the relationship between psychological contract breach and organizational disidentification, organizational cynicism, and turnover intentions. Results indicated that POS moderated the relationship between psychological contract breach and organizational disidentification, but not the relationship between breach and cynicism and turnover intentions. Thus, this study contributes to the research on the employer-employee relationship in several important ways. First, it confirms previous studies finding a positive relationship between psychological contract breach and organizational disidentification, organization cynicism, and turnover intentions. Second, it presents some initial evidence that POS moderates the relationship between psychological contract breach and organizational disidentification. Third, correlations indicate that that perceived organizational support is significantly and negatively related to organizational disidentification and organizational cynicism. Keywords: psychological contracts, perceived organizational support, employer-employee relationships Careers Paper Abstracts -- 17

18 CAREER GOAL PERSISTENCE Levi, Ariel; Wayne State U.; Slowik, Linda Haynes; U. of Detroit, Mercy; Cerdin, Jean-Luc; ESSEC Business School; Das, Diya; Syracuse U.; Many professional careers are characterized by early periods requiring individuals to "pay their dues" by engaging in relatively low-skill tasks that full professionals can delegate to others. The early career period, which typically lasts between 3-7 years, can be likened to an apprenticeship, in which individuals must tolerate relatively low status, relatively low-skill tasks, a heavy workload, and little discretion over job tasks and priorities, for the chance of the "payoff" of becoming a full professional with higher status and a greater degree of job challenge and discretion. Such careers are structured as a goal hierarchy, in which achieving success at the first stage is a requirement for reaching the second stage of the profession. In this exploratory study, we investigate individuals?decisions in trading off several years on an unpleasant job for the prospect of advancing to full professional status. We examined the main and interactive effects of three predictors of individuals'persistence in a typical career goal hierarchy: (1) advancement probability (manipulated in career scenarios); (2) locus of control (measured); and (3) future orientation (measured). Consistent with our hypotheses, results revealed main effects of advancement probability and future orientation, as well as an interaction among locus of control, future orientation, and advancement probability. Under conditions of low and moderate, but not high, advancement probability, career goal persistence was highest among participants who had both internal locus of control and high future orientation. We discuss the implications of the results for careers with hierarchical goal structures. Keywords: careers, decisions, goals Careers Paper Abstracts -- 18

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