2 The District Starring Craig T. Nelson as the new chief of police for Washington D.C. Bent on using crime mapping to shape up the crime problem in the District
3 What this Section Covers 1. History of Crime Mapping in Policing 2. Crime Analysis Units 3. Uses of Mapping in Policing Patrol Officer Maps Community and Problem Oriented Policing Police Managers & Policymakers Investigations 4. Issues in Crime Mapping Departmental size and Mapping Ethical and Legal Issues in Mapping Barriers to Crime Mapping in Policing Future Issues in Crime Mapping in Policing
4 History of Crime Mapping in Policing What is Crime Mapping? If you ask 100 chiefs this question you will get 100 different answers It is all things to all people Similar to Community Oriented Policing in two ways: 1. No good definition of what it is. 2. Everyone claims they are doing it. DEFINITION: The use of maps to help visualize, analyze and evaluate crime patterns, crime problems and effective solutions to crime related issues.
5 When did police departments first start crime mapping? Conservatively since at least Although it was very basic. What kind of crime mapping was conducted? Pin-mapping What is Pin-Mapping? Involves placing a large map on a wall and then manually placing pins in the locations where crimes occurred. Different colored pins were used for different crimes
7 Problems with Pin Mapping 1. As maps were updated prior crime patterns were lost. - Unless photographed old patterns were lost 2. Maps could not be queried or manipulated. - Could not show changes in amount of crime over time. 3. Difficult to read when several different crimes displayed - Appears to be a jumbled mess of pins 4. Pin maps took up large amounts of wall space. Example: To make a single wall map of Baltimore County 12 maps had to be joined covering 70 square feet.
8 Computerized Pin-Mapping Begins In the 1970 s computer pin mapping began using mainframe computers. Process Involved: 1. Coordinates for the boundaries of the base map were placed on punch cards. 2. Information was then keypunched into the mainframe. 3. Process was repeated for each individual crime. Problems with Early Mainframe Computer Pin-Mapping 1. Very Labor Intensive. 2. Very Expensive. Very few departments could afford it. 3. Limited analysis ability
9 Modern Computerized Crime Mapping Computer mapping finally came into its own in the 1990 s Nationally Currently about 16% of over 13,500 local agencies are conducting crime mapping. 90% of agencies serving populations over 250,000 60% of agencies serving populations between ,000 Only 14% of the 13,000 agencies serving populations under 50,000 North Carolina Currently about 23% of agencies are conducting crime mapping. 100% of agencies serving populations over 250,000 86% of agencies serving populations between ,000 Only 14% of agencies serving populations under 50,000
10 What helped bring about the rise in computer mapping in the 1990 s? 1. GIS for personal computers. Much cheaper and easier to use versions then those on mainframes 2. Improved personal computers. Faster processors, larger memory and cheap prices 3. Improved Printers. Improved color, speed and much cheaper.
11 Crime Analysis Units What is a crime analysis unit? Units within almost all police departments that are responsible for collection, analysis and dissemination of information relating to crime and criminal activity. Common Duties of Crime Analysis Units: 1. Gather crime data: How much crime is there. 2. Conduct data analysis: Decreases in crime over time 3. Identify Crime patterns and trends: Hot spots 4. Create crime reports: Patrol, Managers and Community 5. Develops Methods for suppression of crime:a IACA IACA Home Page
12 Uses of Mapping in Policing 1. Patrol Officer maps. 2. Community and Problem Oriented Policing 3. Police Managers and Policymakers 4. Investigations
13 Crime Mapping for Patrol Officers How can crime mapping help patrol officers? Helps to provide officers with a good up to date understanding of the crime in their patrol areas. What Patrol Oriented Crime Maps should focus on: 1. Up to date and comprehensive data: 2. Recent area history: Emphasis should be on change in crime What happened in the last two shifts Are there any emerging Hot Spots
14 Crime Bulletin for Central District of Mesa Arizona
15 Officer made crime maps for Patrol Method of providing crime maps to patrol officers in which the officers make the maps themselves over an intranet OR internet system. Increasingly popular because of its high degree of customization that it provides. Problem with Internet/Intranet mapping: Requires expensive hardware, software, training and officers who are functionally computer literate.
16 Intranet System for Las Vegas
17 Internet Crime Mapping Click Here Chicago Police Department
18 Important issues in Making Patrol Maps 1. Don t make city-wide maps for each officer, make beat level maps. 2. Include landmarks, street names and locations of significant events. 3. Don t overload maps with too much crime information. K.I.S.S 4. Include dates and other important information with each crime. 5. Make it easy to read and understand. Don t make print too small or in strange fonts.
19 Pros and Cons in Crime Mapping for Patrol Officers PROS Provides up to date information on crimes for officers in a visual and easy to understand manner. Picture is worth a 1,000 words Facilitates problem solving by officers CONS Patrol officers are not always willing to try new things. Officers may not be technologically savy enough to create maps on an intranet or internet system
20 Crime Mapping for Community and Problem Oriented Policing What are Community and Problem Oriented Policing? They are philosophies or strategies of policing Importantly, there are few good definitions of what these two strategies or policing are As stated before, if you asked 100 chiefs to define what these two philosophies are, you would get 100 different definitions. Almost all departments claim to be involved in either C.O.P. or P.O.P. and because of the definitional problem it is hard to deny that they are not involved in some way.
21 Crime Mapping and Community Oriented Policing Community Oriented Policing: Policing philosophy that puts an emphasis on developing partnerships with the community to identify and solve crime problems. Emphasis is more on public relations than crime reduction. How is Crime Mapping used in C.O.P? 1. Community Meetings: Developing crime maps for use in town hall style community meetings. Excellent for addressing community crime issues. 2. Internet Crime Maps: Interactive crime maps. Sacramento Sacramento Police Department 3. COP Service Allotment: Using maps to determine where to locate C.O.P stations and other C.O.P Programs.
22 Pros and Cons of Crime Mapping in C.O.P Pros 1. Ideal for community presentations and meetings. 2. Interactive internet maps are highly effective means of providing crime information to community. Cons 1. Basically a public relations ploy by police. 2. Has little impact on crime rates and crime levels. 3. Maps can be fixed to show whatever police want to show.
23 Crime Mapping and Problem Oriented Policing Problem Oriented Policing: Policing philosophy that places an emphasis on problem solving. Specifically, determining the root cause of a crime and developing solutions to these problems. S.A.R.A. Model Scan: Identifying crime problems. Often involves community involvement. Analysis: Determining what the root cause of the problem is. Response: Developing and implementing solutions. Assessment: Determining how effective the solution is at solving the crime problem.
24 How Mapping is Used in P.O.P. Scan: Crime mapping can be used to assist in the determination of trouble spots within a community. Example: Maps show a high concentration of drug related offenses in a neighborhood. Analysis: Mapping can be used to pinpoint problems within a crime area. Example: Maps show that within the high drug crime area is a crack house that is the center of the drug problem. Response: Mapping can be used to help design a strategy. Example: Maps are used to implement strategy. Assessment: Mapping can be used to assess effectiveness. Example: Change maps show reduction in crime.
25 High Concentration of Violent Crime CMPD found a connection between drug sales and violent crime victimizations.
26 Analysis showed that 60% of those arrested for drugs came from outside the neighborhood and 50% came from over 1 mile away.
27 CMPD responded by placing barricades at strategic places within the neighborhood to make drug sales more difficult to access.
28 Final analysis showed that violent crime declined over 60%
29 Pros and Cons of Crime Mapping in P.O.P Pros 1. Excellent for identifying crime problems. 2. Excellent for assessing solutions to crime problems. Cons 1. Potential to make incorrect assessments. 2. Over reliance on geographic analysis of crime. Some problems are not able to be analyzed geographically.
30 Crime Mapping for Police Mangers and Policymakers Who are police managers and policymakers? Police Managers: Law enforcement executives such as Lieutenants, Captains, Assistant Chiefs and Chiefs. Policymakers: Non-law enforcement politicians who help make laws and crime policy, on a local, state and nationwide scale. Each have important jobs that require lots of information in order to make sound decisions and policy.
31 Crime Mapping for Police Managers What are some of the major issues that Police managers face? Calls for service and resource allocation Calls for Service (CFS): Calls to the Police concerning civilian problems. Commonly used to determine demand for police service. Mapping Benefits: Points or aggregate numbers of CFS shows where greatest demands are. Determine where to place sub-stations, where to draw police beats or districts, and how to handle high-call areas.
33 Mapping Displacement Displacement: When criminal behavior moves from one area to another, usually in response to law enforcement efforts. Example: High prostitution area is identified and efforts are made to reduce prostitution in that area, resulting in prostitution activity moving to a different area of the city. Mapping Benefits: Identify when and where crime is displacing to. Identify new types of crimes in high crime areas. Help develop new crime prevention strategies.
34 Comstat Program started in 1994 in N.Y.C. to help reduce the amount of crime by making precinct commanders accountable for the amount of crime in their areas. Relies heavily on Computerized Statistics to determine problem areas. Precinct Commanders must be prepared to discuss crime and policing strategies in their area. COMSTAT Process: Big-screen computer map shows precinct under review. Precinct commanders develop problem solving strategies based on crime maps.
35 COMSTSAT Principles Accurate and Timely Intelligence: Information describing how and where crimes are committed as well as who criminals are. Must be very recent data. Effective Tactics: Tactics are designed to respond directly to facts discovered during intelligence gathering and must be flexible, comprehensive and adaptable to shifting crime trends. Rapid Deployment of Personnel and Resources: Most effective plans require that personnel from several units and enforcement functions work together. Tactics must be implemented quickly. Relentless follow-up and assessment: Ensures that tactics are indeed working and effective.
37 Crime Mapping for Policymakers Policymakers: Non-law enforcement politicians who help make laws and crime policy, on a local, state and nationwide scale. Requires different maps than those used in-house. Important Factors in Mapping for Policymakers: 1. Maps are for an external audience. 2. Maps must be simple in nature No complex mapping techniques, no complex crime theory 3. Maps will be used for political reasons and truth will be a fuzzy thing.
38 Pros and Cons of Mapping for Police Managers and Policymakers PROS 1. Excellent method for determining crime problems. 2. Excellent tool for effective decision making. 3. Excellent tool for assessment of crime reduction programs. CONS 1. Interpretation of maps is subject to politics. 2. Not always the best method of evaluation and assessment.
39 Crime Mapping for Investigations Benefits of Mapping in Investigations: 1. Bring together diverse pieces of information in a coherent manner. 2. Provide vivid visualizations of case-related data and descriptive patterns that may help provide answers to questions. 3. Allow for spatial analysis when necessary. Types of Investigative Mapping Techniques: Geographic Profiling: Discuss later in the semester. Gunshot tracker World's First Proven Gunshot Location System!
42 Issues in Crime Mapping 1. Departmental size and Mapping 2. Ethical and Legal Issues in Mapping 3. Barriers to Crime Mapping in Policing 4. Future Issues in Crime Mapping in Policing
43 Departmental Size and Crime Mapping Two of the most important issues in the use of mapping in policing are department size and population density of jurisdiction. Everything that we have talked about in terms of crime mapping in policing has been for departments that are both large and urban. What do small and rural departments map and what are some of the major issues they face?
44 Uses of Crime Mapping in Small and Rural Departments Differences between small/rural and large/urban departments: 1. Total Crimes: Much less crime to map in small/rural departments. High crime areas are far less concentrated and easier to determine. 2. Types of Crime: Much less serious crime in small/rural departments. More focus on minor crimes, calls for service, and other uses of mapping such as traffic accident areas. 3. Problem Solving: Much less need for problem solving activities in small/rural areas. Crime problems are of smaller magnitude and solutions are generally less complex. Overall: Mapping in small/rural departments focuses on different types of crime, amounts of crime and crime related issues.
45 DECEMBER TOTAL INCIDENTS
46 Problems in Crime Mapping in Small/Rural Departments 1. Qualified Analysts: Getting a qualified analyst in small and rural jurisdictions may be very difficult. Good analysts are expensive and generally desire to work in higher crime/larger departments. 2. Geocoding: Getting accurate addresses is much more difficult in rural areas because of several problems: No street addresses, rural roads, common names, base maps 3. Need: IS crime mapping needed or useful in every jurisdiction, or is it simply a neat toy. Decision that every department must make on their own. Many departments that are too small will not benefit.
47 Ethical and Legal Issues in Crime Mapping This is becoming an increasingly important area within Crime Mapping as its use expands. While there are great benefits to creating crime maps there are also many potential problems Citizens rights to know vs. victims rights of privacy Maps on the Internet Liability Issues Sharing data with researchers
48 Citizens Rights vs. Victims Rights Do citizens have a right to know about crime rates, high crime areas and other information that can be detailed with crime maps? Yes and the Freedom of Information Act gives them legal access to such crime data. Benefits: Can assist in C.O.P. and P.O.P. Increases public awareness about crime problems Internet maps may help reduce workload of Crime Analysts Problems: Victims may be traumatized by maps showing exact location of incident. Victims may fear harassment or retaliation, thereby deterring them from testifying. Crime incident information along with location information may open up potential misuse of information. Companies preying on victims of certain crimes
49 Maps on the Internet Excellent method for providing crime map information to the public, but Potential Problems: 1. Potential misinterpretation of maps and misuse by users. Many people may have trouble interpreting maps. 2. Privacy of victims regarding their offense and its exact location. 3. Impact on property values as buyers avoid high crime areas. Red-lining in loan applications and insurance. 4. Security of data on website Suggestions: 1. Use disclaimers. There are some important things that you need 2. Provide simple to follow interpretation guidelines. 3. Use aggregate data.
50 Liability Issues in Crime Mapping What are some of the potential legal issues that can arise from crime mapping. 1. Victim right to privacy concerning crime information. Harassment, repeat victimization, embarrassment, etc.. 2. Companies using data for commercial purposes. Calling burglary victims about burglar alarms. 3. Not enough information provided. Failure to warn of dangerous areas or crime series.
51 Sharing data with Researchers Do researchers have a legal right to access of police data? Yes, but the main question is what level of data must the police provide? Aggregate data or incident level data Traditionally, researchers have rarely gained access to incident level crime data. Crime mapping makes it possible for researchers to gain access to individual level data, which may raise some of the same issues we have already discussed. Recommendations: Only provide data to reputable researchers. Do background checks if necessary. Only provide data to researchers in one format, either aggregate or incident. Require researchers to destroy raw data after research is finished.
52 Overall issues for departments to Address 1. Should data in maps be aggregated or point data. 2. What types of data should be mapped: Types of crime, juvenile data, contextual data, how recent 3. How do you ensure sound map interpretation by public. 4. Lying with maps: Symbols used: size, type, color, etc.. Scale of map: Selected areas or whole jurisdiction. 5. Information on Geocoding rates? 6. Internet or not. 7. Create general guidelines for use of data and data sharing.
53 Barriers to Crime Mapping While growing in popularity and use there are still many barriers to crime mapping in policing: 1. Cost: While costs have decreased dramatically, crime mapping is still too expensive for many departments Software, hardware, analyst, upgrades, service contracts, etc 2. Training: Initial and on-going training of analysts is difficult to receive. Few Colleges, Universities, or C.C. offer classes 3. Need: Many departments are to small to truly benefit from crime mapping. 4. Technology phobes: Many officers and chiefs resist crime mapping because of their inability to deal with technology. 5. Bad experiences with prior technology: Some departments are afraid to buy into crime mapping after bad experiences with other expensive technology. 6. Management Resistance: Many law enforcement managers resist crime mapping as a gimmick or a fad that will pass.
54 Future Issues in Crime Mapping While crime mapping has been conducted in some form or another for over 100 years, crime mapping with GIS is still in its infancy. GIS and GPS Forecasting crime High Resolution GIS Regional Mapping initiatives ASP s
55 GIS and GPS in Crime Mapping Global Positioning System: Tracks exact position through a series of 24 satellites orbiting earth. Will be placed in all police cars and integrated into computerized report taking. Benefits: 1. Allows for tracking of police cars. 2. Assists officers in finding calls-for service. 3. Provides more accurate location of incidents than address matching. Excellent for rural departments and crimes that occur where there are no addresses. 4. Possible to conduct real time crime mapping of incidents. 5. Can be integrated with hand held GIS software.
56 GPS Dynamically linked for real time capture of crime data HANDHELD GIS
57 Forecasting Crime Involves using advanced spatial statistics and spatial models to predict when and where crime will increase or decrease. Uses prior crimes and calls for service to help determine emerging trends or crime patterns. Problems with Forecasting Crime: 1. Intensive computer needs. 2. Models are hardly perfect. 3 main methods have been tested with none working very well.
58 Current high crime areas Moderate Crime Area
59 Forecasted high crime areas Forecasted moderated crime areas
60 High Resolution GIS GIS analysis applied to small areas. Mostly used in the analysis of crime within buildings. Benefits: 1. Applies GIS and spatial analysis to inside crime areas. 2. Allows the determination of hot spots within buildings.
61 Example of High Resolution GIS
62 Regional Mapping Initiatives Focuses on the analysis of crime cross-jurisdictionally. New software and government funded agencies to assist in mapping crime on a larger scale. Benefits: RCAGIS is main software product. 1. Tracks crime patterns across artificially created jurisdictions. Crime does not end at a jurisdictional border. 2. Helps smaller departments by bringing them together in a mapping coalition. 3. Assist in tracking serial offenders.
64 Application Service Provider ASP and Crime Mapping Essentially consultants that provide crime mapping, crime analysis and internet crime maps to departments for a fee. Very new idea. Only one is even in development Benefits: 1. No expensive software or hardware. No upgrades for software or hardware. 2. No expensive and difficult to receive crime mapping training necessary. Not necessary to hire a full or part-time analyst. 3. Excellent for small and rural departments unsure or unable to heavily invest in crime mapping.
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