2. Today, percent of all local police departments require a degree from a two-year college. a. 18 b. 12 c. 9 d. 4

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1 Chapter 5 Challenges to Effective Policing MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Which of the following is NOT one of the basic requirements for becoming a police officer? a. Being a U.S. citizen b. Having no felony convictions c. Minimum height requirements d. Possession of or eligibility to obtain a driver's license in the state where the police department is located 2. Today, percent of all local police departments require a degree from a two-year college. a. 18 b. 12 c. 9 d The segment of a police recruit s training that takes place on the beat is referred to in the text as: a. A practicum b. An internship c. Probation d. Field training 4. Generally speaking, the minimum age to become a police officer is : a. 18 b. 20 c. 21 d Minority representation in American police departments has increased to roughly : a. 10% b. 16% c. 24% d. 53% 1

2 6. Many police departments recognize that the benefit of a diverse police department is: a. A decline in criminal offending b. Improved community relations c. Improved response rates d. Increased clearance rates 7. Often, the serves to legally discriminate against female applicants for police officer positions. a. Visual acuity test b. Physical fitness test c. Height standard d. Body mass index standard 8. What is the ultimate goal of a bureaucratic organization, such as a police department? a. Administration development b. Efficiency c. Low employee turnover d. Work satisfaction for the employee 9. As many as of sworn officers, or those officers authorized to make arrests and use force, in some large police departments are patrol officers. a. 1/4 b. 1/3 c. 1/2 d. 2/3 10. Which of the following is NOT a purpose of police patrol listed in the text? a. Deterrence of crime b. Maintenance of public order c. Improvement of public attitudes towards the police d. Provision of services that are not crime related 2

3 11. Which patrol function focuses on maintaining a presence in the community, either in a car or on foot, which allows attempts at preventing crime from occurring? a. Administrative duties b. Calls for service c. Officer-initiated activities d. Preventive patrol 12. The majority of a patrol officer s time is spent on: a. Preventive patrol b. Calls for service c. Administrative duties d. Officer-initiated activities 13. Paperwork takes up to of a patrol officer's time. a. 20% b. 40% c. 60% d. 80% 14. After a crime has been committed and the patrol officer has gathered preliminary information from a crime scene, the responsibility of identifying the offender is delegated to the: a. Detective b. Internal affairs unit c. Patrol officer d. Police chief 15. The most common way for someone to become a detective is to. a. Attend graduate school in criminal justice b. Attend specialized training in the field c. Earn an undergraduate college degree d. Be promoted from patrol officer 3

4 16. After a crime has been committed and the patrol officer has gathered preliminary information from a crime scene, the responsibility of identifying the offender is delegated to the: a. Detective b. International affairs unit c. Patrol officer d. Police chief 17. What is the second main function of police, along with patrol? a. Administration b. Bureaucratic organization c. Internal Affairs d. Investigation 18. Aggressive investigation strategies include: a. Crackdowns b. Undercover operations c. Roadblocks d. Increased patrol of hot spots 19. A person who is involved in criminal activity and provides information about that activity and those who engage in it to the police is a(n): a. Confidential informant b. Undercover police officer c. Witness d. Vice detective 20. The term clearance rate refers to: a. The percentage of reported crimes b. The percentage of crimes that result in arrest and prosecution c. The percentage of crimes that result in a criminal conviction d. The percentage of stolen goods that are returned to victims of crime 4

5 21. Criminal investigations that are not cleared after a certain amount of time are referred to as. a. Closed cases b. Cold cases c. Unsolved cases d. Unfounded cases 22. DNA is in each cell of a person's body, and provides a "genetic blueprint" or "code" for that person. a. Different b. The opposite c. The same d. Similar 23. The establishment of a connection between a suspect and a crime, often through the use of DNA evidence, in the absence of an ongoing investigation is a(n): a. Proactive solve b. Clearance rate c. Random hit d. Cold hit 24. A database containing the DNA of more than 4.5 million people is: a. CODIS b. AFIS c. IBIS d. NCVS 25. For more than a century the most important piece of trace evidence has been. a. DNA b. The human fingerprint c. Human hair d. Blood evidence 5

6 26. A reactive approach to policing that emphasizes a speedy response to calls for service is: a. Community policing b. Directed policing c. Problem-oriented policing d. Incident-driven policing 27. Time elapsed between the instant a call for service is received and the instant a police officer arrives on the scene, otherwise referred to as, has become a benchmark for police efficiency. a. Differential response b. Directed patrol c. Incident-driven policing d. Response time 28. In which type of patrol do officers make the rounds of a specific area with the purpose of carrying out the various patrol functions? a. Directed b. Incident-driven c. General d. Scattered 29. The Kansas City Experiment showed that decreasing preventive patrol: a. Had little or no impact on crime b. Decreased crime c. Increased crime d. Increased the number of reported offenses 30. An area that is concentrated with high criminal activity to which there is a directed police response is a: a. Ghetto b. Heavy spot c. Hot spot d. Slum 6

7 31. What type of technology is utilized by police departments to locate and identify hot spots? a. Arrest rates b. Crime mapping c. Preventive patrol d. Rapid response 32. The "broken windows theory" is based on the theory that by cracking down on crimes, police can significantly reduce all crime in an area. a. Felony b. Property c. Quality-of-life d. Violent 33. The directed patrol of hot spots is associated with. a. Reactive arrests b. Proactive arrests c. Directed arrests d. Responsive arrests 34. A policing philosophy that moves beyond responding to incidents and attempts to solve the root causes of criminal behavior is. a. Problem-oriented policing b. Community policing c. Incident-driving policing d. Proactive policing 35. A broad term used to describe the basic assumptions and values that permeate law enforcement agencies and are taught to new members of a law enforcement agency as the proper way to think, perceive, and act is called: a. Blue curtain b. Police cynicism c. Police subculture d. Socialization 7

8 36. Which of the following is defined as "a metaphorical term used to refer to the value placed on secrecy and the general mistrust of the outside world shared by many police officers?" a. Blue curtain b. Loyalty c. Police cynicism d. Police subculture 37. The use of force by police officers occurs in about percent of all police-public encounters. a. 9 b. 4 c. 1 d In, the U.S. Supreme Court set the limits for the use of deadly force by law enforcement officers. a. Miranda v. Arizona (1963) b. Tennessee v. Garner (1985) c. Graham v. Conner (1989) d. Rovario v. United States (1957) 39. A is when an officer actively demands payment from an individual or a business in return for certain services. a. Gleaning b. Mooching c. Payoff d. Shakedown 40. When police officers accept free gifts from citizens (a passive form of corruption), this is called: a. A shakedown b. A payoff c. Mooching d. Bribery 8

9 41. The is a division within a police department that receives and investigates complaints of wrongdoing by police officers. a. Administrative Department b. Citizen Oversight Committee c. Ethics Department d. Internal Affairs Unit 42. In the first stage of moral decline of a police officer, the officer: a. Accepts minor gratuities b. May force another party to pay for unwanted police services c. No longer passively accepts bribes d. Takes in large amounts of money through involvement in drugs, gambling or prostitution organizations 43. Ethical dilemmas for police officers may include all of the following, EXCEPT: a. An officer not knowing the right course of action b. An officer seeking out payoffs to hide contraband evidence c. An officer having difficulty doing what they consider to be right d. An officer finding the wrong choice to be very tempting 44. The obligation to act in a certain manner is: a. Discretion b. Honesty c. Loyalty d. Duty 45. After arresting a dangerous suspect, an officer realizes that (s)he lacked grounds to make the initial stop. Rather than see the suspect released, the officer falsifies his/her report to make appear as though the stop was justified. This category of ethical dilemma involves: a. Discretion b. Duty c. Honesty d. Loyalty 9

10 TRUE/FALSE 46. Most police agencies require new recruits to possess a four-year college degree. 47. Field training takes place outside the confines of a police academy. 48. Diversity in police departments leads to improved community relations. 49. In large police departments as many as two-thirds of all employees are sworn officers. 50. The vast majority of patrol shifts are completed without a single arrest. 51. Confidential informants are generally police officers who are working undercover to infiltrate criminal organizations. 52. No two individuals share the same genetic code. 53. Reactive arrests are associated with general patrol activities. 54. The broken windows theory proposes that cracking down on violent crime will allow police to reclaim neighborhoods. 55. Tennessee v. Garner (1985) outlawed the use of deadly force by police officers. 56. Police officers use physical force in about 25% of police-public encounters. 57. A police officer who accepts free "gifts" such as cigarettes, liquor or services in return for favorable treatment of the gift giver is said be participating in mooching. 58. The department that involves citizens who are not sworn officers and, by inference, are not biased in favor of law enforcement officers, to review allegations of police misconduct or brutality is known as the Internal Affairs Unit (IAU). 10

11 59. Duty is the obligation to act in a certain manner. 60. Ethical dilemmas occur often in police work. 11

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