1 AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION EDUCATION DIRECTORATE FOR TEACHERS OF INTRODUCTORY PSYCHOLOGY SPRING 2008 VOLUME 18 ISSUE 1 Procedural Justice in the College Classroom Krista D. Forrest, PhD, and Richard L. Miller, PhD University of Nebraska at Kearney Most professors are familiar with sound pedagogical techniques, such as clearly defined expectations, essay exams, group activities, and midterm evaluations. Professors may be less familiar with teaching strategies that are based upon a procedural justice perspective. Procedural justice refers to the perception that the processes used to arrive at outcomes are fair. One of the best known procedural justice perspectives is Thibaut and Walker s (1975) triad model of judge, defendant, and plaintiff. This model retains its form in the classroom with the unbiased judge becoming the unbiased teacher and the defendant/ plaintiffs becoming students vying for grades. Why critique your classroom procedures from a procedural justice perspective? Evaluating whether your course gives students the opportunity to be assessed fairly can provide benefi ts for students as well as faculty. For example, students report higher levels of motivation and learning in courses they perceive as procedurally fair (Chory-Assad, 2002). Implementing policies students perceive as unbiased also reduces student aggression. Specifi cally, Chory-Assad and Paulsel (2004) found that student perceptions of procedural justice in a college course were inversely related to aggression and hostility toward instructors. Finally, procedural justice appears to be directly related to improved teaching evaluations above and beyond student outcomes (Tyler & Caine, 1981). Rodabaugh and Kravitz (1994) found that students rank fairness as more important when choosing a professor than the instructor s warmth, ability, or course workload. COMPONENTS OF PROCEDURAL JUSTICE Although many of us strive to create courses with inherently fair procedures, to adequately assess the fairness of your current procedures, it helps to have a clear understanding of the components associated with the procedural justice model. Thibaut and Walker originally de- Justice, continued on page 4 PSYCHOLOGY TEACHER NETWORK
2 2 COEDITORS Martha Boenau Emily Leary Robin Hailstorks, PhD PSYCHOLOGY TEACHER NETWORK Psychology Teacher Network is published quarterly by the Education Directorate of the American Psychological Association (APA). Subscriptions are free to High School and Community College Teacher Affi liates of APA and APA Members, and $15 a year for all others. Address editorial correspondence to Psychology Teacher Network, APA Education Directorate, 750 First St., NE, Washington, DC ; (202) Address inquiries regarding membership or affi liation to the APA Membership Office, at the same address. PTN design by Liz Woodcock, Graphic Designer, and copy editing by Joanne Zaslow, APA Editorial and Design Services. CONTRIBUTING EDITORS TOPSS Marie Smith, PhD Vivian McCann, MA INSIDE Guidelines for Teaching With Analogies...5 Psychology Internships Offer New Opportunities Teaching Introductory Psychology: Eight Lessons Review Methods for the AP Psychology Exam ANNOUNCEMENTS Call for Nominations TOPSS...6 Announcing the Inaugural Presentation of NW Teaching of Psychology Conference...7 Call for Nominations Mark Your Calendar for APA/Clark University...14 APA Public Interest Announcements...15 Diversity Education Resources...15 RFP Precollege Psychology Grant Program...19 News From STP...20 More Than 600 Participate in E-Workshop...20 TOPSS Member Feedback Requested...21 Have YOU Ever Considered Running for the TOPSS Committee? EVEN IF YOU HAVE NOT, READ ON! Mary Jean Voigt Boylan High School, Rockford, IL Have you ever considered running for the TOPSS Committee? I hadn t, until I was 58 years old and mulling over the idea that I was winding down my commitments to professional organizations. Yet upon the then-current TOPSS chair s urging, I thought, why not? Pulling together over 30 years of teaching experience and my excitement for the changing and expanding fi eld of scientifi c psychology, I embarked on an opportunity of a lifetime. The summer I spent at the National Science Foundation-supported Texas A&M Institute was defi nitely a high point in my career; however, spending 3 years on the TOPSS Committee was a never-ending adventure. Twice a year I had the opportunity to visit Washington, DC, and join forces with dynamic teachers who were dedicated to the advancement of high school psychology. I joined the committee at the end of the long and arduous fi rst revision of the National Standards for High School Psychology Curricula, which has had a phenomenal impact on the transmission of scientific knowledge and standardized the presentation of materials to our students. I learned about APA politics and came to a better understanding of how to interact with those who do not work with high school students, conveying to them that high school psychology is the start of the pipeline to the fi eld s potential growth. Hobnobbing with the who s who of the fi eld has been humbling and educational for me and for my students. I must admit my dinners and social interchanges with Dr. Charles Brewer have been most delightful and memorable. Not only were my years of participation on the committee rewarding, but they gave me a new energy in relation to my teaching. When I gathered with the eight other committee members, we had invigorating and lively discussions because we wanted to promote as many resources to our members as possible. One of the campaigns I was most excited about was the revision and addition of the TOPSS unit lesson plans. I believed putting the lesson plans on CD-Rom would allow teachers to have them readily Running, continued on page 10
3 3 The Modern Psychology of Consciousness: What Is Consciousness? James W. Kalat, PhD North Carolina State University In the earliest days of psychological research, Wilhelm Wundt, Edward Titchener, William James, and others pursued issues related to consciousness. Meanwhile, the psychiatrist Sigmund Freud developed theories about unconscious influences. With the rise of the behaviorist movement, experimental psychologists turned away from the study of both conscious and unconscious experience. However, beginning in the 1980s, a growing number of researchers have cautiously returned to these questions. Today s researchers concede the behaviorists point that consciousness is unobservable, and many share the behaviorists doubts that research on consciousness will ever lead to much of practical importance. MODERN VIEWPOINT AND RESEARCH ON CONSCIOUSNESS To overcome the impossibility of directly observing consciousness, most researchers adopt as their operational definition the assumption that if someone reports detecting stimulus A and not detecting stimulus B, the person was conscious of A and unconscious of B. Note that we can apply this criterion only to a person who reports stimuli and not to others. We cannot apply this criterion at all to preverbal children, paralyzed adults, or nonhuman animals. Equipped with this operational definition, what have researchers discovered? First, consciousness depends on the amount of brain activity. Suppose you watch a screen where common words appear for just 29 ms each. Sometimes a blank screen precedes and follows the word. Under these circumstances, you can identify the word with about 90% accuracy. On other trials, a masking stimulus (such as a screen full of static) precedes and follows the word. Under those circumstances, you almost never identify the word. In fact, you are unaware that a word appeared at all. So, we have a single kind of stimulus a 29 ms display of a word that is conscious in one condition and unconscious in another. We can ask how the brain s response differs in the two cases. A study using fmri and event-related potentials found that the stimulus significantly activated parts of the visual cortex under both conditions, but the unmasked stimulus produced stronger and more sustained activation. Furthermore, under conditions when the stimulus became conscious, its activation spread to the prefrontal and parietal cortex (Dehaene et al., 2001). Another study presented words for brief fractions of a second under distracting conditions. Participants tried to identify the words and then rated how conscious they were of them, on a scale. Participants almost always rated a stimulus either 0 or 100. That is, people almost never reported being partly conscious of something (Sergent & Dehaene, 2004). Evidently consciousness is a threshold phenomenon. If a stimulus activates neurons beyond a certain extent, the activation reverberates, magnifi es, and extends over much of the brain. If it falls short of that threshold, it gradually weakens. Further support for this view comes from studies of binocular rivalry. You can easily set up a class demonstration by providing papers with a display of red and black vertical lines on one side and green and black horizontal lines on the other side. (Black and white lines work less well.) The viewer holds the page up close to the nose until the red lines seen by one eye overlap in space the green lines seen by the other. At that point, the two perceptions do not merge, because it is impossible to see red and green at the same time and same place. Instead, the images alternate. The viewer sees one, and then gradually, the other takes over, the fi rst reappears, and so forth. It is possible to label these perceptions by Modern Psychology, continued on page 6
4 4 Krista D. Forrest, PhD (top) Richard L. Miller, PhD Justice, continued from page 1 veloped the model to better understand disputant reactions to adversarial courtroom decisions. Across a series of empirical studies, fair procedures led to participant acceptance of decisions even when the outcome was inconsistent with personal goals. When given the choice of how to settle disputes, individuals often chose adversarial strategies in order to have the opportunity to present their sides (Earley & Lind, 1987). Also known as process control, individuals control the information presented to the one who ultimately makes the decision. Clearly, the opportunity to present this information should be seen as fair, and the process for presenting the information should be understood by all those involved. According to Leventhal (1980), there are several characteristics inherent to fair procedures. First, those procedures should be consistent across people and over time. Second, decision makers should be able to accomplish the task while concurrently suppressing any personal biases. Impartiality becomes the cornerstone of fairness within this model. The third important issue is that of transparency. Decisions should be made with accurate, visible information with everyone involved understanding what information is relevant and how that information should be presented. Also, when errors do occur in making decisions, there should be a clearly defined process for correcting those errors. Fourth, all interested parties should have equal representation when decisions are being made. Finally, the fi fth characteristic involves the compatibility of the ethical values for all those involved. While all of these characteristics can be applied to teaching, we believe that four of these points are crucial in the college classroom: consistency, impartiality, transparency, and voice. CONSISTENCY Grading requirements and task assignments should be the same across people and situations. Students clearly notice when this criterion is not met. If students indicate on your evaluations that you give preferential treatment for some when it comes to make-up exams or that you grade other students more leniently, they are commenting on your consistency. Tyler and Caine (1981) found that students rate their professor s ability significantly lower when they consider the grading procedures to be unfair. This effect occurs even when the outcome is positive for the students. Other studies show a more complex relationship between procedural justice, distributive justice, and course evaluations. For example, Tata (1999) found that student evaluations were significantly higher for those professors using consistent procedures when the grade distributions for the class were unfair. Although in this study unfairness was defined as receiving an unexpected grade, the relationship was clear. When student outcomes were perceived as unfair, the fairness of the procedure became more important. Take-home teaching message: These fi ndings emphasize the importance of uniform procedures for assignments and makeup exams, clearly defi ned rubrics for grading essays, and consistent criteria for completion of classes from semester to semester. IMPARTIALITY Faculty should teach subject matter and students in an impartial way, students should believe the processes for teaching the course or evaluating the course outcomes are not biased (Okoroafo & Zupancic, 1989). Again, the use of grading rubrics and specific strategies for evaluation address this goal. Grading test responses submitted by code names, limits on extra credit opportunities, and nonnegotiable deadlines can also increase students perceptions of impartiality. According to Brockner and Siegel (1996), students may infer that faculty care about everyone equally when fair and universal procedures are implemented. Students often engage in social comparison to provide themselves with information about whether or not their instructors are truly impartial. Take-home teaching message: Regardless of whether a student is thought-provoking or nerve-wracking, he or she deserves the same guidelines for success. If you respond to students with special needs or extraordinary circumstances by allowing them to work outside of the rules, it is important to make your policies and the reasons for them clear to all, which leads us to the next point. TRANSPARENCY Course requirements, criteria, and expectations should be clearly outlined in the syllabus. In addition to clarity, Justice, continued on page 8
5 5 Guidelines for Teaching With Analogies Joseph A. Mayo, EdD Gordon College Meaningful learning entails integrating new information with knowledge that already exists in long-term memory (Ausubel, 1977). Students accomplish such learning more effi ciently when they learn concepts relationally rather than by rote (Bruner, 1986). A considerable body of theory, research, and practice (e.g., Holyoak & Thagard, 1997; Mayo, 2001, 2006, 2007; Pittman, 1999; Rumelhart & Norman, 1981) has shown that analogical reasoning can help students to successfully link concepts being taught with their preexisting conceptions. Guidelines are available for using analogies in classroom instruction. For example, Glynn, Duit, and Thiele (1995) outlined the teaching-with-analogies (TWA) model that includes the following six steps: (1) introduce the target (unfamiliar) concept, (2) review the analog (familiar) concept, (3) identify relevant features of both target and analog, (4) map (compare) similarities between target and analog, (5) identify differences between target and analog (i.e., indicate where the analogy breaks down), and (6) draw appropriate conclusions based on the similarities and differences presented. I will illuminate the inner workings of the TWA model by using the commonplace analogy: The human brain is like a computer in which the brain is the target and the computer is the analog. In my own undergraduate psychology classes, I have found that using graphic organizers in tandem with this model typically enhances its effectiveness (see Table 1). In terms of encouraging refl ective thinking about underlying learning principles, I have discovered that analogies are powerful heuristic tools in the classes that I teach. In comparing parallel course sections (analogyenhanced instruction versus no-analogy control) of life span developmental psychology, I examined the impact of analogies in teaching conceptual applications of prominent developmental theories (Mayo, 2001). Although I found that those sections exposed to both teacher- and student-generated analogies outperformed the no-analogy control sections on objective measures of comprehension and application of course content, learning gains were more striking when I allowed students to create their own analogies. Based on these fi ndings, I have undertaken further investigation into the instructional effi cacy of the co-construction of analogies involving even greater opportunities for student-student critique and classroom interaction in life span development and other undergraduate psychology classes that I instruct (Mayo, 2006, 2007). Results show that analogy co-construction by students is an effective learning method facilitated by a three-step, cyclical approach to analogy formulation that I have developed called the generate-evaluate-modify (GEM) model (see Figure 1). The GEM model highlights the active co-construction of knowledge occurring when learners complete a term-length journaling assignment that I refer to as an Analogy Log. In their logs, students are asked to: (1) generate analogies to capture the essence of important course concepts, (2) evaluate the analogies in light of written and oral feedback from their classmates, and (3) modify the analogies on the basis of the peer feedback that triggered the cognitive processes accompanying conceptual changes over time. I delineate the details of the GEM model below in the context of the Analogy Log assignment. STAGE 1: GENERATE 1. Consistent with the TWA model (Glynn, Duit, & Thiele, 1995), each student formulates one or more analogies for each learning principle by identifying the salient features of the analog and target concepts, the similarities between analog and target, the differences between analog and target, and the corresponding conclusions. Guidelines, continued on page 12
6 6 CALL FOR NOMINATIONS TOPSS 2008 Elections The mission of the APA Committee of Teachers of Psychology in Secondary Schools (TOPSS) is to promote the scientifi c nature of introductory and advanced high school psychology, meet curricular needs of secondary school teachers, and provide opportunities for high school students to be recognized and rewarded for their academic excellence. If you would like to become more involved in TOPSS and are interested in gaining leadership experience and having a positive impact on the teaching of high school psychology, we encourage you to consider serving on the TOPSS Committee. In 2008, the following three elected positions will be fi lled: Chair-Elect Member-at-Large (two positions) The chair position is a 3-year position, and the others are 2-year positions. Please consider nominating a colleague who would make a positive impact. Selfnominations are also welcomed. Descriptions of officer responsibilities and sample platform statements are available on the TOPSS Web site (www.apa.org/ed/topss/homepage.html). The TOPSS Committee meets twice a year, in spring and fall, in Washington, DC. The APA covers travel and accommodation expenses. Nominees for the 2008 TOPSS Election are asked to submit the following materials/documents: Vita or resume Platform statement (Examples of platform statements are on the TOPSS Web site at org/ed/topss/homepage.html.) Photo NOMINATIONS ARE DUE BY JUNE 1, Please send nominations and materials to Emily Leary, APA Education Directorate, 750 First Street, NE, Washington, DC Electronic submissions will be accepted. Please send electronic files of nomination materials to Emily Leary at Modern Psychology, continued from page 3 presenting the displays on a screen, where one display blinks on and off at one frequency and the other blinks at a different frequency. Electrical recordings from the scalp then reveal that while the viewer consciously sees one pattern, neurons in much of the brain are fi ring at its associated frequency. When the other pattern takes over consciousness, the other pattern s frequency takes over the brain s fi ring pattern (Cosmelli et al., 2004; Lee, Blake, & Heeger, 2005). (For an example of red and green circles with vertical or horizontal stripes, visit topss/consciousness.html.) What happens to the input from the ignored eye? It is unconscious, but is it completely lost, or do certain brain areas process it unconsciously? Evidently the latter is true. Suppose you are viewing binocular rivalry stimuli, as in the previous example, on a computer screen where an investigator can manipulate the stimuli. While you are conscious of, say, the green horizontal bars in your right eye, the experimenter gradually fades a word into the display on the left. That change shifts your attention to the display on the left. More importantly, your attention shifts faster if it is a meaningful word from your own language than one from a different language, in an alphabet unfamiliar to you (Jiang, Costello, & He, 2007). That is, before the information becomes conscious, something in your brain has already processed it enough to discriminate meaningful from less meaningful material. NEUROSCIENCE PERSPECTIVE ON CONSCIOUSNESS It may be possible to use brain scans to infer something about consciousness in a totally paralyzed or unresponsive individual. Researchers examined a young woman who was in a persistent vegetative state following an automobile accident. Although her brain showed signs of alternating between wakefulness and sleep, she was completely unresponsive during the wakeful periods. The researchers instructed her fi rst to imagine playing tennis, and later to imagine walking though her house. The fi rst instruction led to increased activity in part of her motor cortex, as it did for normal volunteers who imagine playing tennis. The second instruction increased activity in the hippocampus, as it did for normal volunteers imagining the layout of a house (Owen et al., 2006). Follow-up studies have found similar results in one other patient in a persistent vegetative state, but not in others (Smith, 2007). This procedure or something similar may have potential for predicting which patients might recover.
7 7 Here is another point about consciousness: We are not always conscious of events instant by instant. Suppose you hear a recorded word that is carefully engineered to sound halfway between dent and tent. We ll call it *ent. If you hear this word in the phrase *ent in the fender, it sounds like dent. If you hear it in the phrase *ent in the forest, it sounds like tent. That is, later words changed what you heard before them (Connine, Blasko, & Hall, 1991). As another example of this point, consider the phi phenomenon, a common demonstration in sensation and perception. You can download the PowerPoint demonstration titled Phi: Conscious Experience as a Construction from this APA Web site: org/ed/topss/consciousness.html. The classic perception is that a circle appears to move back and forth between two locations. Consider the implications for consciousness. If you see the circle on the left, and then on the right, and it appears to move from left to right, when did you have the conscious perception of its moving? Because you did not know the circle was going to appear on the right until after it appeared, the perception of movement had to occur after you saw the circle on the right. That is, the second circle caused a retrospective change in your conscious perception of what came before it. Finally, consider the binding problem, which researchers hardly even recognized until the 1990s: One part of the brain processes visual information, while another processes auditory information, and still another processes tactile information. Even within the visual system, one area processes shape, while others process color and movement. The various sensory areas do not communicate much with one another, nor do they all project their information to a central processor (the little person in the head ). So, if you hold, say, an ipod in your hand, how does your unified conscious perception arise that what you see is also what you hear and feel? That is, how do you bind the separate sensations into a single object? Although we cannot yet answer this question, researchers have identified two conditions necessary for binding. One is location. If you perceive your hand as 15 degrees to the left of your midline and you hear the sound as coming from 15 degrees to the left of your midline, you identify the sound as coming from the same place as your hand. People who, because of brain damage, have diffi culty localizing sensations also have diffi culty binding. For example, they might perceive two shapes and two colors, but be uncertain which color goes with which shape. People with intact brains have the same problem when distracted. You can download the PowerPoint demonstration Binding: What Would It Be Like to Lack Binding? from this APA Web site: You can use it to demonstrate, on a small scale, what it might be like to lack binding (Holcombe & Cavanagh, 2001; Treisman, 1999; Wheeler & Treisman, 2002). The other condition necessary for binding is simultaneity. A skilled ventriloquist synchronizes a sound with the motion of the dummy s mouth, thereby getting you to bind them as a single experience. In contrast, when you watch a poorly dubbed foreign fi lm, the lack of synchrony causes you not to bind the sound with the speaker. To demonstrate Modern Psychology, continued on page 9 Announcing the Inaugural Presentation of the Northwest Teaching of Psychology Conference Join us on the Highline Community College campus, located 5 miles south of the Seattle-Tacoma Airport, on Friday, May 9th, for this 1-day conference, featuring invited addresses by: David Myers, Worth Publishers Author, Hope College Maureen McCarthy, President, APA Division 2: The Society for the Teaching of Psychology, Kennesaw State University Drew Appleby, Director of Undergraduate Studies, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis REGISTRATION MUST BE POSTMARKED BY APRIL 15TH The affordable $25 fee includes a continental breakfast and lunch. Space is limited, so please register early. For more information, including the conference schedule, and to download the registration form, please visit ightline.highline.edu/nwtop/. If you have any questions, please contact Sue Frantz or , ext. 3404).
8 8 Justice, continued from page 4 these requirements should be attainable. Research indicates that students who understand why procedures exist rate outcomes more positively even when they do not do as well as hoped (Williams, 1999). Also, students are more likely to comply with rules when they understand the rationale and purpose for those rules (Tyler, 2006). Consistent with this fi nding, students who perceive course assignments or objectives as unclear and insurmountable can experience learned helplessness (Chory-Assad, 2002). If students perceive their efforts as irrelevant, they will stop trying. When students are unclear on how an assignment should be done, they often wait for more information from their instructor. When this information is not presented in a timely fashion, students often procrastinate in the hope that more information will be provided closer to the deadline. Students also seem to report similar concerns when working in groups. Without clearly defi ned expectations for group processes and performance, students often report their experiences as negative and frustrating (Forrest & Balcetis, 2007). Take-home teaching message: Regardless of whether you think your course objectives or assignments are clear, your students may find them vague. Have students tell you what is required for success in your course. If their perceptions match yours then you have done an excellent job of informing them of the requirements and expectations for success in your class. If their perceptions do not match, take a few minutes and list the steps you would take as a student to accomplish the goals and assignments listed for the course. VOICE According to Lind, Kanfer, and Earley (1990), participants feel their involvement in a task is increased when they provide input or voice concerning a task, either before it is attempted (instrumental voice) or upon completion (noninstrumental voice). These fi ndings suggest that students should feel more involved in a course when given the opportunity to evaluate the course at midterm when aspects of the course can be changed. Students also rate courses more highly when they believe instructors elicit their ideas and contributions during the curriculum development stage (Moore, 2006) or in response to evaluation concerns (e.g., testing, grading). These fi ndings seem to extend from the course to the major in that perceived control over educational choices, such as course selection, has been shown to be positively related to degree completion for minority students (Bermudez, 2006). Voice is not just about process control. Voice also matters from a group membership perspective. Specifi cally, Lind and colleagues (1990) found that having voice leads individuals to feel as if they are full-fl edged members of the group (p. 952). Work groups or teams with a favorable procedural justice climate perform their jobs better and engage in less absenteeism (Colquitt, Noe, & Jackson, 2002). It follows that comparable results would occur in classrooms where students feel like team members. Take-home teaching message: Students feel more involved and care more about those classes in which they have an active relationship with their instructor and with other students. Instructors can increase this sense of belonging by assuring students that their input is noticed, respected, and valued. If classes are so large that in-class voice is prevented, encouraging students to interact with you and with others through Web-based discussion or e- mail can also increase perceptions of voice. It is important however to avoid deceptive uses of voice (Cohen, 1985), that is, appearing to care about what students want and need, yet never responding to accommodate those needs. One strategy we recommend to faculty who are utilizing a midterm evaluation to assess how students are doing is to be clear about which issues are open for discussion and which are not. Having students assess your test formats (e.g., multiple choice, short answer, or essay) when you have no intention of changing the format is an example of deceptive voice in the classroom. Repetitive misuse of voice by instructors can lead to more negative evaluations than not providing any opportunities for voice. Our goal in this paper has been to inform the reader of the value of procedural justice theory in designing a new course or revising an existing one. Regardless of which task you are currently facing, there is great value in using the principles of consistency, impartiality, transparency, and voice when deciding how to structure the course and select the specifi c pedagogical techniques used to teach and evaluate students. In their recommendations for teachers, Rodabaugh and Kravitz (1994) suggest several activities that support procedural justice, including timely return of exams, willingness to discuss and subsequently drop ambiguous questions, and giving partial credit for exam answers. These instructor behaviors epitomize the procedural justice principles of transparency and voice. Tata s (1999) work suggests that in courses in which grades appear not to be distributed normally, and therefore may be Justice, continued on page 10
9 9 Modern Psychology, continued from page 7 the role of simultaneity, stand in front of a large mirror. Position your right hand so that you can see it in the mirror, and put your left hand behind your back. Then, watch the mirror while you perform identical movements with your two hands. For example, touch your thumbs to each fi nger, clench and unclench your hands, wiggle your fi ngers, and so forth. As you do so, you will see what looks like your left hand doing exactly the same thing that you feel your left hand doing, at the same time. Within a few minutes, you may begin to experience the hand in the mirror as being your left hand (Robertson, 2005). Not everyone gets this experience. Some fail to perceive the hand in the mirror as being their own. Some get the even more uncanny experience of having three hands -the right hand, the left hand behind the back, and the left hand in the mirror. This can be an interesting class demonstration. CONCLUSION: WHAT DO WE REALLY KNOW ABOUT CONSCIOUSNESS? Researchers have not told us what consciousness is or what good it does, but fi ndings from their studies have told us a few things about consciousness: (1) It depends on increased activity spread over a large portion of the brain. (2) It is probably an all-or-none threshold phenomenon. (3) The brain processes the meaning of some information that does not reach consciousness. (4) We may be able to use brain scans to infer who is or is not conscious, or likely to become conscious. (5) Sometimes we become conscious of something retrospectively, because of another stimulus that came later. (6) Unifi ed consciousness of the appearance, sound, and feeling of an object (binding) depends on simultaneity of different kinds of stimuli and on our ability to localize the stimuli in space. Consciousness will continue to be an intriguing topic of interest to psychologists and students enrolled in psychology courses. Perhaps in the near future, psychologists may be able to say more about what consciousness is and the value of having this process of mind. In the meantime, we have lots of new developments in neuroscience that offer some encouraging insight about this process of mind. REFERENCES Connine, C. M., Blasko, D. G., & Hall, M. (1991). Effects of subsequent sentence context in auditory word recognition: Temporal and linguistic constraints. Journal of Memory and Language, 30, Cosmelli, D., David, O., Lachaux, J.-P., Martinerie, J., Garnero, L., Renault, B., et al. (2004). Waves of consciousness: Ongoing cortical patterns during binocular rivalry. NeuroImage, 23, Dehaene, S., Naccache, L., Cohen, L., Le Bihan, D., Mangin, J.F., Poline, J.-B., et al. (2001). Cerebral mechanisms of word masking and unconscious repetition priming. Nature Neuroscience, 4, Holcombe, A. O., & Cavanagh, P. (2001). Early binding of feature pairs for visual perception. Nature Neuroscience, 4, Jiang, Y., Costello, P., & He, S. (2007). Processing of invisible stimuli: Advantage of upright faces and words in overcoming interocular suppression. Psychological Science, 18, Lee, S.H., Blake, R., & Heeger, D. J. (2005). Traveling waves of activity in primary visual cortex during binocular rivalry. Nature Neuroscience, 8, Owen, A. M., Coleman, M. R., Boly, M., Davis, M. H., Laureys, S., & Pickard, J. D. (2006). Detecting awareness in the vegetative state. Science, 313, Robertson, I. H. (2005, Winter). The deceptive world of subjective awareness. Cerebrum, 7(1), Sergent, C., & Dehaene, S. (2004). Is consciousness a gradual phenomenon? Evidence for an all-or-none bifurcation during the attentional blink. Psychological Science, 15, Smith, K. (2007). Looking for hidden signs of consciousness. Nature, 446, 355. Treisman, A. (1999). Feature binding, attention and object perception. In G. W. Humphreys, J. Duncan, & A. Treisman (Eds.), Attention, space, and action (pp ). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. Wheeler, M. E., & Treisman, A. (2002). Binding in shortterm visual memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 131, PTN
10 10 Justice, continued from page 8 perceived as unfair by students, these types of just procedures become even more important. Rodabaugh and Kravitz (1994) have also suggested that a systematic evaluation of other specifi c teaching strategies from the procedural justice perspective is warranted. From the syllabus to assignments to testing within a course, there are several points where we are required to make a Running, continued from page 2 available, especially when we fi nd our paper copies tattered and torn. I think two of the many highlights of my time spent on the TOPSS Committee were attending the 2006 and 2007 APA conventions, in New Orleans and San Francisco, respectively. When Hurricane Katrina hit New Orleans in 2005, the pictures from the media lingered in my memory. To see the aftermath a year later in person and take a tour with Dr. Liz Hammer- Yost of her hometown was unbelievable. The convention seemed to adjust and went off as scheduled, and the number of wonderful presenters was enlightening. I took what I had seen in New Orleans and decided on a theme for the following year s convention: Resilience. In addition, the 15th anniversary of TOPSS was celebrated in 2007, making last year s convention in San Francisco fantastic. My, have we come a long way! TOPSS has been successful because ordinary people who love the topic they teach and who are eager to share their ideas with others have decided to run for a TOPSS Committee offi ce. The commitment is one each of us makes based on our own time availability. The networking, the spirited conversations, the sense of accomplishment, the dinning experiences, and the opportunities that being on the committee will afford you are all reasons you will want to consider running for a position on the TOPSS Committee. I do encourage all of you to consider it. Good luck! Note: The 2008 Call for TOPSS Elections is found on page 6. The deadline is JUNE 1, PTN choice about how to deal with diffi cult situations. A procedural justice perspective (see Marilla Svinicki s chapter in McKeachie s Teaching Tips, 2001) can help us to make informed choices that are perceived by students to be fair and supportive. REFERENCES Bermudez, Y. M. (2006). Perceptions of justice: Undergraduate degree persistence of African, Asian, Hispanic, and Native Americans at the University of Nevada, Reno, Dissertation Abstracts International, 67(1-B), 596B. Brockner, J., & Siegel, P. (1996). Understanding the interaction between procedural and distributive justice: The role of trust. In R. M. Kramer & T. R. Tyler (Eds.), Trust in organizations: Frontiers of theory and research (pp ). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Chory-Assad, R. M. (2002). Classroom justice: Perceptions of fairness as a predictor of student motivation, learning, and aggression. Communication Quarterly, 50, Chory-Assad, R. M., & Paulsel, M. L. (2004). Classroom justice: Student aggression and resistance as reactions to perceived unfairness. Communication Education, 53, Cohen, R. L. (1985). Procedural justice and participation. Human Relations, 38, Colquitt, J. A., Noe, R. A., & Jackson, C. L. (2002). Justice in teams: Antecedents and consequences of procedural justice climate. Personnel Psychology, 55, Earley, P. C., & Lind, E. A. (1987). Procedural justice and participation in task selection: The role of control in mediating justice judgments. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, Forrest, K. D., & Balcetis, E. E. (2007). Teaching students to work well in groups. In B. Perlman, L. I. McCann, & S. H. McFadden (Eds.), Lessons learned: Vol. 3. Practical advice for the teaching of psychology. Washington, DC: Association for Psychological Science. Leventhal, G. S. (1980). What should be done with equity theory? New approaches to the study of fairness in social relationships. In K. Gergen, M. Greenberg, & R. Willis (Eds.), Social exchange: Advances in theory and research (pp ). New York: Plenum Press. Lind, E. A., Kanfer, R., & Earley, P. C. (1990). Voice, control, and procedural justice: Instrumental and noninstrumental concerns in fairness judgments. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59,
11 11 Call for Nominations 2008 Elections Consider serving on the APA Psychology Teachers at Community Colleges Committee! The Committee consists of six members whose mission is to: Promote, within the 2-year college community, the highest professional standards for teaching of psychology as a scientifi c discipline; Cultivate a professional identity with the discipline of psychology among psychology teachers at community colleges; Develop leadership qualities among psychology teachers at community colleges and increase their participation and representation in professional psychology activities and organizations; Establish and maintain communication with all groups involved in the teaching of psychology and with the greater psychological community; and Encourage psychological research on teaching and learning at community colleges for the purpose of giving students the best possible educational opportunities. The members of will elect two new members who will join the committee in January 2009 for 3-year terms of offi ce. The Committee meets twice a year in Washington, DC. The APA covers travel and accommodation expenses. Consider self-nominating for a position on the Committee or nominate a colleague who would make a positive impact. Nominations are due by June 1, NOMINATION FORM APA Committee of Psychology Teachers at Community Colleges Nominee s name: Nominee s home phone: Nominee s address: Nominee s work phone: Nominee s In submitting this form, the nominee agrees to have his/ her name considered for placement on the 2008 Election ballot. Candidates must be current members of This form must be received by June 1, Nominees for the 2008 Election must submit the following materials/documents with the Nomination Form: curriculum vita, brief personal statement, and a photo. Please send materials to Elections, APA Education Directorate, 750 First Street, NE, Washington, DC , or send electronic fi les of nomination materials to Martha Boenau at Lind, E. A., & Tyler, T. (1988). The social psychology of procedural justice. New York: Plenum Press. Moore, V. M. (2006). Why educators need to incorporate student voice into planning: Reviewing the literature. In E. B. Reefe, V. M. Moore, & F. R. Duff (Eds.), Listening to the experts: Students with disabilities speak out (pp ). Baltimore: Brookes Publishing. Okoroafo, S. C., & Zupancic, M. A. (1989). The effects of perceived instructors bias on students motivation and performance when using real world teaching techniques. College Student Journal, 23, 2-8. Rodabaugh, R. C., & Kravitz, D. A. (1994). Effects of procedural fairness on student judgments of professors. Journal of Excellence in College Teaching, 5, Svinicki, M. (2001). Ethics in college teaching. In W. J. McKeachie (Ed.), McKeachie s teaching tips: Strategies, research, and theory for college and university teachers (11th ed., pp ). Boston: Houghton-Miffl in. Tata, J. (1999). Grade distribution, grading procedures, and students evaluations of instructors: A justice perspective. Journal of Psychology, 133, Thibaut, J., & Walker, L. (1975). Procedural justice: A psychological analysis. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Tyler, T. R. (2006). Restorative justice and procedural justice: Dealing with rule breaking. Journal of Social Issues, 62, Tyler T. R., & Caine, A. (1981). The infl uence of outcomes and procedures on satisfaction with formal leaders. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 41, Williams, S. (1999). The effects of distributive and procedural justice on performance. Journal of Psychology, 133, PTN
12 12 Guidelines, continued from page 5 STAGES 2 AND 3: EVALUATE AND MODIFY 2. Students exchange their logs with a minimum of three classmates who constructively critique each analogy. 3. As deemed necessary, students either modify their original analogies or offer new analogies consonant with the peer feedback. Students must include the names and comments submitted by each classmate, along with supporting rationale for any changes in their analogical reasoning. 4. Students bring their revised logs to class in order to participate in a teacher-led, whole-class discussion wherein they share their analogies, critique those of their classmates, and are exposed to facilitating comments from the instructor. 5. Students record feedback from the class discussion that may have led to any changes in their analogical reasoning. 6. Students undertake a fi nal revision of the applicable analogies in accordance with the aforementioned feedback. Once again, students must provide supporting rationale for any revisions before submitting their completed logs to the instructor for grading purposes. QUALIFYING LIMITATIONS OF ANALOGY-ENHANCED INSTRUCTION Although analogies are generally effective pedagogical tools, all analogies are faulty in some respects. As explained by Glynn, Law, and Doster (1998), analogies are like double-edged swords, with the potential of facilitating comprehension and, at the same time, creating misconceptions (p. 205). If pushed to an illogical extreme, analogies can actually confound learners. Consequently, instructors must take proactive measures to guard against such confusion. For example, in the earlier brain-computer analogy, similarities were drawn between human knowledge acquisition and the way that computers process information. However, because no computer can adequately match human intellectual capacity for emotionality, creativity, and intuition, this analogy becomes diffi cult to defend on these grounds. Rather than try to sweep this analogical inconsistency under the carpet, I prompt my students to consider it when arriving at appropriate conclusions. This point is illustrated in the concluding narrative in Table 1. Students may also enter the learning situation with misconceptions and a weak knowledge base (Wong, 1993a). In these instances, learners become functionally fi xed on the surface details of the analog that are not present in the target-problem content (Duncker, 1935/1972). Research (Brown, 1994; Clement, 1993; Mayo, 2001) has demonstrated the effectiveness of bridging analogies in countering a learner s limited background knowledge. Bridging analogies are intermediate metaphorical conceptions that form when you divide an analogy into smaller parts that can be more readily mastered. To solve some of the problems associated with students insuffi cient knowledge structures, Spiro, Feltovich, Coulson, and Anderson (1989) recommended the introduction of multiple analogies during instruction. By initially requiring the learner to generate an unproductive analogy and then evaluate its defi ciencies, instructors push the student in the direction of clarifying and identifying components of more productive analogies. Extrapolating from this perspective, analogy-enhanced instruction can be viewed as a generative process where conceptual growth emerges from a continual refi nement and synthesis of fragmented, incomplete knowledge (Wong, 1993b, pp ). As described previously in this article, this is precisely the approach that a student would adopt in completing an Analogy Log in line with the prescribed stages of the GEM model of analogy co-construction (Mayo, 2006, 2007). REFERENCES Ausubel, D. P. (1977). The facilitation of meaningful verbal learning in the classroom. Educational Psychologist, 12, Brown, D. E. (1994). Facilitating conceptual change using analogies and explanatory models. International Journal of Science Education, 16, Bruner, J. (1986). Actual minds, possible worlds. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Clement, J. J. (1993). Using bridging analogies and anchoring intuitions to deal with students preconceptions in physics. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 30, Duncker, K. (1972). On problem-solving (L. S. Lees, Trans.). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. (Original work published 1935) Glynn, S. M., Duit, R., & Thiele, R. (1995). Teaching with analogies: A strategy for constructing knowledge. In S. M. Glynn & R. Duit (Eds.), Learning science in the schools: Research reforming practice (pp ). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Guidelines, continued on page 16
13 13 Psychology Internships Offer New Opportunities Marie T. Smith, PhD Thomas S. Wootton High School, Rockville, MD Thomas S. Wootton High School is a large public school in the suburbs of Washington, DC. I have been teaching psychology at this school for many years and teaching AP psychology since its inception in As in most cases, AP psychology grew rapidly due to students interest in learning about human behavior theirs and others. As the program grew, many students who enjoyed the course wanted to continue to learn more about it and asked for a new psychology course. There was no way to create another in-school psychology course at that time, so I began to think of other ways I could fulfill students requests to continue learning about psychology. I began to think of sending students out into the community in a type of internship program. Several such programs were already in effect at this school. After discussing the idea with the principal, I got approval from our school system, was given a course number, and advertised it for seniors who had taken AP psychology in their junior year. That and a good recommendation are the program s only prerequisites. It is a senior elective and a full-fl edged graded course. In the fi rst year, 2001, there were 17 brave students who signed up not knowing where or when or how this would work. We had no sample formats since we had not ever heard of such a psychology internship program in high school. We had no contacts and no experience in how to get them. Thanks to several internship programs already in existence in our school, I was able to get help on setting up the technicalities of the program. I wanted to be sure we were functioning in the education world with rules and guidelines, a grading policy, written resumes, and interviewing techniques. I needed places where students could work their way into hands-on activities and professionals who were willing to mentor high school students. Together, the 17 students and I found resources, made phone calls, sent s, and found a place for each new intern. It was not as hard as I thought it would be to get started. By the end of that fi rst year, the students were sure they had done the right thing by participating in the internships. At the end of the fi rst year, the number of interns had doubled; by the year after, it tripled, and it has now grown to 45 students per year. We have found many locations for internship sites, and the variation has become quite remarkable. We have learned that some places work better than others, and why, and the variety of sites continues to grow. Mentors write glowing reports about their interns and always want a guarantee that this program will continue and they will be included! This is good news! The Psychology Internship Program (PIP) at Wootton has evolved dramatically in program offerings since the fi rst group of students went out. Most placements include internship opportunities at such well-established places such as the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), and St. Luke s House for Schizophrenics. Psychology is everywhere, and anywhere you fi nd it is a possible internship opening. We have come a long way, and our student interns now have many more choices. Students have broadened Internships, continued on page 14
14 14 Internships, continued from page 13 their expectations for an internship, and we have been successful in fulfilling most of them. Our community has made this program possible; the sites have opened their doors and, in many cases, their hearts. And the students have responded with responsible behavior, hard work, and genuine interest. Students feel that these psychology internships are helpful for learning more about a fi eld they enjoy, yet other benefi ts have become apparent. Students learn to become more independent. They fi nd the internship helpful for preparing college resumes. And very importantly, many of them fi nd a career path. Many former interns have returned from their colleges to ask for summer internships to enhance their work in psychology. And some have written or called to ask for advice about graduate programs. One of the most important things to know about this program is how interns are evaluated. Attendance is graded both at school and at the placement site: The interns on-site mentor signs weekly timesheets and completes MARK YOUR CALENDAR! 2008 APA/Clark University Workshop for High School Teachers The fourth annual APA/Clark University Workshop will be held July 21-23, 2008, at Clark University in Worcester, MA. All interested high school psychology teachers are invited to apply to attend this 3-day workshop. Workshop facilitators will include Clark University psychology professors and high school teachers from APA TOPSS. Housing in the Clark campus dorms and materials will be provided for all participants. Participants will also receive travel stipends of $100. Application forms and additional information about the 2008 workshop are available online at html/. The application deadline is APRIL 15, This workshop is sponsored by the American Psychological Foundation Lee Gurel Fund, Clark University, and APA. Please contact Emily Leary at or (202) if you have any questions. a quarterly evaluation sheet. Finally, the student writes a formal paper that is graded by the program coordinator. This paper must describe the student s experiences at the site, connecting his or her experiences with psychological concepts the student learned in the course. Is the program worth all of the work? The answer is a resounding YES! You only have to see these interns smile and listen to their excitement as they discuss their experiences. You only need to read their papers and learn of their feelings of discovery and their feelings of being valued. You only need to listen to what they say about making a contribution to a worthwhile cause, event, individual, or discovery or to what they say about discovering themselves! Internships offer students the opportunity to learn more about others and to make a positive contribution to their community. And that s only the beginning! Here are a few student remarks from papers they have written: The pressure is high because what I do is actually important I can help because I learned about the brain in psychology class. David (NIMH Neuropsychology Lab) We attend meetings with experts fl own in from all over the world Many topics from psychology are used. Josh (NIDA) [We use] activities to help clients gain more use of brain, [and I can] see the impact of brain injury. I have become very interested in brain function. Melissa (Head Injury Rehab Center) We use repetition to teach [the children, and] operant conditioning to teach right and wrong. Life can be diffi cult but with help, people can adapt. Kim and Stella (Ivymount School for Special Children) To add to the development of such programs, a good friend and colleague, Geri Acquard, started a psychology internship program at neighboring Walter Johnson High School in Bethesda, MD. We have worked together in many ways, helping each other out when we needed an extra site location, writing much of the description for the program that is incorporated in this article, and sharing our vision with others at conference presentations. We hope to continue to spread the word to other teachers in other schools in other systems, anywhere someone has an interest in trying to start an internship program. We also would like to know if there are similar programs out there. Please feel free to contact either of us or if you have a similar program or are interested in starting one! PTN
15 15 APA Public Interest Directorate Announcements SUBMIT A PROPOSAL FOR THE 2008 CEMRRAT GRANTS The APA CEMRRAT Task Force is seeking proposals for the 2008 CEMRRAT Implementation Grants. These small grants are intended to serve as seed funds to energize, empower, and support the efforts of individuals, organizations, and educational institutions committed to enhancing ethnic minority recruitment, retention, and training in psychology. Proposals will be accepted beginning January 1, 2008, and will be reviewed on a rolling basis until all funds are awarded. See the full request for proposal at /oema/programs/cemrrat2%202008_request _for_proposals.pdf for more information, including application instructions and the funding categories. FOCUS ON OEMA NEWSJOURNAL SPECIAL SECTION The APA Office of Ethnic Minority Affairs (OEMA) would like to encourage the high school and community college affiliates to take at look at OEMA s August 2007 issue of its semiannual newsjournal (The Communiqué) and its Special Section on Psychological Perspectives on Sexual Orientation in Communities of Color. The newsjournal provides an overview of psychological issues and association activities of special interest to persons of color, while the Special Section is highly appropriate for use as supplementary classroom discussion material. The Communiqué and its Special Section can be accessed on the Web at: _communique.pdf _august%202007_communique.pdf FACT SHEET FROM THE OFFICE ON AGING Geropsychology: Its Your Future, a fact sheet for students, is available online at aging/student_fact_sheet.pdf. Any teacher interested in receiving copies should contact Deborah DiGilio at or (202) CHILDREN, YOUTH, AND FAMILIES OFFICE WEB SITE The CYF Web site contains information that may be of interest to teachers: Diversity Education Resources The APA Task Force on Diversity Education Resources was established by 2006 APA President Gerry Koocher. The group s mission was to provide support for instructors who want to address diversity issues in their classrooms. The task force compiled annotated bibliographies of teaching resources, including books, book chapters, journal articles, fi lms, Web sites, and other media. Topics include cross-cutting issues, such as assessment, institutional support for diversity education, instructional resources, power and privilege, and ways to encourage students from diverse backgrounds to pursue psychology as a profession. Bibliographies also were developed for specifi c categories such as Race/Ethnicity, Culture, International, Language, Religion, Gender/Sex, Sexual Orientation, Rural-Urban-Suburban Location, and Age. The resources were developed for teachers of psychology at the high school, undergraduate, graduate, and postgraduate levels. The bibliography of diversity education resources is available on the Web at teachpsych.org/diversity/ptde/index.php. Task force members were: Mary Kite, Ball State University, Chair; Rosemary Blieszner, Virginia Polytechnic and State University; James E. Freeman, University of Virginia; Ladonna Lewis, Glendale Community College; Jeffery Scott Mio, California State Polytechnic University; Konjit V. Page, Boston College; Marissa M. Sarabando, Memorial High School, McAllen, Texas; and Linda M. Woolf, Webster University.
16 16 Guidelines, continued from page 12 Glynn, S. M., Law, M., & Doster, E. C. (1998). Making text meaningful: The role of analogies. In C. R. Hynd (Ed.), Learning from text across conceptual domains (pp ). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Holyoak, K. J., & Thagard, P. (1997). The analogical mind. American Psychologist, 52, Mayo, J. A. (2001). Using analogies to teach conceptual applications of developmental theories. Journal of Constructivist Psychology, 14, Mayo, J. A. (2006). Reflective pedagogy through analogy construction. Southeastern Journal of Psychology, 1, 1-6. Mayo, J. A. (2007). The co-construction of analogies as a pedagogical strategy in lifespan developmental psychology. Manuscript in preparation. Pittman, K. M. (1999). Student-generated analogies: Another way of knowing? Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 36, Rumelhart, D. E., & Norman, D. A. (1981). Analogical processes in learning. In J. R. Anderson (Ed.), Cognitive skills and their acquisition (pp ). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Spiro, R. J., Feltovich, P. J., Coulson, R. L., & Anderson, D. K. (1989). Multiple analogies for complex concepts: Antidotes for analogy-induced misconceptions in advanced knowledge acquisition. In S. Vosniadou and A. Ortony (Eds.), Similarity and analogical reasoning (pp ). Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press. Wong, E. D. (1993a). Self-generated analogies as a tool for constructing and evaluating explanations of scientifi c phenomena. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 30, Wong, E. D. (1993b). Understanding the generative capacity of analogies as a tool for explanation. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 30, AUTHOR NOTE Portions of this article were adapted from Refl ective Pedagogy Through Analogy Construction, by Joseph A. Mayo, as published in the Southeastern Journal of Psychology, 2006, Vol. 1, pp PTN FIGURE 1 THREE-STAGE MODEL OF ANALOGY C0-CONSTRUCTION STAGE 1: Generate STAGE 2: Evaluate STAGE 3: Modify TABLE 1 USING GRAPHIC ORGANIZATION TO COMPARE THE HUMAN BRAIN TO A COMPUTER FEATURES OF BRAIN FEATURES OF COMPUTER SIMILARITIES DIFFERENCES neurons circuits storage processing cognition software retrieval Conclusions: The physical brain is capable of memory storage and retrieval in a manner comparable to the way that a computer relies on its hardware and software to perform similar functions. However, the computer undertakes completely logical operations while processing information, whereas the brain combines pure logic with creativity, emotionality, and intuition as it processes information and acquires knowledge and skills.
17 17 Teaching Introductory Psychology: Eight Lessons Learned Robin Hailstorks, PhD APA Education Directorate I was assigned my first introductory psychology course more than two decades ago, and I vividly remember how I fi rst approached this course: I had just completed graduate school, and I was excited about the opportunity to teach a course that I thought I was prepared to teach. After all, I had earned a doctorate in psychology, and I had been a graduate teaching assistant for more than 2 years. I was ready to take on this new challenge. Little did I know what lay ahead for me; I had much to learn in the next few years. I will share with you eight lessons I learned and insights about teaching introductory psychology. The first lesson I learned was that just because I had earned a doctoral degree in psychology didn t mean I was prepared to teach every area of psychology. In fact, after the second week of the course I realized I was going to be spending a lot of time preparing my lectures because there was so little I knew about several of the subfi elds of the discipline. At the end of the semester, I felt I would be able to do a better job of teaching this course the next time around because I learned how much I didn t know about psychology. I also shared my experience with veteran teachers of introductory psychology who told me they had had similar experiences and that it was quite common for someone to feel the way I did during their fi rst teaching experience. The second lesson I learned was that I didn t have to cover every chapter in the textbook. Like most novice teachers, I assumed if I didn t try to cover everything in the textbook, my students would miss some important information they would need to know later on. So I taught my fi rst course as a lecture course only, not incorporating any active learning because I felt compelled to pour knowledge into my students heads. I felt I was always racing against time and that I could never cover enough material during any given class period. The third lesson I learned was that I did not have to cover the course chapters in the order in which they appeared in the textbook. After reviewing several introductory psychology textbooks, I observed that the subfi elds of psychology were presented in a similar order. This was a clue to me that I was on the right track. This approach seemed logical to me, and it worked until my students discovered that the material presented in the some of the later chapters would have been useful to them if it could have been presented earlier in the semester so that they could understand and apply some of those concepts to this course and others in which they were enrolled. As a novice teacher I felt I had to prove myself in the classroom by letting my students know that I knew the subject matter content. I was young and inexperienced, so I thought I needed to perform well as an instructor. I was always organized and prepared for my class, but I didn t feel connected to my students. I was too preoccupied with content and delivery, and I overlooked the importance of getting to know my students. I felt this disconnect on a regular basis throughout the semester, and I quickly learned that I needed to talk to my students. At the end of the semester, I read every comment on my teaching evaluations at least 10 times to fully understand what had transpired over the course of the semester. While my teaching evaluations were very good, I began to notice a pattern: I didn t interact with my students. This was indeed an important fourth lesson to learn as a new teacher of introductory psychology: Get to know your students. Every teacher has had the experience of having a student ask a question that he/she could not answer. As a novice, I didn t know how to handle this one aspect of teaching. I Eight Lessons Learned, continued on page 21
18 18 Psi Chi Grants and Awards Melissa Strickland Psi Chi Director of Finance/Awards Psi Chi, the National Honor Society in Psychology, has more than $300,000 available for grants and awards to Psi Chi members. The awards/grants program supports Psi Chi s mission to encourage, stimulate, and maintain excellence in the scholarship of individual members in all fi elds, particularly psychology, and to advance the science of psychology. A few of the award opportunities available soon are the Wilson, the Allyn & Bacon, the Erlbaum, and the Guilford awards. The deadline for the Faculty Advisor Research Grants is also this spring. The Kay Wilson Leadership Award for Outstanding Chapter Presidents is presented annually to the one chapter president who demonstrates excellence in leadership of a local chapter. This award honors Kay Wilson, executive offi cer of Psi Chi from , and her commitment to leadership. During Wilson s tenure, Psi Chi doubled its membership and increased its awards, grants, and national visibility. Kay Wilson not only demonstrated excellence in leadership but also realized the role Psi Chi plays in developing future leaders in psychology. Award nominations by the president s chapter are due online by April 1. The Allyn & Bacon Psychology Awards are given for the best overall empirical research. For the purpose of these awards, empirical research broadly includes all forms of empirical psychology, such as experiments, correlational studies, historical studies, case studies, case histories, and evaluation studies. Applications are due online May 1. Cash awards of $1,000, $650, and $350 are presented for fi rst, second, and third places, respectively. The Erlbaum Awards in Cognitive Science are given to the best overall empirical studies in the area of cognitive science for one undergraduate and one graduate student. The cash award for each winner is $500. Applications are due online on May 1. The J. P. Guilford Undergraduate Research Awards are presented to the best overall research paper. These awards honor Professor Joy Paul Guilford, one of the earliest and most effective organizers of Psi Chi, whose 50-year career of teaching and writing nurtured excellence among student researchers. Applications are due online May 1. Cash awards of $1,000, $650, and $350 are presented for fi rst, second, and third places, respectively. Twelve Faculty Advisor Research Grants of up to $2,000 each are available to support Psi Chi faculty advisors research. The purpose of this grant is to recognize and reward faculty advisors who have committed their time and talents to their Psi Chi chapters by helping to defray the direct costs of a research project. Applications are due online June 1. Additional information, cover sheets, and submission links can be found at Psi Chi is the largest student psychological association in the world. Psi Chi has installed more than 1,050 chapters and inducted more than 500,000 members since its founding in September You can fi nd more information about Psi Chi and its awards and grants program at the Psi Chi Web site at PSI CHI NATIONAL LEADERSHIP CONFERENCE Psi Chi is preparing for the 2009 National Leadership Conference to be held in Nashville, TN. Mark your calendars for this January 2-4, 2009 event. Faculty advisors, chapter presidents, and chapter presidentselect are invited to attend the conference, where participants will learn leadership applications and principles to help make their Psi Chi chapter more successful. These leadership skills will also be useful to student attendees who will be entering the workplace or graduate schools in the near future. Registration will be $185 per participant and will begin, tentatively, on September 15 at 12:00 noon EST. Funded participant slots are available on a fi rst-come, fi rst-served basis. Please check the Psi Chi Web site at for the latest information on this exciting conference.
19 19 REQUEST FOR PROPOSALS Precollege Psychology Grant Program The American Psychological Foundation (APF) provides fi nancial support for innovative research and programs that enhance the power of psychology to elevate the human condition and advance human potential both now and in generations to come. APF is seeking proposals for programs that support the science and application of psychological science among talented high school students. More than 200,000 students are currently enrolled in high school psychology, and APF wants to support high-quality education in psychology and nurture the next generation of psychologists. AMOUNT Up to $30,000 will be available for projects. GOALS OF THE PROGRAM Reinforce the discipline of psychology as a science in secondary school curricula Expand the profi le of psychology as a science to attract talented high school students to pursue the discipline Convey to high school students that psychological science is a tool to improve society Teach students about career options that apply psychology outside of an academic setting (e.g., NASA, organizational development) Preference will be given to proposals for programs focused on supporting the education of talented high school students. ELIGIBILITY Applicants must be educational institutions, 501(c)(3) nonprofi t organizations, or affi liated with either. APF will NOT consider the following requests: Grants for political or lobbying purposes Grants for entertainment or fundraising expenses Grants to anyone the Internal Revenue Service would regard as a disqualifi ed group or individual APF encourages proposals from individuals who represent diversity in race, ethnicity, gender, age, and sexual orientation. Proposals should describe the proposed project and respond to the following questions in fi ve pages (1 inch margins, no smaller than 11 point font): What is the project s goal? How is the sponsoring organization qualifi ed to conduct this project? What, if any, other organizations are involved in the project? What are their contributions to the work? How does the proposed project relate to the applicant organization s mission? Whom will this project serve? What are the intended outcomes, and how will the project achieve them? What is the geographic scope of the proposed project? What is the total cost of the project? TO APPLY Submit a proposal and curriculum vita of the project leader online at by MAY 1, For more information, visit Questions about this program should be directed to Idalia Ramos, Program Director, at
20 20 News From the Society for the Teaching of Psychology (APA Division 2) NEW VOLUME OF ESSAYS FROM E-XCELLENCE IN TEACHING IS POSTED Volume 7 of Essays From E-Xcellence in Teaching, edited by Stephen A. Myers and Jeffrey R. Stowell, is now available online at e-books/eit2007/eit2007.php. The volume includes the 12 E-Xcellence articles originally published in 2007 on the PsychTeacher Listserv. NEW SYLLABUS FROM PROJECT SYLLABUS NOW AVAILABLE Another syllabus has been added to the resources on the Project Syllabus Web site. The new syllabus is Infant and Child Development by Elaine Barry from Penn State, Fayette, The Eberly Campus. The new syllabus may be found at /syllabi.php?category=developmental/. APS-STP TEACHING INSTITUTE PLANNED FOR CHICAGO IN MAY The APS annual meeting will be held in Chicago, IL, from Friday, May 23rd through Sunday, May 25th. The STP-APS Teaching Institute will be held on Thursday, May 22nd. An additional 4 hours of teaching-related programming will be provided during the main APS conference. A workshop led by Bill Buskist and Jessica Irons ( Discovering [or Rediscovering] Your Teaching Self: Discovering Your Teaching Philosophy ) will be held on Wednesday evening, May 21st. Information on the conference can be found at: www. psychologicalscience.org/convention/. Information on the Teaching Institute can be found at: program_highlights2008.cfm?abstract_type=teach/. More Than 600 Participate in Inaugural E-Workshop An inaugural online e-workshop, Teaching Introductory Psychology in the 21st Century: Content, Activities, and Technology, was broadcast on January 25, 2008, from the Alumni Center at Ball State University. The Society for the Teaching of Psychology sponsored the workshop in collaboration with Ball State University and Kennesaw State University Center for Excellence in Teaching and Learning. Presenters were Jane Halonen, University of West Florida ( The Practically Perfect Design for Intro Psychology ); and David Daniel, University of Northern Colorado ( When to Use IT and When to Lose IT: Teaching Introductory Psychology With and Without Technology ). Drew Appleby, Indiana University- Purdue University Indianapolis; Bill Hill, Kennesaw State University; and Kristin Richey, Ball State University, presented a session focused on Demonstrations and Activities for the Introductory Psychology Course. The Ball State University Teleplex, led by Larry Cannon, manager, Video Network Information Center, provided technical support for the e-workshop. Steve Winslow directed the production, and James Whiteman provided outstanding on-site technical support. The e-workshop was the presidential initiative of Mary Kite, professor of psychological science at Ball State University, who was president of the Society for the Teaching of Psychology in Bill Hill, director of Society Programming, organized the e-workshop in collaboration with Steering Committee members Amy Fineburg, Regan Gurung, Natalie Lawrence, and Joseph Mayo. More than 80 individuals and 70 institutions participated in the e-workshop via distance. In addition, representatives from the psychology departments at Ball State University, Indiana Purdue University, Fort Wayne, and the University of Indianapolis were live audience members. Participants represented psychology departments at 4-year colleges and universities, community colleges, and high schools offering academic placement psychology courses. In all, more than 600 individuals participated in the e-workshop.
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