A Performance Management System for the CHOOSE Approach for Enterprise Architecture for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

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1 GHENT UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ECONOMICS AND BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION ACADEMIC YEAR A Performance Management System for the CHOOSE Approach for Enterprise Architecture for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Master thesis presented in order to acquire the degree of Master of Science in Applied Economics: Business Engineering Lara Moons under the management of Maxime Bernaert and Prof. Dr. Poels

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3 GHENT UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ECONOMICS AND BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION ACADEMIC YEAR A Performance Management System for the CHOOSE Approach for Enterprise Architecture for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Master thesis presented in order to acquire the degree of Master of Science in Applied Economics: Business Engineering Lara Moons under the management of Maxime Bernaert and Prof. Dr. Poels

4 PERMISSION The undersigned states that the content of this master thesis may be consulted and/or reproduced, if cited. Lara Moons

5 PREFACE This master thesis provides the last keystone to acquire the degree of Master of Science in Applied Economics: Business Engineering at Ghent University, Belgium. The completion of this work would not have been possible without the support and assistance of several persons. I would like to take the opportunity to thank those people. First of all, I would like to thank Mr. Maxime Bernaert and Prof. Dr. Geert Poels of Ghent University. They gave me the opportunity to establish a master thesis tailored to my interests, guided me through the process of writing this thesis and provided me with constructive criticisms and feedback. Furthermore, I would like to thank my parents for the great opportunity to complete my studies and for the support during the completion of this master thesis. A special word of thanks goes to my father, Jan Moons, who proofread my master thesis and made it possible to perform a case study research at VMD NV. Furthermore, I would also like to thank my friend Noémie Renaerts for proofreading this master thesis. Finally, I wish to thank Ms. Kristel Walschots, Mr. Luc Jacobs, Mr. Peter Manet and my father for the enjoyable collaboration during the implementation and evaluation of the CHOOSE approach. In addition, I thank Mr. Peter Manet and Ms. Sofie Deboiserie for allowing me to participate in a session about performance management of the MBA Highlights. Last but not least, I thank performance management expert Mr. Mark Van Gastel for his evaluation of the CHOOSE model. I

6 TABLE OF CONTENTS Dutch Abstract... 1 Introduction... 2 PART I: Literature review... 4 Introduction Literature Review... 4 Chapter I: Small and Medium-sized Enterprises... 5 Chapter II: Enterprise Architecture Definition of Enterprise Architecture Positioning of EA: information management Different architectural layers and views TOGAF Ingredients of EA Advantages of EA EA for SMEs: the CHOOSE Approach CHOOSE Metamodel CHOOSE Method CHOOSE Tool Support Chapter III: Performance Management Performance Measurement and Performance Management Performance Measurement (System) Performance Management (System) Advantages of Performance Management (Systems) in SMEs Goals Vision, Mission and Values Critical Success Factors Strategies and Plans II

7 3.2.4 Organization Structure Goals and Organization Structure in SMEs Performance Measurement Key Performance Indicators Concept and Advantages Characteristics Attributes Classification Development and Use Alignment of KPIs on different levels: the cascading concept Number of KPIs on different levels Performance Measurement System The Performance Measurement Matrix The Strategic Measurement And Reporting Technique The Result and Determinants Framework The Balanced Scorecard Strategy Maps The Performance Prism Organizational Performance Measurement model Integrated Performance Measurement model for Small Firms Performance Measurement System in SMEs Target, Evaluation and Reward practices Target Setting Performance Evaluation Reward Systems Implementation of the PMAS Information Flows, Systems, and Networks III

8 3.5.2 PMASs Use PMASs Change Strength and Coherence Chapter IV: Links between EA and PM Relationship between KPI-related concepts and EA elements EA Metamodel of Braun and Winter Unified Business Strategy Metamodel of Giannoulis et al Gaps of Research PART II: Problem Statement PART III: Solution Introduction Chapter I: Initial Solution after Literature Review CHOOSE Metamodel CHOOSE Method Extra CHOOSE Constraints Chapter II: Case Study as Action Research Methodology Design Science Action Research Case Study Research Case Study Research as Action Research Description Case Study Case Study Protocol and Database Development Interview Interview Interview IV

9 Interview Interview Interview Interview Interview Interview Interview 10, 11 and Chapter III: Final Solution Final CHOOSE metamodel Final Extra CHOOSE constraints Final CHOOSE method PART IV: Evaluation Introduction Chapter I: Evaluation models Method Evaluation Model User Evaluations Based Quality Model for Conceptual Models CHOOSE criteria Chapter II: Evaluation Results Evaluation by the SME General Evaluation Method Evaluation Model Evaluation General Evaluation of the Existing CHOOSE Approach Evaluation by an expert PART V: Conclusion General Conclusion Limitations V

10 Future Research Bibliography... I Appendices... XI Appendix 1... XI Appendix 2... XIII Appendix 3... XVI Appendix 4... XVIII Appendix 5... XXIV Appendix 6... XXVIII Appendix 7... XXXIII VI

11 ABBREVIATIONS AIM ADM ARIS BSC CAIRO CEO CHOOSE CSF EA HR ICT IS IT KPI KRI MEM OPM PEOU PI PM PMAS PMES PSQ Amsterdam Information Management model Architecture Development Method Architecture of Integrated Information Systems Balanced Score Card Consulted, Accountable, Informed, Responsible, and Out of the loop Chief Executive Officer keep Control, by means of a Holistic Overview, based on Objectives and kept Simple of your Enterprise Critical Success Factor Enterprise Architecture Human Resources Information and Communication Technology Information System Information Technology Key Performance Indicator Key Result Indicator Method Evaluation Model Organizational Performance Measurement Perceived Ease Of Understanding Performance Indicator Performance Management Performance Management System Performance Measurement System Perceived Semantic Quality VII

12 PU RACI RASCI RI SAM Perceived Usefulness Responsible, Accountable, Consulted, and Informed Responsible, Accountable, Supportive, Consulted, and Informed Result Indicator Strategic Alignment Model SMART Strategic Measurement and Reporting Technique (Cross & Lynch, 1991) SMART Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, and Time-Bound (Doran, 1981) SMARTER SMBSC SME SMT SC TAM TOGAF UBSMM UEBQM UML US VC Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, Time-Bound, Evaluated, and Reviewed Strategy Maps and Balanced Score Card Small and Medium-sized Enterprise Senior Management Team Supply Chain Technology Acceptance Model The Open Group Architecture Framework Unified Business Strategy Meta-Model User Evaluations Based Quality Model Unified Modelling Language User Satisfaction Value Configuration VIII

13 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: Positioning of EA in AIM (adapted from (R. Maes, 2007))... 8 Figure 2: EA with more focus on the four core dimensions of the business architecture (from (Bernaert et al., 2014))... 9 Figure 3: Content metamodel and Motivation & Governance extension of TOGAF (from (The Open Group, 2011)) Figure 4: Bow-tie model of EA (adapted from (Tavernier & Poels, 2012)) Figure 5: Overview evaluation criteria for an EA technique for SMEs (adapted from (Ingelbeen, Bernaert, & Poels, 2013)) Figure 6: Structure of the four integrated models (from (Bernaert & Poels, 2011a)) Figure 7: Current CHOOSE metamodel (from (Bernaert, Callaert, Poels, et al., 2013)) Figure 8: The PM Cycle (from (Eckerson, 2009)) Figure 9: Performance Management and Measurement are closely intertwined (adapted from (Lebas, 1995)) Figure 10: The Performance Management Systems framework (adapted from (Ferreira & Otley, 2009)) Figure 11: Journey from a Mission and Vision to performance measures that work (from (Parmenter, 2011)) Figure 12: Example of a KPI (from (Niven, 2006)) Figure 13: Four types of performance measures (from (Parmenter, 2011)) Figure 14: PM implementation model for SMEs (from (Parmenter, 2011)) Figure 15: Using the Balanced Scorecard as a strategic management system (adapted from (Kaplan & Norton, 1996b)) Figure 16: The Strategy Map template (from (Kaplan & Norton, 2004)) Figure 17: Aggregate framework metamodel (from (Braun & Winter, 2005)) Figure 18: The Strategy Layer metamodel (from (Braun & Winter, 2005)) Figure 19: The Organization Layer metamodel (from (Braun & Winter, 2005)) Figure 20: Goal-Performance part of core metamodel (translated from (Winter, 2011)) Figure 21: The UBSMM (from (Giannoulis et al., 2012) Figure 22: Why, How and What of a goal (from (Markovic & Kowalkiewicz, 2008)) Figure 23: Optional Success Factor class as specialization of Goal class Figure 24: Indicator class together with Measurement relationship with Success Factor class.. 56 Figure 25: Many-to-many Source Relationship between Indicator and Object classes IX

14 Figure 26: Indicator class with reflexive Includes relationship Figure 27: Milestone class is specialized in Target class and has a Comparison relationship with the Indicator class Figure 28: CHOOSE metamodel with Performance-oriented dimension after literature research Figure 29: Goal dimension through action research using post-its Figure 30: From mission to the four highest-level BSC perspectives Figure 31: Elimination of Type attribute from Indicator class Figure 32: Decomposition of Stimulate closer collaboration between VMD and Biové into SMART goal Figure 33: Decomposition of 'Put the right people on the right spot' into SMART goal Figure 34: Replace Success Factor construct by Objective construct Figure 35: Performance-oriented viewpoint on Reliable forecast from VMD to Biové Figure 36: Assigned (RACI) relationship with an association class with a Type attribute Figure 37: Example of the Assigned relationship between Actor and Indicator Figure 38: Performance-oriented viewpoint on Put the right people on the right spot Figure 39: Description attribute of the Milestone class Figure 40: Example of the interrelation of the different viewpoints Figure 41: Performance-oriented viewpoint on Realize a high level of profitability Figure 42: Example of an As-is/To-be and Degree of Satisfaction analysis Figure 43: Final CHOOSE Metamodel Figure 44: Method Evaluation Model (from (Moody, 2003)) Figure 45: UEBQM (from (A. Maes & Poels, 2007)) X

15 LIST OF TABLES Table 1: Overview of the used literature Table 2: Six-item scales of Perceived Usefulness and Perceived Ease of Use (from (Davis, 1989)) Table 3: Questionnaire for Perceived Usefulness and Perceived Ease of Use (from (Bernaert, Callaert, Poels, et al., 2013)) Table 4: The UEBQM measurement instrument concerning the four quality dimensions (from (A. Maes & Poels, 2007)) Table 5: Measurement instrument to evaluate the CHOOSE metamodel (from (Bernaert, Callaert, Poels, et al., 2013)) Table 6: Ten design criteria of the CHOOSE approach (translated from (Bernaert, Callaert, & Poels, 2013)) Table 7: Evaluation results of CHOOSE metamodel and method by the CEO, SC manager, HR manager and member of the board Table 8: Evaluation results of the CHOOSE model by the external PM and ICT Architecture expert Table 9: Evaluation results of the CHOOSE model by the internal PM expert XI

16 DUTCH ABSTRACT Deze masterproef beschrijft de ontwikkeling van een performance management systeem voor de CHOOSE techniek voor enterprisearchitectuur voor kleine en middelgrote ondernemingen. De CHOOSE techniek is een techniek ontwikkeld aan de Universiteit Gent en modelleert de bedrijfsarchitectuur aan de hand van vier dimensies met overeenkomende entiteiten en relaties: de doelen van de onderneming (waarom), de actoren (wie), de operaties (hoe) en de objecten (wat). De CHOOSE techniek bestaat uit een CHOOSE metamodel, een CHOOSE methode en een CHOOSE tool support. Het belangrijkste aspect van een enterprisearchitectuur is de dimensie van de doelen. Echter, zonder een correcte meting van de vervulling van deze doelen blijft het controle gedeelte van een enterprisearchitectuur zinloos. Performance management biedt hiervoor een oplossing door de realisatie van doelen te koppelen aan metingen, streefcijfers en bijhorende acties. Deze masterthesis stelt daarom een optionele performance georiënteerde uitbreiding op de CHOOSE techniek voor. Deze uitbreiding is bedoeld voor kleine en middelgrote ondernemingen die geconfronteerd worden met een toenemende complexiteit en de noodzaak voelen om de realisatie van hun doelen te meten. Zowel het CHOOSE metamodel als de CHOOSE methode worden uitgebreid met een performance georiënteerde dimensie. Deze uitbreiding ontwikkelde zich in drie stappen. Als eerste werd er een initiële performance georiënteerde dimensie toegevoegd aan de oorspronkelijke CHOOSE techniek op basis van een uitgebreid literatuuronderzoek betreffende enterprisearchitectuur, performance management en de link tussen beiden. Het metamodel en de methode die op deze manier werden ontwikkeld, zijn daarna in de tweede stap verfijnd en aangepast aan de hand van een casestudie onderzoek bij één bedrijf. Ten slotte werd de extensie positief geëvalueerd door het betrokken casestudie bedrijf en door een externe performance management expert. 1

17 INTRODUCTION Enterprise Architecture techniques represent all elements of an enterprise (business-, information systems-, and technology-elements) in a structured way. The concept came into being because information systems grew more complex and both the importance of ICT and the alignment between ICT and business was emphasized (Sessions, 2007). Although underrepresented in literature and practice, small and medium-sized enterprises could especially benefit from enterprise architecture, as they are frequently confronted with problems caused by lack of structure and control (Bernaert & Poels, 2011b). For that reason, Bernaert and Poels (2011a) developed the CHOOSE approach, which is an acronym for keeping Control, by means of a Holistic Overview, based on Objectives and kept Simple of your Enterprise and consists of a metamodel, a method and tool support to compose an enterprise architecture model of a small or medium-sized enterprise (Bernaert, Poels, Snoeck, & De Backer, 2013). More recently, it was acknowledged that the strategy and goals (business elements) of an enterprise are the most important and as a result, enterprise architecture should start from there (Lankhorst, 2009; Ross, Weill, & Robertson, 2006). Nevertheless, current enterprise architecture approaches often do not pay sufficient attention to this area (Cardoso & Almeida, 2010). Without properly measuring the fulfilment of goals, the controlling dimension of enterprise architecture remains pointless (Matthes & Monahov, 2012). Performance management ensures the achievement of organizational goals by associating them with measures, controlling those measures and executing appropriate actions (Popova & Sharpanskykh, 2011). Managing performance has been greatly acknowledged and used by large enterprises, but once more small and medium-sized enterprises are falling behind, even though they could certainly benefit from it (Hudson, Smart, & Bourne, 2001). Since performance management facilitates the realization of goals and goals are the most important aspect of an enterprise architecture, this master thesis aims to provide a performance management system for the CHOOSE approach for enterprise architecture for small and medium-sized enterprises. Hence, both the CHOOSE metamodel and the CHOOSE method will be extended with a Performance-oriented dimension. This extension is an optional add-on for small and medium-sized enterprises that are facing increased complexities and perceive the need to measure the achievement of their goals. The extension was accomplished in three successive steps. First of all, an initial metamodel and method were built based on an extensive 2

18 literature review and on the current CHOOSE approach (Bernaert, Callaert, Poels, Snoeck, & De Backer, 2013). Secondly, this metamodel and method were extended and refined through a cyclical process of action research (by a case study research). Finally, the metamodel and method are evaluated by the case study enterprise and by a performance management expert. This master thesis is structured in five parts. Part one covers the literature review, part two raises the problem statement, part three proposes a solution, part four evaluates this solution and part five provides a general conclusion. Part one (literature review) consists of four chapters. Chapter one provides an overview of the typical characteristics of small and medium-sized enterprises. Chapter two explains the concept of enterprise architecture, accompanied by the CHOOSE approach specifically for small and medium-sized enterprises. The third chapter deals with performance management and with the specific features of performance management for small and medium-sized enterprises. The last chapter provides existing links between enterprise architecture and performance management. The second part (problem statement) of this master thesis will explain the encountered problem regarding a performance management system for the CHOOSE approach for small and medium-sized enterprises. Part three (solution) is structured in four chapters. In chapter one, an initial Performanceoriented extension to the CHOOSE metamodel and method is proposed, based on the literature review. Chapter two provides the case study as action research. First of all, the methodology is clarified, which is mainly based on the principles of action research and case study research. Afterwards, the case study is described, the case study protocol and database are provided, and the refinement process through different action research cycles is explained. Finally, chapter three will present the final solution. The fourth part of this master thesis (evaluation) contains two chapters. Chapter one describes the models that are used to evaluate the proposed solution. The participants of the case study will evaluate the extension to the CHOOSE method and metamodel based on respectively the Method Evaluation Model (Moody, 2003) and the User Evaluations Based Quality Model for Conceptual models (A. Maes & Poels, 2007). In addition, an expert will evaluate the extension based on the ten design criteria of the CHOOSE approach (Dumeez, Bernaert, & Poels, 2013). Afterwards, the results of this evaluation will be discussed in Chapter two. Finally, part five offers the overall conclusion of this master thesis, together with its limitations and recommendations for future research. 3

19 PART I: LITERATURE REVIEW INTRODUCTION LITERATURE REVIEW In order to create a Performance-oriented dimension for the current CHOOSE approach, a description of the most important concepts and developments regarding this subject is required. Therefore this master thesis starts with a literature review, divided in four chapters. In Chapter I, the most important characteristics of small and medium-sized enterprises are described, together with the specific approach required to deal with these characteristics. Chapter II explains the concept of enterprise architecture. First of all, a definition of the concept is given, followed by the positioning of enterprise architecture in information management. Subsequently, the different architectural layers and views, the ingredients of enterprise architecture and its advantages are described. Finally, the enterprise architecture technique specifically developed for small and medium-sized enterprises, namely the CHOOSE approach, is explained. Chapter III regards performance management. To start, the difference between performance management (systems) and performance measurement (systems) is clarified. Afterwards, the goal concept is described, together with a constraint on these goals (the organization structure). Next, performance measurement is elucidated, divided in two parts: the first regards key performance indicators and the second discusses several well-known performance measurement systems. Furthermore, several target, evaluation and rewards practices are mentioned. Finally, the implementation of the performance management systems is briefly explained. To conclude, Chapter IV provides the link between enterprise architecture (Chapter II) and performance management (Chapter III). First, the relationship between key performance related concepts and enterprise architecture elements is described, followed by two metamodels that currently establish this link: the EA metamodel of Braun and Winter and the unified business strategy metamodel of Giannoulis et al. 4

20 CHAPTER I: SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES According to extract of Article 2 of the Annex of Recommendation 2003/361/EC, the definition of a Small and Medium-sized Enterprise (SME) is as follows: The category of micro, small and medium-sized enterprises is made up of enterprises which employ fewer than 250 persons and which have an annual turnover not exceeding 50 million euro, and/or an annual balance sheet total not exceeding 43 million euro (European Union, 2003). SMEs have nine intrinsic characteristics that differ from large companies: (1) Employees and management have only little time for both strategic matters and performance management issues, because they are fully occupied with daily matters (Bernaert & Poels, 2011b; Tenhunen, Rantanen, & Ukko, 2001; Vichitdhanabadee, Wilmshurst, & Clift, 2009). (2) SMEs have significantly smaller resources than larger companies in terms of management, manpower and finance. This has several reasons: competitive environment, financial constraints, lack of expertise and sensitivity to external influences (Bernaert & Poels, 2011b; Hudson et al., 2001). (3) SMEs have a limited Information Technology (IT) knowledge and technical skills (Bernaert & Poels, 2011b). (4) The CEO is the central figure who determines the direction of an SME. His skills and preferences are of great importance (Bernaert & Poels, 2011b). (5) The CEO takes all the important decisions. He decides if it is a yes or a no. An SME is characterized by a very personalized management, with little devolution of authority (Bernaert & Poels, 2011b; Hudson et al., 2001). Therefore, the expected returns must exceed the risks and costs (Bernaert & Poels, 2011b; Parmenter, 2011). (6) SMEs have a large demand for know-how transfer within the enterprise (Bernaert & Poels, 2011b). (7) The strategy of an SME is often informal, non-documented, dynamic and marked by high innovatory potential. Furthermore, this strategy is mostly defined by the owner and not well communicated to the employees (Chalmeta, Palomero, & Matilla, 2012; Hudson et al., 2001). (8) An SME has no culture of using indicators for performance management (Chalmeta et al., 2012). (9) SMEs are more short-term minded than larger companies are (McAdam, 2000). 5

21 Because of these characteristics, SMEs are in need of both an appropriate Enterprise Architecture (EA) and Performance Management (PM): An appropriate EA is necessary because SMEs struggle with problems related to a lack of structure and overview of their business. However, the EA approaches created for large enterprises are too complex for SMEs (Bernaert & Poels, 2012). Furthermore, PM approaches are currently rarely completed in SMEs (Tenhunen et al., 2001), as they do not take into account the fundamental differences between SMEs and larger organizations (Garengo, Biazzo, & Bititci, 2005). Therefore, models that have been developed for large enterprises do not seem to apply well for SMEs (Cassell, Nadin, & Gray, 2001), which is confirmed by the gap between theory and practice (Cocca & Alberti, 2010) and the low adoption rate of performance measurement practices in SMEs (Garengo et al., 2005). Each of the characteristics stated above, requires a specific approach for implementing EA and PM in SMEs (Bernaert, Callaert, Poels, et al., 2013; Hudson & Smith, 2007). Day-to-day business requires working in a time-efficient manner on strategic and performance issues (1). Resource poverty requires an implementation without much assistance from external experts, and a very resource efficient development to ensure viability (2). A limited IT knowledge and technical skills require an easy, user-friendly approach, even for people with limited IT knowledge (3). CEO as central figure requires a big involvement of the CEO (4). The fact that the CEO takes the decisions requires a method where the expected returns are bigger than the expected costs (5). A big demand for knowledge sharing requires a guide of descriptions on how things are done in the company (6). Also, an informal and quickly changing strategy requires a dynamic and flexible development to accommodate strategic changes and ensure continued strategic relevance (7). The measures defined to achieve the strategy, should furthermore be easy to understand (8). Finally, both short-term as well as long-term benefits have to be established, to help maintain the enthusiasm of the team (9). 6

22 CHAPTER II: ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE 2.1 Definition of Enterprise Architecture To understand the term Enterprise Architecture, it is required to first understand the term Architecture on its own. Let s first think about the architecture of a building. The architect has to specify the spatial structure, dimensions, functions, materials, colors, etc. based on the requirements of its future owners and users, and according to the applicable regulations (Jonkers et al., 2006). When focusing on the architecture in the IT world, the definition of Architecture according to the IEEE Standard is as follows: Architecture is the fundamental organization of a system embodied in its components, their relationships to each other, and to the environment, and the principle guiding its design and evolution (IEEE Computer Society, 2000). When architecture is considered at the level of the entire enterprise, the term Enterprise Architecture (EA) is used. According to Sessions, EA means: An architecture in which the system in question is the whole enterprise, especially the business processes, technologies and information systems of the enterprise (Sessions, 2007). An important characteristic of EA is the fact that it provides a holistic view of the enterprise (Jonkers et al., 2006). This enables optimization of the company as a whole instead of doing local optimization within individual domains (Bernaert, Poels, Snoeck, & De Backer, 2014). The definitions of Architecture and EA stress that architecture is both a process and a product: it refers to both the principles used in the design process of the system in line with the business objectives and to the product of that design, in the form of a blueprint of the system and a guide for managers (Jonkers et al., 2006). 2.2 Positioning of EA: information management As the complexity of information systems (IS) has been growing rapidly, organizations are finding it more and more difficult to keep those increasingly expensive IT systems aligned with business need problems (Sessions, 2007). The need for better Business-IT alignment on both the strategic as operational level has been described by Henderson and Venkatraman in their Strategic Alignment Model (SAM) (Henderson & Venkatraman, 1993), which formed the foundation for the development of the Amsterdam Information Management (AIM) model of Maes (R. Maes, 2007). Maes emphasizes the role of information management within the organization by adding an Information & Communication column and a Structure row to the SAM (R. Maes, 2007). EA is located in the Structure level of the model (cf. Figure 1), and in this way it 7

23 takes care of business-it alignment in a structural way: it develops a consistent architecture that comprises the relationship between the business-, information/communication-, and technologyarchitecture, but also the relationship with the strategy and operations blocks (R. Maes, 2007). Figure 1: Positioning of EA in AIM (adapted from (R. Maes, 2007)) 2.3 Different architectural layers and views Information regarding an enterprise is demanded by a lot of different stakeholders, going from top-level management to software engineers, and each stakeholder requires information in another format (Jonkers et al., 2006). So when you ask Zachman (Zachman, 1987) the question What is information systems architecture?, he answers There is not an information systems architecture, but a set of them that are additive and complementary. By this he means that architecture is relative: one is not right and another wrong. What you think architecture is, depends on what you are doing (Zachman, 1987). In the aforementioned definition of EA (Sessions, 2007), it is stated that architecture covers the whole enterprise. This includes many different component types and thereby an enormous number of artefacts. As a consequence, most EA approaches distinguish several architecture layers and architecture views in order to reduce the number of artefacts per model (Schekkerman, 2004). A layered architectural framework is useful in order to represent different aspects in different models as long as overall consistency is preserved by appropriately modelling the framework s metamodel (Braun & Winter, 2005). 8

24 Wagter et al. (2005) state that the architectural layers can be grouped into three general kinds of architecture: business architecture (product/service, process and organization architecture), information architecture (data and application architecture) and technological architecture (middleware, platform and network architecture) (Wagter, Van Den Berg, Luijpers, & van Steenbergen, 2005). In the beginning of its existence, EA focused mainly on IT and its alignment with the business (as it was developed by IT researchers) (Henderson & Venkatraman, 1993), but nowadays the business architecture layer receives more attention as it is the basis where everything starts (Lankhorst, 2009; Ross et al., 2006). Four dimensions that are shared by most of the EA techniques can be distinguished in the business architecture layer: a strategic dimension (Why?), an active actor (Who?), an operation (How?), and an object (What?) (Bernaert et al., 2014). The layers are depicted in an inverted pyramid (cf. Figure 2) to demonstrate the fact that business architecture is the foundation of a good EA, and an EA technique has to start with the strategic question (Why?) (Bernaert et al., 2014). Figure 2: EA with more focus on the four core dimensions of the business architecture (from (Bernaert et al., 2014)) Many EA techniques made abstraction of the strategy in the past, although this is the most important part as different stakeholders all have different goals (M. Porter, 1985). The domain of Motivation, which can be seen as a particular viewpoint (cf. Section 2.4), has been recognized as an important element by Zachman (1987). Goal modelling explicitly captures the goals of an organization and thereby it documents the organization s strategy (Andersson et al., 2008). Despite the fundamental importance of goal modelling in EA efforts, limited attention was dedicated to explicitly representing goals and using goal-related concepts to increase the value of enterprise modelling techniques (Cardoso & Almeida, 2010). This master thesis aims to provide an extension to the CHOOSE technique (cf. Section 2.6) in order to further elaborate the domain of Motivation. Currently, some other EA techniques begin to incorporate this aspect as well: both TOGAF and ArchiMate incorporate this dimension through a motivation extension in their latest EA technique (The Open Group, 2011, 2012). The extensions in TOGAF will be briefly discussed below. 9

25 2.3.1 TOGAF The TOGAF Architecture Content framework (cf. left side Figure 3), which provides the underlying structure for the better known Architecture Development Method (ADM), contains a Content Metamodel. This metamodel is built of a core metamodel with a minimum feature set and of additional metamodel concepts to support possible extensions. Two important extensions regarding goal modelling are incorporated in the Motivation part of the Business Architecture artefacts: the Motivation Extension (Drivers, Goals and Objectives) and the Governance Extension (Measures) (The Open Group, 2011). Figure 3: Content metamodel and Motivation & Governance extension of TOGAF (from (The Open Group, 2011)) 10

26 A Driver is an external or internal condition that motivates the definition of organizational goals, while a Goal is a high-level statement of intent or direction for an organization. An Objective is a time-bounded milestone for an organization, used to demonstrate progress towards a goal. A Measure is an indicator that can be tracked, usually on an ongoing basis, to determine success or alignment with objectives and goals (The Open Group, 2011). The Motivation Extension (cf. right side Figure 3) allows additional structured modelling of the drivers, goals, and objectives that influence an organization to provide business services to its customers, and thereby permits a better measurement of performance. The Governance Extension supports in-depth operational governance, by allowing additional structured data to be held against objectives. The extension permits to apply measures to objectives (The Open Group, 2011). 2.4 Ingredients of EA Obtaining a good EA technique requires several indispensable ingredients (Jonkers, Proper, & Turner, 2009; The Open Group, 2003), which can be represented in an elementary bow tie model of EA (cf. Figure 4). Process Viewpoints Language Repository, (Reference) Models Figure 4: Bow-tie model of EA (adapted from (Tavernier & Poels, 2012)) The ingredients are: A Process (or method) that is the methodology for creating architectures consisting of guidelines, techniques, and best practices; A set or classification of Viewpoints that define the perspectives relevant for different stakeholders; A Language that describes the EA based on both a metamodel as the corresponding notation; and 11

27 A Repository that stores the architectural artefacts and possibly contains predefined reference models. The bow tie model permits EA proposals to be evaluated in terms of which ingredients are covered and how well they are supported and furthermore permits different approaches to be integrated (Tavernier & Poels, 2012). An EA framework is a multidimensional classification schema that helps ensuring the completeness of the EA (The Open Group, 2011). It is a communication model for developing an EA (Schekkerman, 2004) and a tool which can be used for developing a broad range of different architectures (The Open Group, 2011). It contains a set of models, principles, services, approaches, standards, design concepts, components, visualizations and configurations that guide the developments of specific aspect of architectures (Schekkerman, 2004, p. 91). 2.5 Advantages of EA An organization will only implement an EA approach if the expected benefits of the project exceed the expected costs (Bernaert et al., 2014). Some possible benefits of an EA are: EA approaches enable strategic business goals via better operational excellence (Ross et al., 2006). The enterprise architect takes the desires of every stakeholder into consideration when making the mutual architecture, and thereby all the stakeholders agree with it (Bernaert & Poels, 2011a). On the one hand, the architect produces a general overview of the most important domains of the enterprise, but on the other hand also makes it possible to only have a look at a little part of this overview, without any irrelevant details by means of different viewpoints. A person from the marketing department for example, may only need an overview of the products and the specific customer group (Bernaert & Poels, 2011a). The different viewpoints can be used as documentation (Bernaert & Poels, 2011a). By capturing the goals of an enterprise the Motivation viewpoint manages business improvements, as changes in a company s strategy have significant consequences within all organizational domains (Yu, 2011). The reproduction and the interdependence between the elements of EA may serve for analyses and optimization of the enterprise and for performing an impact-analysis of changes as well (Bernaert & Poels, 2011a). 12

28 2.6 EA for SMEs: the CHOOSE Approach Bernaert and Poels answered to the need of SMEs for EA by creating the CHOOSE approach according to Einstein s principle: Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler (Bernaert & Poels, 2012). CHOOSE is an acronym for keeping Control, by means of a Holistic Overview, based on Objectives and kept Simple of your Enterprise (cf. Figure 5). This acronym contains all the important criteria of a good EA technique (Dumeez et al., 2013): (1) Control: Controlling the complexity of the enterprise; (2) Holistic Overview: the EA has to capture the essentials of the enterprise (more stable); (3) Objectives: Translation from corporate strategy to daily operations; (4) kept Simple is the translation of Suitability for its target audience (here: SMEs): it should be understood by all those involved; (5) Enterprise: Optimizations of the company as a whole, instead of doing local optimization within individual domains. The fourth criterion Suitable for target audience (SME) is divided in six SME-related criteria (cf. Chapter I). Figure 5: Overview evaluation criteria for an EA technique for SMEs (adapted from (Ingelbeen, Bernaert, & Poels, 2013)) The approach is based on four integrated models (cf. Figure 6) to frame the business architecture of an enterprise. The four models correspond with the four dimensions of business architecture stated in Section 2.3: a strategic goal dimension (Know-Why), an active actor 13

29 dimension (Know-Who), an operation dimension (Know-How), and an object dimension (Know- What). The relationships between those models are indispensable as well (Bernaert & Poels, 2011a). Figure 6: Structure of the four integrated models (from (Bernaert & Poels, 2011a)) The CHOOSE approach is built of three artefacts: the CHOOSE metamodel, the CHOOSE method and the CHOOSE tool support CHOOSE Metamodel The metamodel was built as a first artefact of the CHOOSE approach in compliance with the Language ingredient of a good EA (cf. Section 2.4) (Jonkers et al., 2009). It consists of metaconcepts, -relationships, -attributes, and constraints. The development of the metamodel is a continuous trade-off between simplicity (adapted to the SME context) and completeness (EA criteria) (Bernaert, Poels, et al., 2013). In Figure 7 the current CHOOSE metamodel is displayed, which has been developed through several case studies (Bernaert, Callaert, & Poels, 2013; Bernaert et al., 2014). This metamodel will serve as the starting point for the development of the Performance-oriented extension of the CHOOSE metamodel. The CHOOSE metamodel blends the three EA layers (business, IS, IT) by providing Actors for each layers (Human Actor / Role, Software Actor, Device) and enables the other three viewpoints to be related to it. Goals, Operations and Objects could also originate from the three different EA layers, however no explicit specialization is needed for this (Bernaert, Poels, et al., 2013). 14

30 Figure 7: Current CHOOSE metamodel (from (Bernaert, Callaert, Poels, et al., 2013)) CHOOSE Method As a second artefact, the CHOOSE method was developed in accordance with the process ingredient of a good EA (cf. Section 2.4) (Jonkers et al., 2009). The CHOOSE method supports the CHOOSE metamodel and contains step-by-step guidelines, best practices and heuristics (Bernaert, Callaert, & Poels, 2013). It is built around two popular frameworks, the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) (Kaplan & Norton, 1992) and Porter s Value Chain (M. Porter, 1985), and consists of three parts: a six step Roadmap-Method, a three step Interview-Method and four Stop-Criteria (Bernaert, Callaert, & Poels, 2013). These can be found in Appendix 1. This method will serve as the starting point for the development of the Performance-oriented extension of the CHOOSE method CHOOSE Tool Support Implementing the CHOOSE tool support lowers the threshold and increases the rate of adoption of the CHOOSE approach for organizations (Bernaert, Callaert, & Poels, 2013). Several CHOOSE tool supports have been developed already (Dumeez et al., 2013; Ingelbeen et al., 2013; J. Maes, Poels, & Bernaert, 2013; Otte, Poels, & Bernaert, 2013; Puylaert, Bernaert, & Poels, 2013; Verhulst, Bernaert, & Poels, 2013; Zutterman, Bernaert, & Poels, 2013). The CHOOSE tool support goes beyond the research domain of this master thesis. 15

31 CHAPTER III: PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Companies are currently competing in a globalized and competitive market, where customer demand is changing rapidly (Nudurupati & Bititci, 2011). Furthermore, quality assurance has been an important issue for some time, and the power of IT cannot be underestimated (Neely, 1999). In order to survive in a dynamic environment, companies need to be able to satisfy all their stakeholders and simultaneously excel along all performance dimensions (Neely, Adams, & Kennerley, 2002). Performance indicates the possibility of achieving a future successful implementation of actions in order to reach the postulated objectives and targets (Lebas, 1995). 3.1 Performance Measurement and Performance Management Performance Measurement (System) A requirement to achieve high performance standards is being able to effectively measure and monitor a company s performance (Cocca & Alberti, 2010). Performance Measurement is defined as the process of quantifying the efficiency and effectiveness of actions (Neely et al., 2002). Measurement is useful for an organization in three ways (Amaratunga & Baldry, 2002): (1) It provides the basis for an organization to assess how well it is progressing towards its predetermined objectives, (2) It helps to identify areas that need attention, and (3) It determines future initiatives to enhance organizational performance. To deal with the changing environment, it is furthermore required to have up-to-date and accurate performance information, i.e. information that is integrated, dynamic, accessible and visible to support fast decision-making (Nudurupati & Bititci, 2011). For that reason, a Performance Measurement System (PMES) is created. A PMES is a balanced and dynamic system that gathers, elaborates an analyses information to support the decision-making process (Neely et al., 2002). 16

32 3.1.2 Performance Management (System) Performance Management (PM) aligns performance with strategy (Eckerson, 2009). According to Amaratunga and Baldry (2002) PM uses performance measurement information to change the organizational culture, systems and processes in a positive direction by helping to set agreed-upon performance goals, assigning and prioritizing resources, informing managers to either confirm or change current policy or program directions to meet these goals, and sharing results of performance in pursuing those goals (Amaratunga & Baldry, 2002). Eckerson (2009) describes PM in a virtuous cycle. This cycle (cf. Figure 8) contains four steps: creating strategy, creating plans, monitoring the execution of those plans, and adjusting activity and objectives to achieve strategic goals. This four-step wheel turns around integrated data and metrics, which provide a measurement framework that measures the efficiency and effectiveness of strategic and management processes (Eckerson, 2009; Neely et al., 2002). Figure 8: The PM Cycle (from (Eckerson, 2009)) The relation between Performance Measurement and Management can be described through an iterative process (cf. Figure 9): management both precedes and follows measurement in an upward spiral, hereby creating the context for measurement (Lebas, 1995). 17

33 Figure 9: Performance Management and Measurement are closely intertwined (adapted from (Lebas, 1995)) A Performance Management System (PMAS) is the philosophy supported by performance measurement: the vision, teamwork, training and incentives that surround the performance measurement activity throughout the entire organization (Lebas, 1995). Ferreira and Otley declare a more elaborated definition by describing PMASs as the evolving formal and informal mechanisms, processes, systems, and networks used by organizations for conveying the key objectives and goals elicited by management, for assisting the strategic process and ongoing management through analysis, planning, measurement, control, rewarding, and broadly managing performance, and for supporting and facilitating organizational learning and change (Ferreira & Otley, 2009, p. 264). PMASs cover the definition, control and management of both the achievement of outcomes as well as the means used to achieve those results (Broadbent & Laughlin, 2009). Ferreira and Otley (2009) developed a PMAS framework (cf. Figure 10) that aims to provide a broad view of the key aspects of a PMAS and that can be used as a descriptive tool to outline the main features of the system in a comprehensive manner. The framework consists of twelve questions that have brought a significant comprehension in the various aspects of PMASs design and use, and that describe the following concepts: (1) Vision and Mission, (2) Key Success Factors, (3) Organization Structure, (4) Strategies and Plans, (5) Key Performance Measures, (6) Target Setting, (7) Performance Evaluation, (8) Reward Systems, (9) Information Flows, Systems, and Networks, (10) PMASs Use, (11) PMASs Change, and (12) Strength and Coherence (Ferreira & Otley, 2009). 18

34 Figure 10: The Performance Management Systems framework (adapted from (Ferreira & Otley, 2009)) The questions are presented as a heuristic tool to enable the rapid description of the significant aspects of PMASs design and operation, and are not imposing a normative framework (Ferreira & Otley, 2009). Furthermore, Ferreira and Otley state that contextual factors and organizational culture should be taken into consideration as well, even if only implicitly. Broadbent and Laughlin (2009) extend these contextual factors and organizational culture in their framework. The remainder of this chapter will be structured according to this framework. First of all, the questions regarding the PMAS design (Q1 to Q8 in Figure 10) will be split into three parts: Section 3.2 first describes the goal questions (Q1, Q2 and Q4 in Figure 10) and the constraint question (Q3 in Figure 10), Section 3.3 takes care of the performance measures (Q5 in Figure 10), and Section 3.4 finishes with the performance target, evaluation and reward practices (Q6, Q7 and Q8 in Figure 10). Afterwards, Section 3.5 briefly deals with the questions regarding the implementation of the PMAS (Q9 to Q12 in Figure 10). Before continuing, the benefits of PM and PMASs in SMEs will be shortly described. 19

35 3.1.3 Advantages of Performance Management (Systems) in SMEs PM has many advantages for SMEs, provided that it is properly adapted to their specific needs (Garengo et al., 2005): PM helps to formalize and communicate the organizational strategy and align the operational activities with the strategy of the SME (Garengo et al., 2005). This is particularly important, as SMEs frequently have informal and non-documented strategies (cf. Chapter I, characteristic (7)). PM makes it easier to decentralize decisions (Hudson et al., 2001). This is essential as well, as the CEO of an SME currently takes all the decisions by himself (cf. Chapter I, characteristic (5)). PM improves the integration of the company s IS (Bititci, Turner, & Begemann, 2000). This integration reduces the costs of implementation, which corresponds with the limited financial resources of SMEs (cf. Chapter I, characteristic (2)). PM takes into account different perspectives of analysis in a balanced framework (Tenhunen et al., 2001). This allows defining a proper strategy (cf. Chapter I, characteristics (1) and (7)). PM is dynamically adaptable to the changing internal and external environment of the SME (Bititci et al., 2000), which also corresponds with the dynamic strategy (cf. Chapter I, characteristic (7)). A PMAS can only be effectively implemented and used if SMEs understand the benefits of it, yet this is often not the case (Hudson et al., 2001). Therefore, a PMAS should respond to the specific needs of SMEs, be efficient and easy to understand, and clearly state the benefits (Garengo et al., 2005). The need to make a PMAS simple and easy to use should nevertheless not compromise the completeness of a system, as would be the case if only single measures were used or if PMAS models developed for big companies were purely simplified for SMEs by reducing the number of measures without maintaining the holistic vision of the original architecture (McAdam, 2000). This once more corresponds with Einstein s principle (cf. Section 2.6): Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler. When establishing a PMAS for the CHOOSE approach in PART III, these constraints should be taken into account. 20

36 3.2 Goals Vision, Mission and Values Ferreira & Otley (2009) ask the following question in their twelve-question framework: Question one: What is the vision and mission of the organization and how is this brought to the attention of managers and employees? What mechanisms, processes, and networks are used to convey the organization s overarching purposes and objectives to its members? A mission shapes the overall purpose of the organization in line with the values or expectations of stakeholders (Johnson, Scholes, & Whittington, 2008, p. 9). It is a guiding light that may never be reached for the organization and can remain the same for decades (Parmenter, 2011). A vision sets out the aspiration of the organization and is also called the desired future state (Johnson et al., 2008). The vision describes what the organization will achieve if it is successful, and has a more specific future state and time-frame compared to the mission (Parmenter, 2011). Values are what the organization stands for (Parmenter, 2011), they determine the boundaries in which a strategy can be developed (Johnson et al., 2008). Parmenter (2011) developed a framework (cf. Figure 11) that resembles the first five questions of Ferreira and Otley s twelve-questions framework (cf. Figure 10). The framework also starts by a mission and vision (and values) statement, and incorporates critical success factors and strategies as well. Figure 11: Journey from a Mission and Vision to performance measures that work (from (Parmenter, 2011)) 21

37 3.2.2 Critical Success Factors Ferreira & Otley (2009) ask the following question in their twelve-question framework: Question two: What are the key factors that are believed to be central to the organization s overall future success and how are they brought to the attention of managers and employees? Critical Success Factors (CSFs) translate the mission and the vision of an organization into more concrete and time specific terms (Ferreira & Otley, 2009). They determine the health, vitality and well-being of an organization and stipulate on which areas the organization has to perform well (Parmenter, 2011). PM would not make sense without defining clear CSFs, since performance measurement, monitoring and reporting would be random processes (Parmenter, 2011). Parmenter (2011) states that a perfect number of CSFs is five to eight regardless of the organization s size, although at first sight many more could have been found. The selection of the CSFs is a very subjective exercise and the effectiveness and usefulness of the chosen CSFs is highly dependent on the degree of analytical skill of those involved (Parmenter, 2011). A technique to find the success factors that are most critical to the organization is mapping cause-and-effect relationships between the different success factors (Parmenter, 2011). This could be done by Strategy Mapping (cf. Section ) (Kaplan & Norton, 2004). When linking a CSF to Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) (cf. Section 3.3.1), one CSF may need several KPIs (Brooks & Chittenden, 2012; Parmenter, 2011). The contribution of each KPI to the realization of the CSF can differ (Pourshahid, Amyot, Chen, Weiss, & Forster, 2007) Strategies and Plans Ferreira & Otley (2009) ask the following question in their twelve-question framework: Question four: What strategies and plans has the organization adopted and what are the processes and activities that it has decided will be required for it to ensure its success? How are strategies and plans adapted, generated and communicated to managers and employees? Strategy describes the way an organization wants to achieve its vision and objectives and wants to obtain a competitive advantage (Parmenter, 2011). A strategy consists of both a strategy formulation and a strategy implementation (Henderson & Venkatraman, 1993). The first regards choices concerning which path to take to achieve the organization s objectives, while the latter ensures that the chosen road is followed and monitored to deliver the desired outcomes 22

38 (Mintzberg, Lampel, Quinn, & Ghoshal, 2003). Strategy implementation and communication are frequently underdeveloped in an organization (Ferreira & Otley, 2009). As the establishment of strategic goals and the development of their respective action plans are the most critical steps in the management process, it is essential to write meaningful and effective goals (Doran, 1981). It has been proven that specific and challenging goals lead to better task performance than vague or easy goals (Locke & Latham, 1990). Doran (1981) emphasized the fact that there is a SMART way to write management s goals and objectives. The most common meaning of a SMART goal is one that is Specific (target a specific area for improvement rather than a general one), Measurable (obtain concrete criteria for measuring progress towards the attainment of the goal), Attainable (create realistic and achievable goals), Relevant (choose goals that matter), and Time-bound (specify when the results can be achieved within a time-frame) (P. Meyer, 2003). The acronym does not imply that every objective will have all five criteria, but the closer a company gets to the SMART criteria as a guideline, the smarter the objectives will be (Doran, 1981). Sometimes two extra criteria, namely Evaluated and Reviewed (or Recorded), are added to ensure that targets will not be forgotten, and thereby SMART becomes SMARTER (Markovic & Kowalkiewicz, 2008; Yemm, 2012). Many organizations act in the wrong direction by adapting their strategies to their existing and established measurement instruments. However, the development of KPIs should start with the strategy and the goals an organization wants to fulfil (Marr, 2012) Organization Structure Ferreira & Otley (2009) ask the following question in their twelve-question framework: Question three: What is the organization structure and what impact does it have on the design and use of PMASs? How does it influence and how is it influenced by the strategic management process? The organization structure is linked with both the CSFs and the strategic decisions (Ferreira & Otley, 2009). It can be seen as a constraint on the strategic management process and the design and use of PMASs, as it is an essential control element that should be taken into account in the design and implementation phase (Ferreira & Otley, 2009). Organization structures determine who is responsible and accountable for which activities (Ferreira & Otley, 2009). They can be classified on many ways, such as the degree of centralization or decentralization of authority, the level of differentiation or standardization, and the degree of formalization of rules and procedures (Johnson et al., 2008). 23

39 3.2.5 Goals and Organization Structure in SMEs Employees and management of SMEs have only little time for strategic issues, because they are fully occupied with daily matters (cf. Chapter I, characteristic (1)). Thereby, PM initiatives are mostly introduced to solve a specific problem (Hudson et al., 2001). Nevertheless SMEs work in a dynamic and rapidly changing environment, so their strategies have to be responsive and be able to change quickly (Rompho, 2011). Defining the strategy should therefore be the first step in designing a PMAS (Tenhunen et al., 2001). The organizational structure of an SME is typically defined by its size, competitive position and individual management practices, which all greatly differ from larger companies (Hudson et al., 2001). Due to the limited resources in SMEs, significant difficulties can arise during the implementation of a resource intensive system (McAdam, 2000). To overcome these structural difficulties, the development process of the PMAS for the CHOOSE approach for SMEs in PART III should offer the following features (Hudson & Smith, 2007): Very resource efficient development to ensure viability (cf. Chapter I, characteristic (2)); Short-term as well as long-term benefits, to help maintain the enthusiasm of the developments team over time (cf. Chapter I, characteristic (9)); The ability to surface informal strategies to overcome limited strategic capabilities (Chapter I, characteristic (7)); and Dynamic and flexible development to accommodate strategic changes and ensure continued strategic relevance (cf. Chapter I, characteristic (7)). 3.3 Performance Measurement To start, Section will cover the theory of Key Performance Indicators. Afterwards in Section 3.3.2, six well-known PMESs will be discussed, followed by three systems especially developed for SMEs Key Performance Indicators Concept and Advantages Ferreira & Otley (2009) ask the following question in their twelve-question framework: Question five: What are the organization s key performance measures deriving from its objectives, key success factors, and strategies and plans? How are these specified and communicated and what role do they play in performance evaluation? Are there significant omissions? 24

40 The difference between a regular measure and a Key Performance Indicator (KPI) (or Key Performance Measure) is that the latter embodies a strategic objective and measures performance against a multidimensional target (Eckerson, 2009). A performance measure can only be a KPI if it is linked to a CSF and a strategic objective of the organization (Parmenter, 2011). According to Ferreira and Otley (2009), KPIs are the financial or non-financial measures used at different levels in organizations to evaluate success in achieving their objectives, CSFs, strategies and plans, and thus satisfying the expectations of different stakeholders. Appropriate performance measures therefore have to be identified during the strategic implementation process and have to be derived from the organization s objectives, CSFs, and strategies and plans (Johnson et al., 2008). Furthermore, they need to facilitate the alignment between strategy and operations (Ferreira & Otley, 2009). In Figure 12, a typical example of a KPI is given. Figure 12: Example of a KPI (from (Niven, 2006)) The power of a complete set of KPIs is that they can not only illuminate where the organization is today, but also project where the organization will be and provide visibility into where key individuals can participate to correct the followed road of the organization if the forward looking KPIs are off track (Paulen & Finken, 2009). Nevertheless, some caution has to be taken as well. Measurement can become a source of division and conflict between managers and employees, because these initiatives are often seen as managerial control devices that are solely beneficial for management. As follows, the measurement could have the adverse effect (Parmenter, 2011). 25

41 Characteristics In this section, an overview is given of the characteristics of KPIs necessary to facilitate positive change and to create desired outcomes. These characteristics will be taken into account during the establishment of the Performance-oriented extension of the CHOOSE approach in PART III. A comprehensive review of literature was undertaken by Neely et al. (1997) which resulted in a set of twenty-two characteristics of KPIs (Neely, Richards, Mills, Platts, & Bourne, 1997). Yet, Hudson et al. (2001) revealed that many of the characteristics were duplicates and they reduced the set to seven critical characteristics. These seven characteristics are found in most other literature (for instance (Band, 1990; Eckerson, 2009; Neely et al., 2002; Niven, 2006; Parmenter, 2011)). Nevertheless, some important characteristics are not mentioned by Hudson et al (2001), and are added here as well. KPIs should: (1) Be derived from strategy (Hudson et al., 2001); (2) Be clearly defined with an explicit purpose (Hudson et al., 2001); (3) Be relevant and easy to maintain (Hudson et al., 2001); (4) Be simple to understand and use (Hudson et al., 2001); (5) Provide fast and accurate feedback (Hudson et al., 2001); (6) Link operations to strategic goals (Hudson et al., 2001); (7) Stimulate continuous improvement (Hudson et al., 2001); (8) Have top management support (Band, 1990); (9) Be reliable, valid and attributable to the source (Chang & Morgan, 2001; Eckerson, 2009); (10) Be stated in a challenging target (Chang & Morgan, 2001); (11) All together give a balanced or multidimensional picture of the company (Cocca & Alberti, 2010). Characteristics in SMEs The same characteristics were found for SMEs in literature (Chalmeta et al., 2012; Cocca & Alberti, 2010; Garengo et al., 2005; Hudson et al., 2001; Nudurupati & Bititci, 2011; Rompho, 2011). One extra characteristic is added by Cocca and Alberti (2010): the required data for the measure should be easy to collect. 26

42 Attributes Not only goals should be written in a SMART way (cf. Section 3.2.3), but KPI attributes should also be represented the same way (Shahin & Mahbod, 2007). After extensive research, Cardoso (2013a) discovered that a KPI requires the following attributes: (1) Name and Description, (2) Scale (determines the measurement scale for the KPI, where different scales exist), (3) Measure (determines how the KPI values are calculated), (4) Current Value, (5) Target Value, (6) Threshold (represents the deviation in relation to the target value that is acceptable for the current value to reach), (7) Source (the internal or external sources used to extract the performance indicators), (8) Frequency (frequency of KPI measurement during a specific time interval), (9) Responsible, (10) Informed, and (11) Owned. The last three attributes link the KPI to the organizational structure (cf. Section 3.2.4): who is in charge of measuring the KPI (Responsible), who is somehow interested in the KPI (Informed), and who is responsible for the achievement (Owned). A KPI meets the SMART criteria by incorporating attributes three (Specific and Measurable) and five (Achievable), and by being related to a goal (Relevant) and deadline (Time-targeted). To decide whether these attributes will be implemented in the Performance-oriented extension of the CHOOSE approach (cf. PART III), their usefulness will be evaluated taking into account the intrinsic characteristics of SMEs Classification Outcome versus Driver KPI KPIs are frequently divided into two fundamental types: outcomes and drivers (Eckerson, 2009). Outcome KPIs, also called lagging indicators, measure the output of past activity (Eckerson, 2009). These are results of many actions and give a clear picture of whether an enterprise is doing fine or not, but they do not indicate how to improve these results (Parmenter, 2011). They are often financial in nature (Eckerson, 2009) and are reported typically on a monthly/quarterly basis (Parmenter, 2011). Frequently used examples are net profit before tax, margins, return on 27

43 equity, return on capital employed, customer satisfaction, and employee retention (Eckerson, 2009; Parmenter, 2011). Driver KPIs, also called leading indicators or value drivers, measure activities that have a significant impact on outcome KPIs (Eckerson, 2009). They are reported on a shorter time period (weekly, daily or even continuously) (Parmenter, 2011). Driver KPIs always measure activity in their current or future state (Eckerson, 2009). Although driver KPIs are more influential as outcome KPIs, the latter are currently used twice as much in practice (Eckerson, 2009). However, the use of driver KPIs is currently becoming more and more important. According to Gartner Inc. organizations that use predictive business performance metrics will increase their profitability by twenty percent by Using historical measures to gauge business and process performance is a thing of the past. To prevail in challenging market conditions, businesses need predictive metrics also known as "leading indicators" rather than just historical metrics (aka lagging indicators)." (Gartner, 2014) On a strategic level, executives fulfil strategy and manage performance (Eckerson, 2009). As outcome KPIs show the result of many actions and give a clear picture of whether you are doing fine are not, these are perfect here (Eckerson, 2009; Parmenter, 2011). Lower levels on the other hand, want to know more about the causes of good or bad practices, and want to optimize the performance of people and processes: they need both short- and long-term information (Eckerson, 2009; Parmenter, 2011). Hence, managers on a tactical level need both outcome and driver KPIs. On an operational level, the staff monitors and controls processes on an intraday basis, and therefore they need driver KPIs and operational measures (that do not contribute to strategy) (Eckerson, 2009). There has been some discussion about the difference between outcome and driver KPIs. Eckerson (2009) argues that there is not a lot of difference, because an outcome KPI of one person could be the driver KPI of the next one (Eckerson, 2009). Parmenter (2011) makes use of different names. He states that KPIs only cover leading indicators and gives a different name, i.e. Key Result Indicators (KRI), to lagging indicators (Parmenter, 2011). He specifies four types of performance measures and makes a comparison with an onion (cf. Figure 13) to describe their relationship: The outside skin describes the overall condition of the onion (KRI), the amount of sun, water, and nutrients it has received; how it has been handled from harvest to supermarket shelf. However, as we peel the layers off the onion, we find more information. The layers represent the various Performance Indicators (PIs) and Result Indicators (RIs), and the core represents the KPIs (Parmenter, 2011, p. 1). 28

44 Figure 13: Four types of performance measures (from (Parmenter, 2011)) Qualitative versus Quantitative KPI Another possible way to classify KPIs is by making the distinction between qualitative and quantitative KPIs. Quantitative KPIs measure activity by counting, adding, or averaging numbers, such as financial KPIs (Eckerson, 2009). Quantitative data is most common in measurement and therefore forms the backbone of most KPIs (The KPI Institute, 2014). Qualitative KPIs are based on a subjective understanding of an opinion of an organizational participant on various issues, such as a KPI on customer satisfaction (Eckerson, 2009). While the survey data itself is quantitative, the measures are based on a subjective interpretation of a customer s or employee s opinion (The KPI Institute, 2014) Development and Use Parmenter (2011) developed a twelve-step model to develop and use KPIs. It is crucial to create a sound environment in which the organization can develop and use its KPIs, but many organizations still fail to do this properly, because they do not prepare themselves correctly (Eckerson, 2009; Parmenter, 2011). Therefore, using a methodology in developing and implementing KPIs is essential (Eckerson, 2009). Step one involves having the Senior Management Team (SMT) fully committed, which will create a dynamic environment in which projects can prosper. Secondly, a small, well-trained winning KPI project team with a large consultative value has to be established. As a third step, the SMT and winning KPI project team have to create a just-do-it culture and process, which will stimulate people that they can do it without only relying on experts. Fourthly, the KPI project needs to be placed in a holistic strategy to achieve best practice. Step five contains advertising the KPI system to all employees to make sure they are ready for the changes KPIs will bring in the organization. The CSFs are identified in step six. Step seven contains recording performance measures in a database. In step eight, performance measures on a team-level are 29

45 selected. Afterwards, the organizational KPIs will be chosen in step nine. A proper alignment between lower and higher level KPIs is essential and will therefore be separately discussed in Section In step ten, a reporting framework has to be developed, which accommodates the requirements and reporting frequencies at different levels. Step eleven makes sure that the KPIs become widespread in an organization and not buried when staff members move on. Finally, step twelve covers the notion of managing and refreshing the measurement system so that it remains relevant and useful. Development in SMEs Parmenter (2011) argues that for SMEs the twelve steps can be truncated and merged into eight steps, with a shorter timeframe (from twelve to six weeks) (cf. Figure 14). To start, step one and four are merged. Secondly, Parmenter declares that a two-day CSF workshop would help selling the concept of PM and delivering CSFs to the management and board (step one and six). Even if the PM project would be cancelled, the workshop would attribute a lot. Thirdly, step two and three are merged. Subsequently, step five, seven and eight are merged. Finally, step nine, ten, eleven and twelve are established separately. Figure 14: PM implementation model for SMEs (from (Parmenter, 2011)) Alignment of KPIs on different levels: the cascading concept Performance measures are used on every level of the organization and every level needs different measures (as explained in Section ). The effectiveness of a measurement system depends on the clear alignment between the measures on these different levels (Chang & Morgan, 2001; Eckerson, 2009; Parmenter, 2011). This alignment process is mostly known through the concept of cascading (Chang & Morgan, 2001; Eckerson, 2009): KPIs cascade from the highest level to the lower levels of the organization, ensuring an aligned organization 30

46 (Eckerson, 2009). Once these cascading measures have been defined, they have to be mapped in order to collectively view the relationships among all the KPIs and their impact on each other (Eckerson, 2009). This results in a well-balanced and coherent view of the measures and a correct measure for every responsibility (Chang & Morgan, 2001). Eckerson s study (2009) revealed that most organizations use two (30%), three (29%) or four (16%) levels of cascading. Several types of cascading KPIs exist; Eckerson (2009) distinguishes four types. Generally, the high-level KPIs are duplicated at lower levels. Going to a higher-level, KPIs are either summed or averaged, and sometimes weighted averages or Boolean rules are used. Financial measures are for instance mostly duplicated. A derived KPI is another method to cascade: a higher and lower level KPI measure the same activity, but in different way. When different regions in a global company for instance calculate their net sales differently, their calculations are synchronized into one coherent KPI at a higher level. Thirdly, conglomerate KPIs comprise two or more lower-level KPIs that are summed or averaged. The research and development expenses KPI can for example be decomposed of the total research expenses KPI and the total development expenses KPI. Finally, unique KPIs are measures that only exist at one level. Considered from a different point of view, Popova and Sharpanskykh (2011) identify three other types of relationships between KPIs: causality, correlation and aggregation. A causality relation expresses that the first KPI causes changes in the same or opposite direction to the second KPI. A refinement relation between goals often corresponds with a causality relation between the corresponding KPIs. A correlation relation expresses that a change in one KPI implies a change in the same direction of the other KPI. An aggregation relationship corresponds with the conglomerate relation stated above. Another frequently used link is the customized relationship, which enables the qualification of further customized relations (Cardoso, 2013b; Frank, Heise, Kattenstroth, & Schauer, 2008). Cascading KPIs has three essential benefits. First of all, it permits executives to obtain an overall view of performance across all groups and levels of performance. As a result, they can monitor the execution of the strategy and intervene as needed (Eckerson, 2009). Furthermore, employees at all levels will be able to understand how their efforts contribute to the whole (Eckerson, 2009), which has an empowering and motivating effect, and ensures team ownership of their performance measures (Parmenter, 2011). Thirdly, it stimulates friendly competition among peer groups within an organization, which can improve productivity (Eckerson, 2009). 31

47 Alignment in SMEs SMEs usually do not have the capacity to identify, design and quantify indicators in an integrated way. Thereby, they are unable to establish relations among the indicators from the strategic to the operational level and aligning them with the strategy of the enterprise (Chalmeta et al., 2012; Hudson et al., 2001) Number of KPIs on different levels Defining the number of KPIs is an important issue, because the time of managers is limited and more measures reduce the impact of each single measure (Ferreira & Otley, 2009). Kaplan & Norton (1996a) recommend a maximum of twenty-five performance measures in their Balanced Scorecard (explained in Section ). Parmenter (2011) advises a guiding rule of ten lagging KPIs, eighty PIs and RIs and ten leading KPIs. According to a study that Eckerson performed (2009), most people can only focus on a maximum of five to seven items at once and only a handful of metrics really impacts the desired outcomes. Therefore, he suggests that the number of KPIs at the individual level should be limited to that number. Eckerson s study (2009) furthermore revealed that in practice on average sixteen KPIs exist at the executive level, twenty-two at the business unit level, twenty-four at the department and workgroup levels, and ten at the individual level Performance Measurement System A PMES establishes a sound environment in which KPIs can operate and develop (Parmenter, 2011). As mentioned in Section 3.1.1, the PMES has to be balanced and dynamic and should support the decision-making process by gathering, elaborating and analyzing information (Neely et al., 2002). Since the late 1980s and 90s, many academics have criticized the problems with the former financial measurement systems, as they give an internal and historically based view of the company (Kaplan & Norton, 1992; Keegan, Eiler, & Jones, 1989; Neely et al., 1997; Nudurupati & Bititci, 2011). Traditional financial performance measures, which worked well for the previous economic era dominated by tangible assets, were out of step at the end of the 20 th century, when intangible assets became the major source of competitive advantage (Kaplan & Norton, 1992). Exclusive reliance on financial indicators could promote behavior that sacrifices long-term value creation for short-term performance (M. E. Porter & Summers, 1992). Furthermore, the level of financial performance achieved today is a function of decisions made in the past (Neely 32

48 et al., 2002). As a result, many companies started to recognize non-financial measures such as quality, customer satisfaction, and innovation (Nudurupati & Bititci, 2011). From that moment on, the number of PMESs boomed. According to Neely (1999), from 1994 to 1996 there were more than 3600 articles published on Performance Measurement. The PMESs that contributed the most in literature and practice are discussed in the following paragraphs, divided in six general PMESs and three specifically for SMEs. In PART III, one of these PMESs will be chosen as the foundation for the Performance-oriented extension of the CHOOSE approach, based on their specific advantages and disadvantages The Performance Measurement Matrix The Performance Measurement Matrix is one of the first balanced models helping a company define its strategic objectives and translating these objectives into performance measures through a hierarchical and integrated approach (Keegan et al., 1989). Cost/non-cost perspectives and external/internal perspectives are combined in a two-by-two matrix. The matrix is cited for its simplicity and flexibility, but frequently criticized in literature as well as it does not consider several important perspectives and relationships that are made explicit in other models, such as the Balanced Scorecard (cf. Section ) (Neely et al., 2002) The Strategic Measurement And Reporting Technique The Strategic Measurement And Reporting Technique (SMART) pyramid also incorporates the need for both internally and externally focused measures of performance. It adds the notion of cascading measures down the organization so that measures at department level reflect the corporate vision and internal and external business unit objectives (Cross & Lynch, 1991) The Result and Determinants Framework The Result and Determinants Framework focuses on six dimensions, divided into results and determinants of those results. The framework emphasizes the careful definition of performance indicators needed to achieve the performance objectives and is developed especially for service companies (Fitzgerald, Johnson, Brignall, Silvestro, & Voss, 1991) The Balanced Scorecard In 1992, Kaplan and Norton discovered that managers needed a balanced presentation of both financial measures (results of actions already taken) and operational measures (drivers of future financial performance) and introduced a Balanced Score Card (BSC): a set of measures that gives top managers a fast but comprehensive view of the business. The BSC delivers the 33

49 framework for the translation of the strategy to operational terms (Kaplan & Norton, 1996a) (cf. Figure 15). For example, it demands that managers translate their general mission statement on customer service into specific measures that reflect the factors that really matter to customers (Kaplan & Norton, 1992). The BSC puts strategy, mission and vision at the center instead of control, and the objectives and measures are always deducted from these concepts (Kaplan & Norton, 1996a). The BSC establishes goals, but assumes that people will adopt whatever behaviors and take whatever actions needed to arrive to those goals (Kaplan & Norton, 1992). The BSC provides an answer to four basic questions, classified in four perspectives (Kaplan & Norton, 1992): (1) Financial Perspective: How do we look to shareholders? (2) Customer Perspective: How do customers see us? (3) Internal Processes Perspective: What business processes must we excel at? (4) Learning and Innovation Perspective: Can we continue to improve and create value? Figure 15: Using the Balanced Scorecard as a strategic management system (adapted from (Kaplan & Norton, 1996b)) 34

50 The BSC includes both the lagging indicators of (1) financial performance and (2) customer value proposition, and the leading indicators of (3) internal processes and (3) learning and growth (Kaplan & Norton, 2004)(cf. Section ). The BSC is balanced on several aspects. Firstly, it enables companies to track financial results while simultaneously monitoring progress in building the capabilities and acquiring the intangible assets they need for future growth (Kaplan & Norton, 1996b). Secondly, it gives comprehensive information from four different perspectives, while it also minimizes information overload by limiting the number of measures used (Kaplan & Norton, 1992). As mentioned before in Section , Kaplan and Norton suggest a maximum of twenty-five performance measures in one scorecard (Kaplan & Norton, 1996a). Critics on BSC Several authors (such as (Chang & Morgan, 2001; Marr, 2012; Parmenter, 2011)) argue that the four perspectives of the BSC are rather limited and should therefore be enlarged. Parmenter (2011) adds two new perspectives: employee satisfaction and environment/community. Chang and Morgan (2001) do not use a fixed number of perspectives in their performance scorecards, neither a fixed name per perspective: it is the company itself who should choose this, and thereby align the perspectives with its current and future strategies. In their more recent work, Kaplan and Norton (2003) acknowledge themselves that the four perspectives should be seen as a template that admits extensions. Furthermore, Neely et al (2002) criticize the fact that the BSC does not incorporate a broad enough view of the stakeholders who interact with the organization. For instance, no mention of end-users, employees, suppliers, regulators, pressure groups, or local communities is made. Kaplan and Norton (2003) argue that employees are already included in the learning and growth perspective, and suppliers as well, if strong connections exist. Furthermore, they claim that only those stakeholders who have causal relationships with the strategy of the organization are admitted in the BSC. BSC in SMEs The BSC is very popular in large organizations (Kaplan & Norton, 1996b, 2001, 2004), however literature on the use of the BSC in SMEs is rare (Rompho, 2011). Most SMEs are not aware of the BSC technique and the usage rate is very low compared to large organizations, although the BSC is believed to be as beneficial for SMEs as it is for larger organizations (McAdam, 2000). Due to limited resources (cf. Chapter I, characteristic (2)), SMEs frequently tend to focus on the 35

51 financial aspects before anything else when it comes to defining goals, decisions and outcomes (Chalmeta et al., 2012). While a large organization benefits from the BSC implementation through effective communication of their strategy, SMEs gain more from the description of strategic objectives with priorities (Andersen, Cobbold, & Lawrie, 2001) Strategy Maps A Strategy Map is a general representation of the four perspectives of the BSC in a cause-andeffect manner and facilitates the communication of direction and priorities across the enterprise (Kaplan & Norton, 2004). It links strategic objectives across multiple perspectives to display which objectives drive others. The Learning & Growth Perspective supports the Internal Perspective that in turn realizes the Customer and Financial Perspectives (Kaplan & Norton, 2004) (cf. Figure 16). Each objective is represented by one or more KPIs (Eckerson, 2009). Through the BSC, these goals are then extended to a set of targets using measures to evaluate their achievement, and initiatives are identified to achieve these targets (Giannoulis, Zdravkovic, & Petit, 2012). Figure 16: The Strategy Map template (from (Kaplan & Norton, 2004)) 36

52 The Performance Prism Neely et al. (2002) point out that most of the currently used performance measurement frameworks are only partial solutions. Therefore, they introduced the Performance Prism, which is holistic in orientation and starts with the question Who are our stakeholders and what do they want and need?. Afterwards, it prompts questions about what strategies are required to deliver value to these stakeholders, what processes need to be put in place to execute these strategies, and what capabilities are required to underpin these processes. The Performance Prism makes the distinction between what the stakeholders want of the organization and what the organization wants of its stakeholders Organizational Performance Measurement model The Organizational Performance Measurement (OPM) model is developed especially for SMEs and is based on three principles: (1) Alignment, i.e. the selected performance measures support the alignment between people s actions and the company strategy, (2) Process thinking, i.e. the measurement system makes reference to the process monitoring, control and improvement system, and (3) Practicability, i.e. at any level in the company there is a consistent process for identifying measures that should be considered and for ensuring the quality and suitability of data (Chennell & Dransfield, 2000) Integrated Performance Measurement model for Small Firms The Integrated Performance Measurement model, which is a hybrid accounting system, connecting the traditional view and the activity-based costing together in a causal chain, was specifically designed for SMEs as well (Laitinen, 2002). It is based on five internal dimensions (costs, production factors, activities, products and revenues) used to monitor the whole production process and two external dimensions (financial performance and competitiveness) used to monitor the company s position in its competitive context (Garengo et al., 2005; Laitinen, 2002) Performance Measurement System in SMEs Cocca and Alberti (2010) composed a list of the necessary features of a PMES especially for SMEs. A PMES should: (1) be flexible, rapidly changeable and maintainable, (2) be balanced (internal/external, financial/non-financial), (3) be synthetic, (4) be easy to implement, use and run, (5) show causal relationships, (6) be strategically aligned, (7) be graphically and visually effective, (8)be incrementally improvable, (9) be linked to a rewarding system, and (10) be integrated with IS. 37

53 3.4 Target, Evaluation and Reward practices Target Setting Ferreira and Otley (2009) ask the following question in their twelve-question framework: Question six: What level of performance does the organization need to achieve for each of its key performance measures (identified in the above question), how does it go about setting appropriate performance targets for them, and how challenging are those performance targets? As already stated above (cf. Section ), the difference between a regular measure and a KPI is the fact that the latter embodies a strategic objective and measures performance against a multidimensional goal. This goal associated with KPIs is known as a target because it requires a measurable outcome rather than a conceptual destination (Eckerson, 2009). Research has confirmed that performance is affected by the target levels and that especially moderately difficult targets enhance performance (Fisher, Peffer, & Sprinkle, 2003). The difficulty of target setting lies in making the distinction between what is desired and what is thought to be feasible in determining targets for all aspects of organizational performance (Otley, 1999). Several types of targets exist. Eckerson (2009) mentions five: (1) Achievement, used when performance has to reach or exceed the target and anything above the target is valuable but not required (e.g. revenues and satisfaction); (2) Reduction, used when performance has to reach or be inferior to the target and anything less than the target is valuable but not required (e.g. overtime and attrition); (3) Absolute, used when performance should exactly equal the target and both a higher or lower value are unfavorable (e.g. in-stock percentage and on-time delivery); (4) Minimum/Maximum, used when performance should be within a range of values and anything above or below the range is unfavorable (e.g. mean time between repairs); and (5) Zero, used when performance should equal zero, which is the minimum value possible (e.g. employee injuries and product defects). The target to which the KPI is compared is multidimensional because a target has ranges, encodings, thresholds, time frames and benchmarks (Eckerson, 2009). Ranges, which are usually percentage increments above or below target, are used to help workers assess their performance. Most organizations have three ranges: above target, on target, or below target. These ranges are encoded in software to enable the visual display of performance. A color coding could for instance be used, where red stands for below target, orange for on target and green for above target (in an Achievement target type). The boundary lines between ranges are 38

54 called thresholds. Furthermore, time frames are assigned to targets: they stipulate when the target must be accomplished and influence how KPIs are calculated. Generally annual time frames are used and these long-term targets are often divided into smaller intervals to provide milestones of performance on a more frequent basis. Targets are measured against benchmarks, which are the starting point for improving performance. A typical benchmark is the result of the previous year, which is an internal benchmark. However, external benchmarks, such as the industry leader or closest competitor, are used as well (Hope & Fraser, 2003) Performance Evaluation Ferreira and Otley (2009) ask the following question in their twelve-question framework: Question seven: What processes, if any, does the organization follow for evaluating individual, group, and organizational performance? Are performance evaluations primarily objective, subjective or mixed and how important are formal and informal information and controls in these processes? Managers focus the most on areas that senior management finds important, and achieving success in these areas could positively affect the organization. The unit of evaluation can be an individual, various groups of individuals (such as teams or departments) or the organization as a whole (Ferreira & Otley, 2009). Furthermore, Grafton, Lillis, and Widener (2010) found that in order to stimulate managers to use multiple financial and non-financial performance indicators, performance evaluation schemes have to be designed to reflect these measures as well. Performance evaluations can be objective, subjective or in-between those two (Ferreira & Otley, 2009). Objective evaluations only asses actual results, and the weightings placed on the various dimensions of performance are known and measurable. In subjective evaluations on the contrary, the evaluator determines the weightings. Recently, relative performance evaluations become more popular, where the performance of an individual or entity is measured in relation to that of another in order to eliminate distortions caused by uncontrollable factors. Enterprises often take the easy way, by choosing to measure what is easy to measure, rather than what is right to measure (Neely et al., 2002). However, some patterns of performance measures can incite employees to act unsuitable, called the gaming behavior: employees make a game out of the performance measures and use gaming tactics to fulfil the performance measures (Ferreira & Otley, 2009; Neely et al., 2002). Especially when monetary incentives are involved, gaming behavior increases (Eckerson, 2009). Neely et al. (2002) phrased this problem remarkably well: You certainly get what you measure, but you may not get what you want. 39

55 3.4.3 Reward Systems Ferreira and Otley (2009) ask the following question in their twelve-question framework: Question eight: What rewards financial and/or non-financial will managers and other employees gain by achieving performance targets or other assessed aspects of performance (or, conversely, what penalties will they suffer by failing to achieve them)? Rewards range from financial rewards, to recognition by senior management, to long-term progression or promotion, and can both be positive (i.e. reward) or negative (i.e. penalty). The relationship between rewards, motivation and performance is complex and includes questions such as whether to implement extrinsic or intrinsic rewards, or whether to use group or individuals rewards (Ferreira & Otley, 2009). 3.5 Implementation of the PMAS Information Flows, Systems, and Networks Ferreira and Otley (2009) ask the following question in their twelve-question framework: Question nine: What specific information flows -feedback and feedforward-, systems and networks has the organization in place to support the operation of its PMASs? Without information flows, systems, and networks, a PMAS cannot properly function (Otley, 1999). According to Ferreira and Otley (2009) they act like the nervous system in the human body, transmitting information from the extremities to the center and from the center to the extremities (Ferreira & Otley, 2009, p. 273). Systems are a part of the IS and IT infrastructure and are used to organize accounting and other information (Ferreira & Otley, 2009). Systems for financial information are well-developed, but this is not always the case for those for nonfinancial measures (Ferreira & Otley, 2009). Dechow, Granlund, and Mouritsen (2006) emphasize the mutual and interdependent relationship between accounting and IT, where accounting needs IT to report and manage performance, and IT needs accounting to justify its existence. Systems are often organized in networks. Both formal and informal networks play an important role in the distribution of information, and the degree of formality depends on the organizational culture (Ferreira & Otley, 2009). Information flows in SMEs Innovation in IT increases the opportunity to create a relationship between PM and a company s IS, and thereby decreases the costs of implementing a PMAS (Neely, 1999). This is particularly 40

56 important for SMEs, as they have limited financial resources (cf. Chapter I, characteristic (2)). Furthermore, since knowledge is mainly tacit and context-specific, the information required to implement and use a PMAS is difficult to gather (Marchini, 1995) PMASs Use Ferreira and Otley (2009) ask the following question in their twelve-question framework: Question ten: What type of use is made of information and of the various control mechanisms in place? Can these uses be characterized in terms of various typologies in the literature? How do controls and their uses differ at different hierarchical levels? The use made of information and control is a cornerstone of PMASs (Ferreira & Otley, 2009). Case studies even suggest that the use of control information can be more significant than the formal design of the control system (Ferreira, 2002). PMASs Use in SMEs Keeping PMASs continuously updated is challenging for every organization, but particularly for SMEs: on the one hand they need to be extremely flexible and reactive to market changes,while on the other hand they are characterized by lack of resources and managerial expertise (Garengo et al., 2005). Research through case studies has shown that, although there is a widespread understanding of the importance of strategic PM among SME managers, very few of them act on it, which indicates substantial barriers for implementation (Hudson et al., 2001). Most of the time, the process is described both too resource intensive, which contrasts with the low resource availability of SME (Chapter I, characteristic (2)), and too strategically oriented, which contrasts with the more dynamic, emergent strategy styles of SMEs (Chapter I, characteristic (7)). Furthermore, SMEs have a lack of human resources, which means that all the staff involved in the activities of managing daily work have no extra time for additional activities, such as implementing a PMAS (Chapter I, characteristic (1)) PMASs Change Ferreira and Otley (2009) ask the following question in their twelve-question framework: Question eleven: How have the PMASs altered in the light of the change dynamics of the organization and its environment? Have the changes in PMASs design or use been made in a proactive or reactive manner? Environments and organizations change continuously, so PMASs have to change as well to stay relevant and useful. The idea of change both concerns the design infrastructure that builds the 41

57 PMAS (such as the KPIs), and also the way PM information is used (such as which aspects are emphasized and which are not) (Ferreira & Otley, 2009). Critical to consider as well, is the scope of strategic change in the current increasingly competitive environment, as strategy is the core component of a PMAS (Ferreira & Otley, 2009). PMASs change in SME PMASs in SMEs are frequently introduced in a reactive, spontaneous manner to solve specific problems (Hudson, Bennett, Smart, & Bourne, 1999). Consequently, performance measurement is often characterized by a poor alignment between the measures and strategy (Garengo et al., 2005). Furthermore, McAdam (2000) remarks that managers of SMEs are sceptic about the long-term benefits of change, as they are faced with an ever changing environment. Therefore, he suggests that improvement projects should always have adequate short-term benefits next to the long-term potential Strength and Coherence Ferreira and Otley (2009) ask the following question in their twelve-question framework: Question twelve: How strong and coherent are the links between the components of PMASs and the ways in which they are used (as denoted by the eleven questions above)? It is important that all the individual components of the PMAS fit well together, otherwise control failures can occur (Ferreira & Otley, 2009). Chenhall (2003) proposes that the strength and coherence of PMASs should be evaluated on the extent to which the control system considers multiple stakeholders; measures efficiency, effectiveness and equity; capture(s) financial and non-financial outcomes; provides vertical links between strategy and operations and horizontal links across the value chain; provides information on how the organization relates to its external environment and its ability to adapt (Chenhall, 2003, p. 136). 42

58 CHAPTER IV: LINKS BETWEEN EA AND PM In most existing approaches the relationship between performance indicators and goals remains implicit (Popova & Sharpanskykh, 2008), although they facilitate the alignment between strategy and operations (Ferreira & Otley, 2009). Thereby, implementing a PMAS could further encourage the translation from strategy to operations, which is one of the main features of EA (R. Maes, 2007). Cardoso (2013a) made a review of the enterprise modelling approaches and EA frameworks that support modelling KPI-related concepts. There are already some EA approaches who acknowledge the existence of KPIs as means of quantifying the organizational performance (Frank et al., 2008; Iacob, Quartel, & Jonkers, 2012; Kronz, 2006; Lankhorst, Quartel, & Steen, 2010; Popova & Sharpanskykh, 2008). Yet, a considerable gap exists on modelling performance indicators and integrate them into modern enterprise modelling frameworks, and thereby there is not much automated support for KPI measurement and measurement of goal achievement (Cardoso, 2013a). The remainder of this chapter will first describe the relationship between KPI-related concepts and EA elements, and afterwards present two EA metamodels that incorporate performance measures. 4.1 Relationship between KPI-related concepts and EA elements Cardoso (2013a) proposes a top-down approach: start by modelling the relevant goals, afterwards derive appropriate KPIs from these goals, and finally link these with other EA elements. Several proposals are described to measure the KPI values to evaluate the achievement of goals. These measures represent a particular way of collecting information about the properties of the elements of the EA to obtain the value of a given KPI. There are several different proposals to formulate the measures, which can for example be distinguished according to the following dimensions: number of instances, type of measure, type of scope, type of monitoring object and monitoring point (Cardoso, 2013a). Monitoring objects represent the association between the KPI language and the other viewpoints of the enterprise, and are used as EA elements (Cardoso, 2013a). They represent the architectural elements whose properties are measured and are the elements where the monitoring operates on to have the values of the KPI determined. Monitoring points are required to perform the actual measurement of the monitoring objects. They define the points in the process from which the data is gathered to calculate the KPIs (Kronz, 2006), and can be attached to any monitoring object on which it is intended to gather information. 43

59 4.2 EA Metamodel of Braun and Winter In 2005, Braun and Winter developed a metamodel framework for EA which is constructed of four architectural layers, with different design goals for each layer: the Strategy layer, the Organization layer, the Application layer and the Software Component layer. Particularly important is the mapping of the interdependencies between the models on different framework layers in a suitable way (Braun & Winter, 2005). Figure 17 gives a simplified overview of the framework s metamodel of the first three layers 1. Figure 17: Aggregate framework metamodel (from (Braun & Winter, 2005)) In the Strategy layer metamodel, a distinction is made between several different views, marked with different shades of grey (Figure 18). One of these views is the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) view (in white), which is used to specify performance indicators that serve as a foundation for the design and PM of business processes. A Strategy defines a Goal. Goals have CSFs, and are realized through Actions. The implementation of an Action is the responsibility of a particular Organizational Unit. The Goal, Action and Organizational Unit classes show a great resemblance with the current CHOOSE approach (cf. 2.6). Therefore, the metamodel of Braun and Winter will be very useful during the solution phase in PART III. 1 Regular arcs represent references between constructs, dotted arrows represent primary dependencies between framework layers, and broken arrows represent aggregation relationships between constructs. 44

60 Each CSF is operationalized by one or more Indicators. On the one hand, the importance of an optimal aggregation of Indicators is stressed, where the number of indicators should be reduced to a minimum and the indicators themselves should be kept as simple as possible. On the other hand, the Indicators should always reflect the real state of affairs as truthfully as possible. As individual Indicators can be interpreted wrong, it is advised to use several indicators for one CSF, integrated in one system like the BSC (Braun & Winter, 2007). Figure 18: The Strategy Layer metamodel (from (Braun & Winter, 2005)) The Organization layer metamodel is built of several parts as well (cf. Figure 19). The relevant part for PM, is the Process Control-part (in white). A CSF on the organizational level describes a performance-critical feature of a process. It is derived from the business strategy and operationalized by one or more Indicators. The Process Goal, Indicator and Success Factor are summarized in the Report, which represents the causes of the deviation between and the extent of the targeted and actual results and goes to one or more Organizational Units. The organizational performance indicators are derived from the KPIs/CSFs defined in the BSC view on the Strategy layer (Braun & Winter, 2005). In fact, the same KPI might be used on both Strategy and Organization layer, but in a different way, e.g. for strategic planning/controlling in the first, while for process PM in the latter (Winter, 2011). 45

61 Figure 19: The Organization Layer metamodel (from (Braun & Winter, 2005)) There is an important interdependency between the metamodel construct on the Strategy layer and on the Organization layer of the framework. The BSC defines targets in terms of CSFs and performance indicators (Strategy layer) which form the foundation for the design of process management on the Organization layers. They are supposed to guarantee the adherence to process goals (Braun & Winter, 2005). Furthermore, the performance indicator at the Organization layer is linked with a monitoring point at the Application layer. More recently, a general EA metamodel was developed (cf. Figure 20) where PM is investigated from a Business Engineering perspective (Winter, 2011). The same classes arise and in addition there is also made notion of a Target Value class. However, Winter argues that target setting is only implicitly incorporated in the metamodel, and requires a more comprehensive description in order to use it for strategic leadership and management of business processes (Winter, 2011). The goals of an organization that are defined on a very aggregate level (for instance in a BSC), are subsequently decomposed into more and more specific Success Factors and KPIs, resulting 46

62 in a multi-layer goal/indicator aggregation hierarchy. When target values and actual values differ, appropriate Actions can take place (Winter, 2011). Figure 20: Goal-Performance part of core metamodel (translated from (Winter, 2011)) 4.3 Unified Business Strategy Metamodel of Giannoulis et al. Giannoulis et al. (2012) cite that business strategy formulations are frequently overlooked in EA proposals, although the business strategy should be clear in order to support an enterprise in achieving its vision and in defining an architecture that supports that vision. Due to this ignorance, IT solutions cannot be traced back to business strategy in a clear and unambiguous way (Giannoulis et al., 2012). To establish a link and thereby solve the problem, they propose the Unified Business Strategy Meta-Model (UBSMM). The UBSMM is a formalization of the rigorous integration of two metamodels established in previous works: Strategy Maps and BSC metamodel (SMBSC) (Giannoulis, Petit, & Zdravkovic, 2011a, 2011b) and the Value Configuration meta-model (VC) (Svee, Giannoulis, & Zdravkovic, 2011). The metamodel, formalized in UML, is depicted in Figure 21. As will be shown in the next paragraph, PM is included in EA by linking Business Strategy to EA. 47

63 Figure 21: The UBSMM (from (Giannoulis et al., 2012) From a PM perspective, especially the StrategicGoal, Objective, Measure, Milestone, Target, Value Activity and Actor classes are interesting. StrategicGoal captures the defined goals. The causality relations between different goals are captured through the self-association (influences, isinfluencedby) between Goals. Objectives refer to measurable goals that are used for building BSCs, which suggests that not necessarily all goals are used to build a BSC. Through the generalization, the transition of goals from strategy maps into BSC is captured. Measure supports the evaluation of the achievement of an Objective. A final, long-term Target must be defined for each Measure determining whether the Objective has been achieved. The Target specifies a deadline and a threshold (desired value for the milestone to be completed) attribute for the Measure. A Milestone is any short-term or intermediate target needed prior to the final target. A Value Activity encompasses all actions or activities required to achieve an Objective that is derived from a Strategic Goal (Giannoulis et al., 2012). It carries a resource attribute, which captures both time and money available for an activity. The Value Activity Strategic Compliance captures whether a value activity actually delivers value and fits with the strategy. Actor captures the organization, unit or individual that defines a strategy or that performs a value activity. Those could be the same, but do not have to be necessarily (Giannoulis, 2011). 48

64 A number of constraints are worth mentioning as well. For Goals in the financial perspective of the BSC, no initiatives are launched because targets capture the results of initiatives from the other perspectives. Consequentially, a Measure belonging to the financial perspective, has no initiatives. Furthermore, a Measure can have several Milestones, but has only one Target (Giannoulis, 2011). 4.4 Gaps of Research To the knowledge of the author and according to Cardoso (2013a), a gap exists in the current literature regarding which level of goal abstraction should be associated with KPIs. Nevertheless, it is known that in order to link Goals to KPIs, these Goals should be written as Objectives, which are SMART statements of intent whose achievement supports a goal (Object Management Group, 2013). 49

65 PART II: PROBLEM STATEMENT The concept of Goals is the most important part of an EA approach (cf. PART I, Section 2.3). A goal can be considered as an end (why) for a refined goal, as well as means (how) for a goal at a higher level (Markovic & Kowalkiewicz, 2008). The higher-level goals are refined into more specific goals through AND or OR-decompositions, where the goals are decomposed into alternative sub goals (OR) or combinations of sub goals (AND) that must be satisfied. However at the same time, a goal at each refinement level also describes what needs to be done (cf. Figure 22). Thereby, the goal is described in more detail: it has for example an assigned measure for controlling the progress, a deadline for completion and a priority. Figure 22: Why, How and What of a goal (from (Markovic & Kowalkiewicz, 2008)) The current CHOOSE metamodel incorporates the why-part and how-part of the goal decomposition through the Refinement and Goal constructs of the Goal dimension, but does not include the what-part of the goals. It is important to understand the difference between the whatpart of the goal dimension described above and the what-dimension in the current CHOOSE approach. The current CHOOSE approach distinguishes between four separate dimensions (Bernaert, Poels, et al., 2013): A Goal dimension (Know-Why), for the motivational part, where the goals are refined through why and how questions (so no what questions are currently asked here). An Object dimension (Know-What), for the description of the concepts and relationships. An Operation dimension (Know-How), for the behavioral part. An Actor dimension (Know-Who), for the active performers. 50

66 Without measuring the fulfilment of the goals, the controlling dimension of EA remains pointless (Matthes & Monahov, 2012). KPIs evaluate the performance of organizational operations and use this information to measure the achievement of operational and strategic goals (Popova & Sharpanskykh, 2011). Furthermore, KPIs are an important part of EA, representing the relationships between organizational structure, business processes, applications, and infrastructure elements (Wittenburg, 2007). Abundant EA approaches are already described in literature, but very few of them incorporate PM even though its importance has been argued (Braun & Winter, 2005; Cardoso, 2013a; Wittenburg, 2007). Several EA proposals (such as ARIS (Scheer, 2000), ArchiMate 2.0 (The Open Group, 2012), and TOGAF (The Open Group, 2011)) include performance measures in their models without any information on performance management. While the PMESs (such as the BSC, the Performance Prism, the SMART pyramid, etc. discussed in PART I, Section 3.3.2) provide a strong methodological support for suggesting, deriving and adapting indicators, they only specify the indicators and the goals derived from these indicators in a natural language, without specifying important information concerning a goal-based measurement of indicators (Cardoso, 2013a). If the indicators and goals are not represented through a (formal) modelling language, this could cause problems regarding ambiguity, incompleteness, and traceability. Braun and Winter (cf. PART I, Section 4.2) incorporate Measures, Targets, Required Actions, Reports, Monitoring Points and links with Processes in their EA metamodel, but argue that the target setting should be elaborated (Braun & Winter, 2005; Winter, 2011). Giannoulis et al. (cf. PART I, Section 4.3) integrate Objectives, Measures, Milestones, Targets, and ValueActivities in their metamodel in order to link Business Strategy with EA (Giannoulis et al., 2012). In addition, Cardoso (cf. PART I, Section 4.1) describes the relationship between KPI-related concepts and EA elements (Cardoso, 2013b). To the knowledge of the author, there has never been developed an EA that incorporates a PMAS especially for SMEs (Cardoso, 2013a). On the one hand, there have been a few proposals for PM in SMEs (such as (Cocca & Alberti, 2010; Garengo et al., 2005; Hudson et al., 2001; Hudson & Smith, 2007; Nudurupati & Bititci, 2011; Rompho, 2011)), but none of them are linked to EA. On the other hand, Bernaert et al. developed the CHOOSE approach (cf. Section 2.6) as an EA technique for SMEs (Bernaert, Poels, et al., 2013). Therefore, this master thesis intends to provide the link between those two, by developing a PMAS for the CHOOSE approach for EA for SMEs. 51

67 PART III: SOLUTION INTRODUCTION The CHOOSE approach consists of four dimensions, with corresponding constructs and relationships: a Goal dimension (why), an Actor dimension (who), an Operation dimension (how) and an Object dimension (what) (Bernaert, Poels, et al., 2013). Furthermore, the CHOOSE approach comprises three artefacts: the CHOOSE metamodel, the CHOOSE method and the CHOOSE tool support. The CHOOSE method consists of three parts: the Roadmap method, the Interview method, and the Stop criteria (Bernaert, Callaert, & Poels, 2013). The CHOOSE approach is based on the five criteria of a good EA technique (cf. PART I, Chapter 2.6), where the criteria of Suitability for its target audience is translated in Kept Simple which contains six SME-related criteria (cf. Figure 5). In previous research (Bernaert, Callaert, & Poels, 2013; Bernaert et al., 2014) the metamodel and method are refined by action research through several case studies. This master thesis will provide a PMAS for the CHOOSE approach, starting from the existing CHOOSE approach (Bernaert, Callaert, Poels, et al., 2013). The Performance-oriented extension is an optional add-on for the existing CHOOSE approach for SMEs that are facing increased complexities and perceive the need to measure the achievement of their goals. It will mainly focus on the Control criteria of a good EA and further enhance the Objective criteria (i.e. translating the corporate strategy into operations). Furthermore, the Suitability for SMEs has to be kept in mind as well. The main objective of the CHOOSE approach is to provide an EA approach for SMEs. During this realization, some efforts have already implicitly been made to incorporate PM. First of all, the Performance relationship between the actor and the operation is characterized by an association class including the attribute Type, to enable the use of a RACI chart (Bernaert, Poels, et al., 2013). RACI stands for (1) Responsible: who is responsible for the activity, (2) Accountable: who is accountable for the activity, meaning who provides direction and authorizes the activity, (3) Consulted: who should be consulted for the activity, and (4) Informed: who must be informed about the activity. However, Bernaert et al. (2013) still give the SME the opportunity to choose another assignment matrix (such as RASCI, CAIRO, etc.). Secondly, a PM framework, namely the BSC of Kaplan and Norton, is used in the CHOOSE method in order to elicit the highest-level Goals as holistically as possible, and afterwards find the lower-level 52

68 Goals. However, the BSC is currently only used to display the goals and is not used as a framework for the measures. Thirdly, the CHOOSE approach gives the possibility to give an integrated as-is/to-be view of the enterprise through the two different types of links between the Goal class and the Refinement class. As-is and to-be Goals can be modelled using respectively an AND- or OR-Refinement. Bernaert, Poels, et al. (2013) started the CHOOSE approach with the metamodel, and secondly developed the method. Additionally, Cardoso articulates that in order to obtain an aligned PMAS, researchers must rely on a metamodel and systematic methodology (Cardoso, 2013c). Therefore, both the metamodel and method will be discussed in this master thesis. The third artefact of the CHOOSE approach, namely the CHOOSE tool support, goes beyond the research domain of this master thesis. To start, in Chapter I the current CHOOSE metamodel and method will be elaborated with a Performance-oriented viewpoint based on an extensive study of existing literature on EA, PM and on the link between EA and PM (cf. PART I). An overview of the extensions, the reasons for extensions and relevant literature are summarized in Table 1. When several different possibilities arose in literature, the chosen solution is highlighted in bold. The choices were made according to the five design principles of Paige, Ostroff and Brooke (2000) to verify the utility and effectiveness of a Unified Modelling Language (UML): seamlessness, uniqueness, consistency, simplicity and reliability, and according to the exhaustiveness criteria proposed by Bernaert, Poels, et al. (2013). Afterwards in Chapter II, the established metamodel and method will be evaluated and refined through a Case Study research as Action Research, where the choices between the different possible refinements are also made according to the five design principles of Paige et al. (2000) and the exhaustiveness criteria of Bernaert, Poels, et al. (2013). During the Action Research, the researcher is an active participant rather than a passive observer: it is a cyclical process of actively participating in an enterprise change situation while doing research (Susman & Evered, 1978). Lastly in Chapter III, the final solution will be given, consisting of the final CHOOSE metamodel, the final extra CHOOSE constraints and the final CHOOSE method. 53

69 METAMODEL Extension Reason Literature Performance-oriented (Bernaert, Poels, et al., 2013; Braun & Winter, 2005; - Control complexity viewpoint as fifth dimension The Open Group, 2003) (Bernaert & Poels, 2011b; Chalmeta et al., 2012; Accommodation of all - Simplicity principle Hudson et al., 2001; Tenhunen et al., 2001; strategic terms in Goal class - Consistency principle Vichitdhanabadee et al., 2009) (Braun & Winter, 2005; Giannoulis et al., 2012) Success Factor class as optional specialization of Goal class for those goals that can be measured Indicator class rather than metric, measure, class with Measurement relation with Success Factor class Association class for Measurement relationship with Contribution attribute Attributes of Indicator class: Name, Description, Value, Frequency and Type Source relation between Indicator and Object classes Reflexive Includes relation with association class with Type attribute for Indicator class Milestone class and optional Target specialization class Attributes of Milestone class: Value, Deadline and Reward Comparison relation with association class with Type and Threshold attribute Achievement relationship between Milestone and Operation class METHOD - Cost vs. Benefits - Focus on Control - Some goals do not need measurement - Commonly used term - Uniqueness principle - Simplicity principle - Integration with existing metamodel - Indicates level of contribution of Indicator to Success Factor - Consistency principle - Simplicity principle - Widely known - Integration with existing viewpoints - Consistency principle - Simplicity principle - Simplicity principle - Exhaustiveness - Flexibility for SME - SMEs require both long and short term results - Uniqueness principle - Exhaustiveness principle - Flexibility for SME - Simplicity principle - Uniqueness principle - Integration between viewpoints (Bernaert & Poels, 2011b; Braun & Winter, 2005; Brooks & Chittenden, 2012; Ferreira & Otley, 2009; Giannoulis, 2011; Hudson et al., 2001; Kaplan & Norton, 2004; Parmenter, 2011) (Braun & Winter, 2005) (Eckerson, 2009) (Giannoulis & Zikra, 2013) (Ferreira & Otley, 2009) (Parmenter, 2011) (Pourshahid et al., 2007) (Cardoso, 2013a) (Cardoso, 2013a) Extension Reason Literature 1 Start with Goal dimension BSC as goal-mapping framework Define Success Factors and write them in a SMART way Find well-balanced equilibrium in time spent Define Indicators, Milestones and Targets in accordance with soft constraints - Most important part of EA - SMEs lack formalized strategy - Broaden strategic view - Widely known and used - Approved for SME - Goal-oriented - Coherence with existing method - -facilitates translation to SMART Indicators - SMEs have not much prior knowledge - Importance of motivated team - SMEs do not have many time for strategic issues - Avoid information overload (Eckerson, 2009) (Popova & Sharpanskykh, 2011) (Cardoso, 2013a; Frank et al., 2008) (Eckerson, 2009; Giannoulis et al., 2012; McAdam, 2000) (Braun & Winter, 2005; Cardoso, 2013a) (Cardoso, 2013a; Eckerson, 2009; Ferreira & Otley, 2009; Giannoulis et al., 2012) (Cardoso, 2013a; Eckerson, 2009) (Braun & Winter, 2005; Eckerson, 2009; Ferreira & Otley, 2009; Giannoulis et al., 2012; Kaplan & Norton, 1996a) (Bernaert & Poels, 2011a; Eckerson, 2009; Hudson et al., 2001; Kaplan & Norton, 1996a; Parmenter, 2011; Tenhunen et al., 2001) (Bernaert et al., 2014; Kaplan & Norton, 1992, 1996a; Rompho, 2011; Schelp & Stutz, 2007; Solingen & Berghout, 1999) (Doran, 1981; Ferreira & Otley, 2009; Kaplan & Norton, 2004; P. J. Meyer, 2003; Parmenter, 2011) (Chalmeta et al., 2012; Chang & Morgan, 2000; Eckerson, 2009; Parmenter, 2011) (Bernaert & Poels, 2011a; Tenhunen et al., 2001; Vichitdhanabadee et al., 2009) (Cardoso, 2013a; Eckerson, 2009; Ferreira & Otley, 2009; Parmenter, 2011) Table 1: Overview of the used literature 54

70 CHAPTER I: INITIAL SOLUTION AFTER LITERATURE REVIEW 1.1 CHOOSE Metamodel Bernaert et al. discovered during their action research that even though the CHOOSE metamodel regards SMEs, the CHOOSE models tend to become very large (Bernaert, Poels, et al., 2013). To control this complexity, different viewpoints can be used. Furthermore, many other EA models (such as (Braun & Winter, 2005; The Open Group, 2003)) do the same. For these reasons, the PMAS will be introduced as the fifth viewpoint (next to the Goal, Actor, Operation and Object viewpoint) in the CHOOSE metamodel: the Performance-oriented viewpoint. Every PM approach of the studied literature mentions the importance of goal-related concepts (such as mission, vision, values, goals, objectives, CSFs and strategies) and most approaches even describe these concepts very extensively. The metamodel of Braun and Winter (2005) distinguishes for example a Strategy, Goal, Success Factor and Perspective class (cf. Figure 18), and Giannoulis et al. (2012) define a Strategic Goal, Objective, Group, Strategic Theme, Strategy Plan, class (cf. Figure 21). However, literature concerning SMEs revealed that these organizations often have limited time for strategic matters and have an informal and nondocumented strategy (cf. characteristic (1) and (7) of PART I, Chapter I). For this reason, and according to the design principle of simplicity and consistency (Paige et al., 2000), the choice was made not to implement all these different constructs, but simply accommodate all these concepts in the current Goal construct of the CHOOSE metamodel. In this manner, the SME is free to choose which concepts to use. Not all goals can and have to be measured. First of all, the costs of doing so would be greater than the benefits (cf. characteristic (5) of PART I, Chapter I). Furthermore, the Performanceoriented extension focuses on the Control part instead of the Holistic Overview part of the EA criteria (cf. PART I, Chapter 2.6). And thirdly, some (more general) goals do not require a measurement (cf. PART I, Chapter 4.3). Therefore, it is desirable to implement a specialization of the Goal class for those goals that can be measured. The term Success Factor will be used to create a class that specifies the Goal class (as an optional specialization) (cf. Figure 23), as this term is most commonly used (Braun & Winter, 2005; Brooks & Chittenden, 2012; Ferreira & Otley, 2009; Kaplan & Norton, 2004; Parmenter, 2011). 55

71 Figure 23: Optional Success Factor class as specialization of Goal class Several names are given to the actual measurement of performance of an organization, such as metrics (Eckerson, 2009), measures (Giannoulis & Zikra, 2013), indicators (Braun & Winter, 2005), key performance measures (Ferreira & Otley, 2009), key performance indicators, key result indicators (Parmenter, 2011), A more profound analysis however revealed that they are all about the same core concept: a type of measurement used to quantify performance over time, that is linked to the organization s goals. I chose to add an Indicator construct to the metamodel, which will have a Measurement relation with the Success Factor specialization of the existing Goal construct (cf. Figure 24), because of three reasons: (1) The principle of uniqueness, as there is already a Performance relation in the CHOOSE metamodel between the Actors and Operation constructs (Paige et al., 2000), (2) The principle of simplicity, as the sentence An Indicator measures a Goal is easy to understand (Paige et al., 2000), and (3) The fact that it promotes the integration with the existing CHOOSE metamodel. One Success Factor is linked to zero to many Indicators and an Indicator is linked to exactly one Success Factor (Braun & Winter, 2005; Brooks & Chittenden, 2012; Giannoulis et al., 2012; Parmenter, 2011). The Measurement relationship is characterized by an association class, including a Contribution attribute to indicate the level of contribution a specific Indicator has in the realization of the Success Factor (cf. PART I, Chapter 0) (Pourshahid et al., 2007). Figure 24: Indicator class together with Measurement relationship with Success Factor class 56

72 A comprehensive list of eleven attributes an indicator should contain, is given in PART I, Chapter Their usefulness or redundancy for the Performance-oriented extension of the CHOOSE metamodel is evaluated below: Name and Description are added as attributes of the Indicator construct, based on the design principle of consistency (Paige et al., 2000). Current Value and Frequency are also added as attributes of the Indicator construct (as respectively Value and Frequency), since these are mentioned in almost every studied source. As the Scale of the Indicator is only incorporated in a few models, for simplicity I chose not to include this in the CHOOSE metamodel (Paige et al., 2000). For the calculation of the indicator, a separate attribute could be defined, or this calculation could be incorporated in the Description attribute. I chose the second option based on the principle of simplicity (Paige et al., 2000). The Target Value and Threshold are not integrated as attributes of the Indicator construct, as target setting is multidimensional and has several attributes for itself (cf. PART I, Chapter 3.4.1). Hence, a separate class in needed (cf. infra). The Source attribute is neither included as an attribute of the Indicator class, but as a many to many Source relationship between the Indicator class and the existing Object class (cf. Figure 25). This relationship specifies where the information that is needed to calculate the Indicator can be found. For instance, the information for a financial Return on Investment Indicator can be found in the Balance sheet analysis Object. The Source relationship promotes on the one hand a better integration of the different viewpoints, and on the other hand consistency and simplicity of the metamodel (Paige et al., 2000). As the CHOOSE metamodel blends the three architectural layers (cf. PART I, Chapter 2.6.1), the Monitoring Points and Monitoring viewpoints (cf. PART I, Chapter 4.1) are implicitly incorporated in the Source relationship. Figure 25: Many-to-many Source Relationship between Indicator and Object classes 57

73 The Responsible, Informed, and Owned attributes are already implicitly located in the metamodel through the wish/assignment relationship between the Goal and Actor constructs, and not included again because of simplicity and uniqueness (Paige et al., 2000). The Actor who is assigned to a specific Goal, is automatically Responsible for the Indicator and is the Owner of the Indicator. The Actor who wishes a specific Goal, is automatically Informed about the Indicator. Furthermore, an indicator can be classified in many different ways (cf. PART I, Chapter ). Therefore, a Type attribute is included as well, that can display which type of Indicator is used. Figure 26: Indicator class with reflexive Includes relationship In PART I, Chapter , the importance of aligned indicators is highlighted. Therefore, it is desirable to add a reflexive Includes relationship to the Indicator construct. While Eckerson (2009) defines duplicated, derived and conglomerate relationships, Popova and Sharpanskykh (2011) talk about causality, correlation, and aggregation relations, and Frank et al. (2008) and Cardoso (2013a) about customized relationships. Due to the design principle of simplicity (Paige et al., 2000) and exhaustiveness (Bernaert, Poels, et al., 2013), and in accordance with the customized relationship (Cardoso, 2013a; Frank et al., 2008), I chose to implement an association class to the Includes relationship, including a Type attribute to specify the kind of relationship the Indicators have (cf. Figure 26). Furthermore, this rather generic label gives the SME the flexibility to choose other relationships themselves. As above-mentioned, target setting requires a different class because it is multidimensional (cf. PART I, Chapter and Chapter 4). The time frames that stipulate when the targets must be accomplished, are frequently divided into smaller intervals, called milestones (Eckerson, 2009; Giannoulis et al., 2012). Particularly for SMEs this is important, as they require both short-term and long-term results (cf. PART I, Chapter I, characteristic (9)). For that reason, I suggest modelling a Target class as an optional specialization of the more general Milestone class and 58

74 make a Comparison relationship between the Milestone and Indicator class (cf. Figure 27), following the example of Giannoulis et al. (2012). An Indicator is compared to one or more Milestones, while a Milestone only belongs to one Indicator. Figure 27: Milestone class is specialized in Target class and has a Comparison relationship with the Indicator class As displayed in Figure 27, the Milestone class will need three attributes. Firstly, a Value attribute that displays the short-term (milestone) or long-term target value (attribute number (5) in PART I, Chapter ). Secondly, a Deadline attribute that displays when the Value should be obtained (cf. PART I, Chapter and Chapter 4.3). The Ranges and Benchmarks that Eckerson (2009) mentions (cf. PART I, Chapter 3.4.1) do not need a separate attribute according to the uniqueness design principle (Paige et al., 2000): the first can be calculated by comparing the Value attribute of the Indicator class and the Value attribute of the Milestone class, while the latter is already reflected in the chosen target value in the Value attribute of the Milestone class. Thirdly, the importance of reward practices has been emphasized in PART I, Chapter Therefore, a Reward attribute is added to the Milestone class as well. This attribute belongs to every milestone and not only to the end target, because SMEs need both short- and long-term benefits to stay motivated (cf. PART I, Chapter 3.4.3). The above-mentioned Threshold attribute displays the acceptable deviation of the actual value (Value attribute of Indicator class) from the targeted value (Value attribute of Milestone class). Furthermore, Eckerson (2009) mentions five possible types of relationships between the actual and targeted value (cf. PART I, Chapter 3.4.1) (Achievement, Reduction, Absolute, Minimum/Maximum, and Zero). Therefore, the Comparison relationship between the Indicator and Milestone class in characterized by an association class, including an attribute Threshold and an attribute Type (cf. Figure 27). Many authors state the importance of introducing initiatives/actions/activities when actual and target values differ, which are executed by an individual or an organization unit (Braun & Winter, 59

75 2005; Eckerson, 2009; Ferreira & Otley, 2009; Giannoulis et al., 2012; Kaplan & Norton, 1996b). These initiatives/actions/activities can be seen as a project (or even a continuous process), and can thereby be incorporated in the Operation construct of the existing CHOOSE metamodel, which enhances simplicity and uniqueness (Paige et al., 2000) and better integrates the different viewpoints. As both the metamodels discussed in PART I, Chapter 4.2 and 4.3 add a relationship between the target class and the action class, this seems the best solution: a manyto-many Achievement relationship between the Milestone and Operation constructs. Automatically, the required action has a Performance relationship with the Actor. The proposed CHOOSE metamodel after extensive literature research is displayed in Figure 28. Figure 28: CHOOSE metamodel with Performance-oriented dimension after literature research 1.2 CHOOSE Method Both PM techniques (cf. PART I, Chapter 3.2) and EA techniques (cf. PART I, Chapter 2.3) highlight the importance of starting the methodology by the strategy of the enterprise. Regarding PM, almost every studied approach starts by outlining the goals (Eckerson, 2009; Kaplan & Norton, 1996a; Parmenter, 2011). Especially for SMEs, who often lack a formalized strategy, it is crucial to start by defining the strategy (cf. PART I, Chapter 3.2.5) (Hudson et al., 2001; Tenhunen et al., 2001). Regarding EA, the CHOOSE Roadmap-method (cf. Appendix 1) starts 60

76 by asking the CEO to elicit the highest-level Goal in each of the four BSC dimensions. In the second step, these highest-level Goals are broken down into lower-level Goals. A complete goal tree is found through the Why/How? -questions (Bernaert & Poels, 2011a). The BSC (Kaplan & Norton, 1992) will continue to be the goal-mapping framework for several reasons. Firstly, it has been specifically developed to broaden the strategic view of a company on more than only financial aspects to give managers a fast but comprehensive view of the business (Kaplan & Norton, 1996a). Secondly, it is widely known and used (Schelp & Stutz, 2007). Thirdly, measurements should always be goal-oriented, and this is incorporated in the BSC (Solingen & Berghout, 1999). Furthermore, studies revealed that the BSC is suitable for SMEs (Rompho, 2011). Finally, the BSC is already used in the existing CHOOSE approach and will thereby guarantee the most coherence with it (Bernaert et al., 2014). Because of this alignment, the first step of the Performance-oriented extension corresponds partially with step one and two of the existing Roadmap-method, and with the first part of the first interview of the Interview-method (cf. Appendix 1). Nevertheless, some extra requirements have to be included to these steps: The Success Factors of the organization should be defined (cf. PART I, Chapter 0). These Success Factors should be written in a SMART way to afterwards facilitate the translation into SMART Indicators (cf. PART I, Chapter and Chapter ). As characteristic (8) of PART I, Chapter I mentions, SMEs frequently do not have many prior knowledge about indicators, in contrast to the other constructs of the existing CHOOSE model (Goals, Operations, Actors and Objects). Furthermore, several authors state the importance of establishing a motivated team to introduce the indicators (Chang & Morgan, 2000; Eckerson, 2009; Parmenter, 2011). Therefore, sufficient time should be spent to explaining the concepts and motivating the management. Conversely, according to characteristic (1) of PART I, Chapter I, the management does not have much time to spend on strategic and performance matters. Therefore, a well-balanced equilibrium should be found. After modelling the relevant Goals and Success Factors, the corresponding Indicators should be derived together with their Milestones and Targets (Cardoso, 2013a; Eckerson, 2009; Ferreira & Otley, 2009; Parmenter, 2011). If the total number of Indicators exceeds twenty-five (the proposed number by Norton and Kaplan, cf. PART I, Chapter ), it is advisable to revise the indicators based on importance. Furthermore, if the number of Indicators belonging to one Human Actor (through the Assignment relationship of the corresponding Success Factor) 61

77 exceeds seven (the proposed number by Eckerson, cf. PART I, Chapter ), the same approach should be taken. These two constraints are included as soft constraints in the metamodel (cf. 1.3). If the deviation between the value attribute of the Indicator class and the value attribute of the Milestone class is bigger than the defined threshold attribute in the association class of the Comparison relationship, a warning should be given. This constraint is also included as a soft constraint in the metamodel (cf. 1.3). As a last step, the other EA elements, which are the Objects related to the Indicator, the Operations necessary to achieve the Targets, and the Actors responsible for the Indicators and Operations are included. This sequence is in line with the proposed methodology of (Cardoso, 2013a). 1.3 Extra CHOOSE Constraints Several soft constraints should be included as well: (1) The total number of Indicators should not exceed twenty-five. (2) The number of Indicators belonging to one Human Actor (through the Assignment relationship of the corresponding Success Factor) should not exceed seven. (3) If the deviation between the actual and the target value ( which is the difference between Value attribute of Indicator class and the Value attribute of Milestone class) is larger than the defined Threshold, a warning should be given. (4) The Actor who is assigned to a specific Goal, is automatically Responsible for the Indicator and the Owner of the Indicator. The Actor who wishes a specific Goal, is automatically Informed about the Indicator. (5) If an Operation is defined to achieve a Milestone, the relationship between the Goal, Indicator, Milestone and Operations classes should behave as a closed circle : an Indicator that measures a certain Objective, is compared against Milestones. The Operation that is defined to achieve such a Milestone, should also Operationalize a Goal. This Goal, in turn, should be a lower-level goal of the original Objective. (An example of this constraint is given in Section ) (6) Every Indicator should be compared to exactly one Target and can be compared to zero to many other Milestones. 62

78 CHAPTER II: CASE STUDY AS ACTION RESEARCH The purpose of the case study as action research is the further development, refinement and evaluation of the proposed Performance-oriented viewpoint extension to the CHOOSE approach (cf. Chapter I: Initial Solution). To ensure consistency in the overall development of the CHOOSE approach, this research is in line with the methodology of (Bernaert, Callaert, & Poels, 2013). Therefore Chapter two will start with the explanation of the methodology of this research in Section 2.1. First of all, the area of Design Science will be briefly explained. According to Järvinen (2007), Action Research is an instance of the design science methodology (Hevner, March, Park, & Ram, 2004) that is suitable when few theoretical background or experience is available (which is the case for the application of a PMAS for EA in SMEs), and thereby this research will be mainly structured around the cyclical process of Action Research (Susman & Evered, 1978). As the Action Research program was conducted via a case study, the literature around Case Study Research will moreover be reviewed as well. Secondly, the actual case study will be discussed in Section 2.2. First a short introduction of the particular case study will be given, followed by the case study protocol and database, and to finish the incremental development- and refinement process of the CHOOSE metamodel and method are discussed. 2.1 Methodology As the Action Research program in this master thesis is conducted through a case study, and as Action Research is an instance of the more general Design Science (Järvinen, 2007), the research methodology is guided by both Design Science, Action Research, and Case Study Research. These principles will be shortly described before using them Design Science Design Science is essentially a problem solving process: it creates and evaluates IT artefacts with the intention to solve identified organizational problems (Hevner et al., 2004). Design is both a verb and a noun: a process, i.e. a set of activities, and a product, i.e. an artefact. This enhances a continuous shifting between design processes (the world as acted upon) and designed artifacts (the world as sensed) for the same complex problem (Hevner et al., 2004). 63

79 Design has four artefacts: constructs, models, methods, and instantiations. It this research, the (meta-)model and method artefact will be developed. Furthermore, Hevner et al. (2004) present seven guidelines to conduct a good design science, which are applied during the following case study research: (1) Design as an Artefact. A metamodel and a method are developed in the previous chapter. (2) Problem Relevance. The artefacts foster PM in EA for SMEs. (3) Design Evaluation. The utility, quality, and efficacy of the metamodel and method are evaluated in a case study, which is called an Observational Design Evaluation Method. (4) Research Contributions. The CHOOSE approach is one of the only EA techniques especially developed for SMEs and the inclusion of a PMAS in EA is sporadic as well. (5) Research Rigor. The metamodel and method development is based on an extensive literature research on PM and on criteria of existing EA and PM in SMEs. (6) Design as a Search Process. Since Design Science is an iterative process, multiple cycles of Action Research are used to refine the metamodel and method. (7) Communication of Research. The approach is implemented and tested in an SME and is communicated in this master thesis Action Research Action Research has been proven to become more and more popular and accepted as a research method for information systems (IS) (Baskerville & Myers, 2004). Following the example of Bernaert, Callaert and Poels (2013), the six characteristics and the five stage cyclical process of Action Research of Susman and Evered (1978) are applied to this research. The six characteristics of Action Research, that constitute a correction towards the deficiencies of positivist science (Susman & Evered, 1978), are the following: (1) Future-oriented. This research is oriented at extending the existing CHOOSE metamodel and method with a PMAS. (2) Collaborative/participatory. The researcher works together with the CEO and several other participants of the SME. (3) Implies system development. The research is structured around the five stages of Susman and Evered (1978), which will be explained further on in this section. (4) Generates theory grounded in action. The research contributes to the development of a theory (CHOOSE metamodel and method) by taking actions directed by the theory and 64

80 the subsequent evaluation of these actions. Based on this evaluation, the developed theory will be supported or revised. (5) Agnostic. The theories and prescriptions for action of the CHOOSE metamodel and method are the product of previously taken action and therefore are subject to reexamination and reformulation upon entering every new research situation. The action researcher also recognizes that the objectives, the problem, and the method of the research must be generated from the process itself, and that the consequences of selected actions cannot be fully known ahead of time. (6) Situational. It is recognized that an extensive part of the modelled constructs and relationships are a function of the situation like the relevant actors (such as the CEO, the HR manager, ) describe it. The five stages of the cyclical process are used in this master thesis to refine the metamodel and method. They are all crucial for a comprehensive definition of Action Research (Baskerville, 1997; Susman & Evered, 1978) and are the following: (1) Diagnosing. The primary problems that are the underlying causes of the organization s desire for change, are identified. The notes and voice recordings are analyzed after each round, based on which the problems are identified that necessitate changes to the metamodel or method. (2) Action Planning. The organizational actions that should relieve or improve these primary problems, are specified. During the implementation process of the CHOOSE approach at the case study enterprise, several actions are proposed to improve the CHOOSE metamodel and/or method to deal with these challenges. (3) Action Taking. After careful consideration, the planned actions can be implemented. The proposed new metamodel construct can for example be incorporated in the CHOOSE metamodel. (4) Evaluating. During the evaluation step, it is verified whether the theoretical effects of the proposed (in step two) and executed (in step three) actions were realized, and whether these effects relieved the problems (identified in step one). After implementing the actions, the CHOOSE model (as an instantiation of the metamodel) and method are evaluated by the participants of the case study and an external expert. (5) Specifying learning. The cyclical process of Action Research can be continued to develop further knowledge about the case study enterprise and the validity of the theoretical frameworks. After evaluating the incorporated adjustments (e.g. a new model 65

81 construct), the evaluation results (cf. PART IV) will influence the adoption of the actions in the CHOOSE metamodel/method. The first three phases (diagnosing, action planning, and action taking) will be applied to structure the development and refinement process of the Performance-oriented extension of the CHOOSE metamodel and method (cf. Section 2.2). Afterwards, the last two phases (evaluating and specifying learning) will be used to evaluate both CHOOSE artefacts (cf. PART IV) (Baskerville, 1997; Susman & Evered, 1978) Case Study Research Benbasat et al. (1987) state that Case Study research is a good IS research strategy for three reasons: (1) it permits to study IS in their natural setting, (2) it enables the researcher to ask why - and how -questions to understand the nature and complexity of a particular process, and (3) it is a good way to study a domain that has never been investigated before (Benbasat, Goldstein, & Mead, 1987). As scientific research can be approached from different epistemological positions, Yin claims that three philosophical perspectives can be applied: a critical, positivist and interpretive perspective (Devos, 2011; Yin, 2009). In a critical research perspective, the world is constrained by social, cultural, and political predominance; this will not be discussed further. A positivist researcher considers reality as an objective given. However in this master thesis, an interpretive perspective will be taken. In contrast to the positivist perspective, this perspective starts with the assumption that access to reality is only possible through social constructions such as language, consciousness, and shared meaning. Thereby, the interpretive research is not value-free and the researcher subjectively observes the reality (Yin, 2009). Although the interpretive perspective is chosen, the four design tests of the positivist perspective should still be applied to increase the quality of the research design (Yin, 2009): (1) Construct validity. Since the case study is used as an Action Research program to design new artifacts, there are no testable constructs derived from theory. (2) Internal validity. As this is mainly a concern for explanatory case studies (Yin, 2009) and as this case study is used for designing artifacts, this is not a concern. (3) External validity. The criteria makes sure that the findings and conclusions of the study are generalizable to other case studies (Yin, 2009). A limitation of the case study evaluation is the fact that only one case study is investigated and that the results are not statistically generalizable (Yin, 2009). 66

82 (4) Reliability. By this criteria, the number of errors and biases are minimized and the falsifiability of the study is maximized (Yin, 2009). To ensure this, a case study protocol was followed and a case study database was developed. The protocol describes that interviews should be used where the researcher asks questions and that all interviews should be recorded. The database is constructed according to Yin s guidelines (Yin, 2009) and an outline can be found in Appendix 2. Yin (2009) distinguishes statistical and analytical generalization. The first is not relevant for case studies, as the researcher will make a statement (inference) about a population based on empirical data collected from a sample. To perform an analytical generalization, a prior developed theory (cf. Chapter I) should be used as a template against which the experimental results can be tested (cf. Chapter II, Section 2.2). As a unit-of-analysis, the complete enterprise is taken into account (single unit of analysis) (Yin, 2009). A limitation of this master thesis is the fact that only one case study has been performed (single-case design) (Yin, 2009). 67

83 2.2 Case Study Research as Action Research Description Case Study VMD NV is a Belgian pharmaceutical laboratory established in 1973, located in Arendonk. The company is a privately owned manufacturer of veterinary pharmaceuticals. Since 1973, it has matured into one of the most respected companies in its field, despite the fierce competition. With forty years of experience in veterinary practice, VMD has acquired extensive knowledge of veterinary work and the requirements of veterinary profession. VMD employs thirty-nine people and had an annual turnover of approximately 20 million in Thereby, it complies with the definition of a medium-sized enterprise (Commission, 2005). Since a merger in 2007 with Biové (a French company), VMD is characterized by an effort to establish a closer collaboration between both companies. Furthermore, the complete manufacturing department of VMD (expect for the local labelling department) has moved to France, whereby the core activities of VMD currently are sales, administration, registrations and logistics. The VMD Group (VMD and Biové) employs hundred-thirty people and had a consolidated annual turnover of approximately 40 million in This SME complies with the common characteristics of SMEs (Bernaert, Callaert, Poels, et al., 2013): management has little time to look at strategic matters, no EA experts are employed, there is discussion about the responsibility of employees for certain tasks, the CEO is the central figure, and the CEO takes the decisions whether or not to adopt a new approach. However, an external consultant is part of the Board of Directors. Furthermore, the merger with Biové has caused increasing complexities for the firm, whereby the firm is a good candidate for the Performance-oriented extension of the CHOOSE approach. The CHOOSE model of VMD was composed by Mr. Jan Moons (CEO and owner of the company), Mr. Peter Manet (external member of the Board), Mr. Luc Jacobs (member of the Board and head of HR, Administration and Finance), Ms. Kristel Walschots (Supply Chain Manager) and myself (the CHOOSE architect) Case Study Protocol and Database Both the case study protocol and case study database are described to increase the reliability (positivist design test) of this research. 68

84 The case study protocol entails the instrument, the general rules and the procedures to execute the protocol (Yin, 2009). An interview guide per interview round is prepared and can be found in the database. The case study database should include five different source types to increase the reliability of the investigated data based on triangulation: documentation, archival records, interviews, direct observation, and physical artefacts (Yin, 2009). Therefore, the database comprises voicerecordings of interviews, documents (from the enterprise), notes (prepared by the researcher), and the developed CHOOSE model of the enterprise. Documentation and archival records correspond with the documents, notes, and models. Interviews, direct observation, and physical artefacts correspond with the voice recordings of the interview. As the greatest part of the data involves strategic issues, a limitation of this research is that the case study database contains confidential data and therefore cannot be made public. Hence, only the references of these documents are displayed in Appendix 2, while the original documents are submitted on a CD-ROM with this master thesis Development The incremental implementation and refinement process of the Performance-oriented extension of the CHOOSE metamodel and method will be described chronologically. Every modification or addition to the metamodel and method will be subjected to the three-step process of Mohr (1982): (1) Problem/shortcoming Identification, where the problem or shortcoming to the CHOOSE metamodel or method is identified, (2) Opening the Solution Space, where the different (potential) solutions are described and analyzed, and (3) Closing the Solution Space, where the best alternative is chosen based on the defined criteria. Furthermore, the solution space should be collectively exhaustive. The incremental implementation and refinement process entails twelve successive interviews. Afterwards in PART IV, the modifications and extensions to the metamodel and method will be evaluated and will be used to develop further knowledge. Thus, the five phases of the cyclical process of action research are followed (cf. Section 2.1.2) (Baskerville, 1999; Susman & Evered, 1978). 69

85 Interview 1 Description During the first interview (with the CEO and the external member of the Board) that took an entire day, the complete Goal dimension of the CHOOSE model was established, by using postits and a large whiteboard (cf. Figure 29). Afterwards, the CHOOSE Editor tool support in Eclipse was used to get a clear overview (Zutterman et al., 2013). The anguage notation legend of this tool can be found in Appendix 3. The complete Goal viewpoint (established after several improvement cycles) can be found in Appendix 4. Figure 29: Goal dimension through action research using post-its Refinements to CHOOSE approach The current Roadmap-method of the CHOOSE method states that the Goal dimension should start by asking the CEO to define the highest-level goal in each of the four BSC dimensions (cf. Appendix 1). However, based on this interview (Problem/shortcoming Identification, (Mohr, 1982)) and based on a workshop I participated in concerning strategy implementation through KPIs (Solvay Brussels School of Economics and Management, VOKA, & TiasNimbas Business 70

86 School, 2014), I discovered that it is easier to start by defining the overall strategy/vision/mission of the firm before dividing it into the four BSC perspectives. Furthermore, this is also mentioned in literature (Kaplan & Norton, 1996a). I see two possible solutions to this problem (opening the solution space, (Mohr, 1982)): (1) introducing a Highest Strategy construct as a specialization of the Goal construct in the CHOOSE metamodel, or (2) including this requirement in the first step of the CHOOSE Roadmap-method. In order not to overload the metamodel and based on the simplicity design criteria (Paige et al., 2000), the second option was chosen (closing the solution space). The case study example is given in Figure 30. Figure 30: From mission to the four highest-level BSC perspectives Interview 2 Description The second interview was held with the external consultant of the Board. The goals were further refined and ambiguities were solved. Value The interviewee acknowledged the usefulness of writing goals (or success factors) in a SMART way (part of the CHOOSE method). 71

87 Interview 3 Description The third interview took place with only the CEO. The refined goal tree was proposed, a few aspects were adapted and finally the goal tree was approved (cf. Appendix 4). Furthermore, the Success Factors were defined. The CEO states that the following goals are currently of crucial importance to the company: (1) Establish a closer collaboration between V.M.D. and Biové (the French company it merged with), (2) Put the right people on the right spot (HR policy), and (3) Realize a high level of profitability. In the following interviews, these three goals will be measured through performance indicators. Refinements to CHOOSE approach During the explanation of the type attribute of the Indicator class, which distinguishes between different classification types of indicators (e.g., KPI, KRI, leading, lagging, PI, discussed in PART I, Chapter III, Section ), the case study participants had problems understanding this. I see two possible solutions for this problem. Firstly, a detailed explanation of the different classifications could be given in the CHOOSE method. Secondly, the type attribute could be deleted from the metamodel. The second option was chosen for several reasons (cf. Figure 31): Figure 31: Elimination of Type attribute from Indicator class This is the optimal solution according to the simplicity design criteria (Paige et al., 2000); The right classification type and its importance has been argued a lot in literature (cf. PART I, Chapter III, Section ); SMEs often do not have prior knowledge of indicators (cf. PART I, Chapter I, characteristic (8)) and could thereby get easily confused; and The increase in efficiency (cost decrease) of deleting the attribute seems larger than the decrease in effectiveness (benefits) (Moody, 2003). 72

88 Value During the interview, the CEO frequently asked the same question: Defining the indicators is one part, but the key question I m concerned about is who will take care of the monitoring? Therefore, the Performance (RACI) relationship between the Operation (that will be performed to achieve the target) and the Actor doing it, is of great value Interview 4 Description This interview concerned the goal Stimulate a closer collaboration between VMD and Biové, and had the Supply Chain Manager as an interviewee. Yet, as will be explained in Interview 5 (cf. infra), the lower-level goal Perform a reliable forecast from VMD to Biové 2, which is wished by the CEO and assigned to the Supply Chain Manager is used as a starting point here. During the interview, the success factor was written in a SMART way (and refined after listening to the voice recordings) (cf. Figure 32), several Indicators were proposed, as well as their corresponding required Operations (actions/initiatives). Figure 32: Decomposition of Stimulate closer collaboration between VMD and Biové into SMART goal Refinements to CHOOSE approach and Value Thesse will be discussed in Interview 5, as both interviews happened right after each other. 2 Biové is the French company that merged with VMD. All VMD s products are now produced by Biové, and therefore, VMD has to perform a good forecast of its needed products to Biové in order to get the products on time and establish a good relationship (and closer collaboration) with Biové. 73

89 Interview 5 Description This interview concerned the goal Put the right people on the right spot (which is wished by the CEO and assigned to the HR manager), and had the HR manager as an interviewee. The HR process of the company has been managed rather informally in the past. However since the merger with the company in France, the company feels the need to formalize its ways of evaluating and hiring people so that the two companies become more aligned. The goal was refined into two more specific goals, which were written in a SMART way (cf. Figure 33) and afterwards linked to the Indicators, which on their turn are linked to the Operations. The Perform a good selection process goal clearly shows that not only the lowest-level goals (also called the leaves of the tree) can be written SMART in order to be measured. Figure 33: Decomposition of 'Put the right people on the right spot' into SMART goal 74

90 Refinements to CHOOSE approach During interview four and five, some difficulties were discovered when writing the defined Success Factor in a SMART way. Success Factors are often rather high-level goals (cf. PART I, Chapter II, Section 3.2.2) and thereby they are often too general to be written SMART. The goal Stimulate a closer collaboration between VMD and Biové exemplifies this. This problem could be solved in two ways. The first solution is to define a certain level of abstraction in the goal tree from which goals could be measured (e.g., only the third level of refinement). The second solution is two-fold. To start, the Success Factor construct is replaced by an Objective construct, which is defined as a statement of an attainable, time-targeted, and measurable target that the enterprise seeks to meet in order to achieve its goals (Object Management Group, 2013). Furthermore, the CHOOSE Roadmap-method will include a statement about the organization s success factors: Determine which areas of the goal tree currently are the most critical to the success of the company. The second solution (cf. Figure 34) is chosen for several reasons: It is according the simplicity design criteria (Paige et al., 2000). Several well-known authors acknowledge the value of using an Objective construct to link Goals and Indicators constructs (Giannoulis et al., 2012; Kaplan & Norton, 1996a; Object Management Group, 2013). The other solution on the contrary, is riddled with many ambiguities and literature review did not reveal a particular method to do this (cf. PART I, Chapter IV, Section 4.4). The term Objective implicitly incorporates the SMART criteria throughout its definition, and thereby a greater consistency between the CHOOSE metamodel and method is achieved (Paige et al., 2000). Figure 34: Replace Success Factor construct by Objective construct The extra statement about the company s success factors in the CHOOSE Roadmap-method still allows the critical success areas of the company to be defined, but these can now be further refined into more specific and clear objectives. 75

91 Interview 6 Description In the sixth interview (with the CEO), the Performance-oriented view of the Stimulate a closer collaboration between VMD and Biové was revised and some adjustments were made. Furthermore, the third critical area of the goal tree was discussed, i.e. Realize a high level of profitability. The first idea was to measure the underlying Stimulate cost awareness goal, however the CEO was not convinced about the usefulness anymore after comparing the benefits with the costs. Refinements to the CHOOSE approach After asking to identify Indicators that measure the fulfilment of the goals in interview four, five and six with respectively the Supply Chain manager, the HR manager and the CEO, I discovered that we frequently were talking too long about several indicators that afterwards seemed inefficient to measure: In the interview with the Supply Chain manager, an indicator was designed to measure the number of late deliveries to the customers. However, these data were not recorded, and several other employees would have to participate to retrieve them. In the interview with the HR manager, we were brainstorming about a skill rating system that could be used to determine whether employees are over-, or underqualified for their job. First of all, the question was raised concerning which aspects to measure (e.g., being able to work efficiently with the in-house software system). Secondly, the importance of these aspects differs for different functions in the company (e.g., while the sales persons require a basic knowledge of the software system (such as data entry), the bookkeeper needs an in depth knowledge). All these aspects would have to be combined into one measuring scale. In the interview with the CEO, indicators were searched to measure the stimulation of cost awareness in the company. This is a qualitative goal ( being aware of something ) and defining quantitative measures for it (e.g., through a survey or a questionnaire) turned out to be very challenging. The indicators that resulted (or would have resulted) out of these three examples, would violate three of the characteristics that a good indicator should possess (defined in PART I, Chapter III, Section ): an Indicator should be easy to maintain, simple to use and (specifically for SMEs) easy to collect. Furthermore, the costs of implementing these measures would be greater 76

92 than the benefits (cf. PART I, Chapter I, characteristic (5)). Regarding the first example, other indicators could measure the same goal with less effort. The Perform a reliable forecast goal could for example be measured through the out-of-stocks of products ordered from Biové Indicator, which can easily be retrieved from the software system. Regarding the second example, the HR manager and CEO know every employee personally and see them every day, as SMEs are rather small. Thereby, informal conversations or performance appraisals could be more beneficial. Regarding the third example, the same explanation as the second example applies (e.g., observing the cost awareness of employees rather than measuring it). I see two possible solutions for this problem. Firstly, the Objects necessary to perform the actual measurement of the Indicator, are currently incorporated as a last step in the method (cf. PART III, Chapter II, Section 1.2). This step could be moved forward and asked directly after the identification of an Indicator, before Milestones, Targets and Actors are defined. Secondly, an extra step could be added to the method after the identification of the Indicators to ensure that cost and benefits are always compared before continuing the other steps. As the first solution would require a change to the existing Roadmap-method and Interview-method (Bernaert, Callaert, Poels, et al., 2013) and the second solution only requires adding one extra sentence, the latter solution is chosen based on the design principle of simplicity (Paige et al., 2000) and on the coherence with the existing CHOOSE approach. Value When searching for SMART descriptions and indicators, more goals were often elicited and other goals were refined and adjusted, which facilitates the translation from goals into operations. Furthermore, the CEO was really convinced about defining short-time milestones and not only a long-term target, which confirms characteristic (9) of PART I, Chapter I Interview 7 Description The seventh interview was conducted with the Supply Chain manager, in order to further complement the Indicators belonging to the Objective Reshape the forecasting system from VMD to Biové so that Biové s delivery time to VMD becomes 8 to 10 weeks. The model consists of seven Indicators belonging to the Supply Chain Manager and one Indicator belonging to the CEO (which is possible through a metamodel adjustment explained in the next paragraph) (cf. Figure 35). Furthermore, the Includes relationships between the different Indicators are 77

93 displayed, together with their corresponding Type attribute. Finally, the relationships with the Object and Operation viewpoints are established as well (not displayed here, but in Appendix 5). DELIVERY TIME from Biové to VMD (ind. 7) Causality EXPIRED PRODUCTS (ind.2) Inverse correlation OUT-OF-STOCKS of Biové products for Belgium (ind. 1) Derived VARIANCE in Belgian Forecasting (ind.3) On time forecasting from important & special export customers (ind.4) Sum LOSS ON OUT-OF-STOCKS On time forecasting from important export customers (ind.5) On time forecasting from special export customers (ind.6) CEO Figure 35: Performance-oriented viewpoint on Reliable forecast from VMD to Biové Refinements to CHOOSE approach When drafting the indicators, it became clear that the actor assigned to a certain objective is not always responsible for the indicator. Instead, several other actors are involved as well. Three indicators exemplify this: The indicator Loss on out-of-stocks, which is derived from the indicator Out-of-stocks of Biové products for Belgium, is of great importance to the CEO of the company. The indicator Expired Products cannot be calculated if the IT specialist of the company does not create it. 78

94 The indicator Variance in Belgian Forecasting has to be established by both the responsible for Sales Belgium and the Supply Chain Manager, and both persons also have an interest in this indicator. There are two possible ways to solve this problem. In the first solution, a many-to-many Assigned relationship between the Indicator and Actor constructs is set up. As several Indicators can be linked to several Actors, this relationship needs an association class. This association class comprises a Type attribute to enable the use of a RACI labelling of the Assigned relationship (Responsible, Accountable, Consulted and Informed). The second solution on the other hand, does not create an extra solution, but uses the existing relationships to solve the problem: the Actor who needs to set up the Indicator is specified through the Source relationship with the Object class, and the person who will be informed on the Indicator, is specified by the Wish relationship between the Actor and Goal construct. The first solution was chosen (cf. Figure 36) because of the exhaustiveness principle (Bernaert, Poels, et al., 2013) and the consistency design criteria (Paige et al., 2000) (the Actor specialization of the Object class is used as a passive element and could thereby not produce an Indicator). In addition, the generic Type attribute enables flexibility for the SME to choose for another responsibility assignment matrix. Furthermore, it corresponds with the Performance (RACI) relationship of the current CHOOSE metamodel (Bernaert, Callaert, Poels, et al., 2013) and with what is broadly agreed upon in literature (Cardoso, 2013a): an indicator should have a responsible, give information to specific persons, and be owned. An example is given in Figure 37 (framed in red). Figure 36: Assigned (RACI) relationship with an association class with a Type attribute This refinement additionally gives the ability to improve an above-mentioned soft-constraint (cf. PART III, Chapter II, Section 1.1) on the number of indicators per person: the number of Indicators for which an Actor is Responsible (through the Assigned (RACI) relationship) should not exceed seven. 79

95 3 Indicator 3 Name Get more input from registrations, Sales vb. Antibiotica in België aan banden gelegd, had variance in Belgian forecasting Description Name eerder moeten gecommuniceerd worden estimated value of the last twelve monthsreal value of the last twelve months Action 1 Who (RACI) registration department, sales Description / real value of the last twelve months Actual Value 33% Where / Frequency Monthly Deadline jun/15 Where Excel list: ForecastBelgium Type of target Reduction Name Include promo actions in forecasting Milestones Description When a product is sold as a discount, more is sold, so the forecast should be adjusted deadline 1 dec/14 Action 2 Who (RACI) R: PJ, A: Kristel value 1 25% Where / deadline 3 jun/15 Deadline jun/15 target value 15% RACI Actor Responsible: Supply Chain Manager, Consulted: Sales Belgium Figure 37: Example of the Assigned relationship between Actor and Indicator Interview 8 Description Interview number eight (with the HR manager) further complements the indicators belonging to the objectives Retain neither over, nor under qualified persons for a function and Hire neither over, nor under qualified persons for a function (cf. Figure 38). The HR manager is Accountable for all ten indicators, but only Responsible for seven of them. The other three indicators are the responsibility of respectively the managers of the Quality Department (Leo in Figure 38), the Belgium sales department (PJ in Figure 38) and the Export sales department (Jan in Figure 38). Furthermore, the Includes relationships between the different Indicators are displayed, together with their corresponding Type attribute. Also shown is the Measurement relationship between the objective and its corresponding indicators, with the specific contribution of each indicator. Finally, the relationships with the Object and Operation viewpoints are established as well (not displayed here, but in Appendix 6). 80

96 20% 30% Contribution 50% ADDED VALUE HUMAN CAPITAL (ind.1) AVERAGE SCORE OF WORKERS ON EVALUATION (Ind. 2) TOTAL NUMBER OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISALS (Ind.5) NUMBER OF RECRUITMENTS WITH ASSESSMENTS OF HIGHLY SKILLED PERSONS Sum Sum AVERAGE SCORE OF WORKERS ON ATTENDANCE AVERAGE SCORE OF WORKERS ON GOOD BEHAVIOR NUMBER OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISALS FROM HR MANAGER (Ind.6) NUMBER OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISALS FROM QUALITY DEPARTMENT (Ind.8) NUMBER OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISALS FROM SALES BELGIUM DEPARTMENT (Ind.7) NUMBER OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISALS FROM SALES EXPORT DEPARTMENT (Ind.9) Leo PJ Jan Figure 38: Performance-oriented viewpoint on Put the right people on the right spot Refinements to the CHOOSE approach During all the interviews, the Reward attribute of the Milestone class has not been used at all. This could be caused by the fact that SMEs have a lack of financial resources (PART I, Chapter 1, Characteristic (2)). Because of the design principle of simplicity (Paige et al., 2000), the attribute is deleted from the metamodel. The same applies for the Threshold attribute of the association class of the Comparison relationship between the Indicator and Milestone classes: the CEO and other managers did not see the benefits of implementing it. As the increase in efficiency (cost decrease) of deleting the attribute is larger than the decrease in effectiveness (benefits) (Moody, 2003), this attribute is deleted as well. Figure 39: Description attribute of the Milestone class Instead, a Description attribute is added to the Milestone class (cf. Figure 39). This attribute ensures consistency with the other classes of the CHOOSE metamodel and can entail extra information, such as rewards practices and other issues. 81

97 Value To start, the Assigned relationship between the Indicator and Actor constructs has been valued by the HR manager. To exemplify, the Total number of performance appraisals Indicator will be explained. The company decided that performance appraisals to evaluate the employees would be very useful, since the company was getting bigger. However, several different persons would need to perform the appraisals, as the HR manager does not have enough technical knowledge to interview for instance the employees working in the Registration department. Therefore, the indicator is divided into four different indicators: one for the manager of Sales Belgium, one for the manager of Sales Export, one for the manager of the Registration department, and one for the HR manager (cf. Figure 38 and Appendix 6). Secondly, as mentioned before (cf. Section ), the Perform a good selection process goal shows that not only the lowest-level goals (also called the leaves of the tree) can be transformed in an Objective in order to be measured. Furthermore, as depicted in Figure 40, the operations required to achieve a milestone, are on their turn linked with a goal, which is a lowerlevel refinement goal of the original objective. This clearly shows the interrelation of the different viewpoints and corresponds with soft constraint (5) described in Section 1.3. Measurement Indicator: Number of recruitments with assessment of highly skilled people Comparison (Absolute) Target: 100% by the end of 2014 Achievement Wish Assignment Responsible Responsible & Accountable Accountable Consulted Consulted Responsible Performance Operationalization Figure 40: Example of the interrelation of the different viewpoints 82

98 Interview 9 Description During this interview with the CEO, the third goal described in Interview 3, Realize a high level of profitability, is measured by indicators. Two factors are of crucial importance to the CEO: the EBITDA and the Gross Margin (cf. Figure 41). Furthermore, the Includes relationships between the different indicators are displayed, together with their corresponding Type attribute. Also shown is the Measurement relationship between the objective regarding the Gross Margin and its indicators, with their specific contribution. Figure 41: Performance-oriented viewpoint on Realize a high level of profitability Refinements to the CHOOSE approach The CEO did not find any actions (Operations) necessary to achieve the target, as the financial goals were too high-level. Literature review confirms the same (cf. PART I, Chapter ): financial indicators give a clear picture of whether you are doing fine or not, but do not tell you how to improve these results (Parmenter, 2011). Therefore, a soft-constraint is added to metamodel following the example of Giannoulis et al. (2012): The Milestones of an Indicator belonging to an Objective coming from the financial perspective of the BSC, do not require corresponding Operations. 83

99 Interview 10, 11 and 12 Description During interview ten, eleven and twelve, the last adjustments were made to the Performanceoriented dimension of the three objectives that are critical to the organization: Interview ten regards the Stimulate a closer collaboration between Biové and VMD goal and a complete overview of the Performance-oriented viewpoint can be found in Appendix 5. Interview eleven regards the Put the right people on the right spot goal and a complete overview of the Performance-oriented viewpoint can be found in Appendix 6. Interview twelve regards the Realize a higher level of profitability goal and a complete overview of the Performance-oriented viewpoint can be found in Appendix 7. Refinements to the CHOOSE approach During the last three interviews, the CHOOSE metamodel and method stayed robust. Value Because of the inclusion of the value attribute of the Indicator class and the value attribute of the Milestone class, and because of the Contribution attribute of the association class of the Measurement relationship between the Indicator and Success Factor classes, it will be possible to perform a more elaborated as-is/to-be analysis than was the case previously. Additionally, the degree of satisfaction of a certain success factor can be calculated through the degree of satisfaction of its underlying Indicators (calculated by the Contribution attribute of the Measurement relationship). An example is given in Figure

100 Goal (Objective ): Strive for a consolidated EBITDA of million by the end of 2016 AS IS / TO BE analysis TO BE TO BE TO BE AS IS (end 2014) (end 2015) (end 2016) mio mio mio mio DEGREE OF SATISFACTION analysis Figure 42: Example of an As-is/To-be and Degree of Satisfaction analysis 85

101 CHAPTER III: FINAL SOLUTION 3.1 Final CHOOSE metamodel Figure 43 displays the final CHOOSE metamodel extended with a Performance-oriented viewpoint (in orange) after the Literature Research and Action Research. Figure 43: Final CHOOSE Metamodel 3.2 Final Extra CHOOSE constraints The Performance-oriented extension of the CHOOSE metamodel includes the following softconstraints: (1) The total number of Indicators should not exceed twenty-five. (2) The number of Indicators for which an Actor is Responsible (by the Assigned relationship) should not exceed seven. (3) Every Indicator should be compared to exactly one Target and can be compared to zero to many other Milestones. (4) The Milestones of an Indicator belonging to an Objective derived from the financial perspective of the BSC, do not require corresponding Operations. 86

102 (5) If an Operation is defined to achieve a Milestone, the relationship between the Goal, Indicator, Milestone and Operations classes should behave as a closed circle : an Indicator that measures a certain Objective, is compared against Milestones. The Operation that is defined to achieve such a Milestone, should also Operationalize a Goal. This Goal, in turn, should be a lower-level goal of the original Objective. (An example of this constraint is given in Section ) 3.3 Final CHOOSE method The CHOOSE method consists of the Roadmap-method, the Interview-method and the Stopcriteria (Bernaert, Callaert, Poels, et al., 2013). The extensions that are made related to the Performance-oriented viewpoint during this master thesis, are highlighted in bold. The Roadmap-method (1) (Goal dimension): The CEO of the enterprise is asked to first define the strategy, vision and mission of the enterprise and afterwards define the highest-level Goal in each of the four Balanced Scorecard dimensions. (2) (Goal dimension): From the four highest-level Goals, the Goals are broken down into lower-level Goals. More Goals are found through the 'Why/How?'-questions (Bernaert and Poels 2011). Afterwards determine which areas of the goal tree currently are the most critical to the success of the company. These Goals will be linked to the Performance-oriented dimension and have to be written in SMART Objectives. (3) (Actor dimension): The Human Actors, Roles, Software Actors, and Devices are added through interviewing and consulting other secondary sources (e.g., organization charts). (4) (Performance-oriented dimension): the Indicators (corresponding with the Objectives through the Measurement relationship and with the Actors through the Assigned relationship) are defined together with their Milestones and Target through the Comparison relationship. Indicators are related to each other through the Includes relationship. The benefits of adding an Indicator should always be compared against the costs. (5) (Operation dimension): The different activity groups of Porter s Value Chain (Porter and Millar 1985) are used to elicit the Operations (Processes and Projects). The Operations are linked with the other three dimensions (Goals, Actors and Milestones). 87

103 (6) (Object dimension): The Objects and corresponding relationships with Goals (Concern), Actors (Monitoring/Control), Indicators (Source) and/or Operations (Input/Output) are added to the model based on the interviews and visual inspection. (7) (Validation): The last step of the Roadmap is a validation round of the model by the CEO. The Interview-method (1) During the first interview, Step 1 and 2 of the Roadmap are executed in order to create a holistic Goal tree of the enterprise. The second part of the interview focuses on the Actor tree by executing Step 3. (2) The second interview is divided in four parts. First of all, a questionnaire, created after the analysis and implementation of the Goal and Actor tree of the first interview, is used to fill the gaps (e.g., missing elements or relationships) of the Goal and Actor tree. Secondly, the Indicators and Milestones belonging to the SMART Objectives are defined (Step 4). Thirdly, the activity groups of Porter s Value Chain are used to define the Operations of the enterprise in each activity group (Step 5). Thirdly, the Objects of the enterprise are added based on their relationships with the other four dimensions (Step 6). (3) The third interview consists of two parts. Firstly, after analysis and implementation of the Indicators, Milestones, Operations tree and Objects, the interviewer tries to find missing constructs and relations or resolve ambiguities. Secondly, the interviewee (CEO of the SME) visually validates the final CHOOSE-model (Step 7). The Stop-criteria (1) Goal dimension: The Goal-check is twofold. (a) Does the downward Goal Refinement path of each Goal AND-Refinement and of one alternative of each Goal OR-Refinement only stop if at least one of its finegrained Goals is Operationalized? (b) Is every lowest-level (AND-Refinement) Goal Operationalized by an Operation? If this is not possible, there are two possibilities: it is a to-be Goal (another alternative of a Goal OR-Refinement) or there is a misfit between strategy and Operations (Henderson and Venkatraman 1993). (2) Actor dimension: The Actor-check is also twofold: 88

104 (a) Are all employees (Human Actors and Roles) of the organization chart, all other relevant stakeholders, and all relevant Software Actors and Devices included in the Actor dimension? (b) Is every Actor linked to at least one Operation? (3) Operation dimension: First of all, take into consideration that relationships can sometimes be transferred to a related element (Bernaert et al. 2013a): a superoperation groups the relations (with e.g., Goals) of its suboperations and a lower-level Goal inherits the relations of its related higher-level Goals (with e.g., Operations). If for example a superoperation does not Operationalize any Goal, however one of its suboperations does, then this superoperation actually also Operationalizes this Goal through one of its suboperations. The Operation-check is then fourfold: (a) Are all Performed Operations for every Actor included? (b) Does each Operation contribute to a Goal? (c) Is every Operation linked to an Actor? (d) Are all Operations contributing to the achievement of a Milestone included? (4) Performance-oriented dimension: The same relationship transfer is applicable here. For example, an Objective is linked to an Indicator, which on its turn is built of two other Indicators. Then these two Indicators also measure the Objective. The Performance-oriented-check is fourfold: (a) Does each Indicator measure an Objective? (b) Does each Indicator have a responsible Actor? (c) Does each Indicator have one Target? (d) The Indicators derived from the financial perspective of the BSC excluded, does each Milestone belonging to an Indicator have a corresponding Operation? (5) Object dimension: In analogy with the four other dimensions, the Object-check is also fourfold: (a) Are all products and resources (either physical or not) of the SME represented in the Object model? (b) Are all the necessary Objects (Input/Output) of the Operations (Operation dimension) included in the Object dimension? (c) Are all the necessary Objects of the Goals included in the Object dimension? (d) Are all the necessary Objects of the Indicators included in the Object dimension? 89

105 PART IV: EVALUATION INTRODUCTION To ensure consistency, the pursued method of evaluation for the Performance-oriented viewpoint extension of the CHOOSE metamodel and method is in line with the previously used evaluation methods in the CHOOSE approach (Bernaert, Callaert, Poels, et al., 2013). In Chapter I, the literature concerning the used evaluation techniques will be described. The CHOOSE method will be evaluated according to the Method Evaluation Model (Moody, 2003), the developed instance of the CHOOSE metamodel (CHOOSE model) will be evaluated according to the User Evaluations Based Quality Model for Conceptual Modelling Scripts (A. Maes & Poels, 2007) and the CHOOSE model will also be evaluated with respect to the CHOOSE criteria (Bernaert et al., 2014). Afterwards, in Chapter II, the results of this evaluation will be described. CHAPTER I: EVALUATION MODELS 1.1 Method Evaluation Model The Method Evaluation Model (MEM) (Moody, 2003) is a theoretical model to evaluate IS design methods, and is based on both the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) (Davis, 1989) and the Methodological Pragmatism (Rescher, 1977). Both theories will be briefly presented before explaining the MEM. The TAM is a well-known model concerning the adoption of IS technology, and consists of four important constructs (Davis, 1989): (1) Perceived Usefulness, which is The degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would enhance his or her job performance. (2) Perceived Ease of Use, which is The degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would be free of effort. (3) Intention to Use, which is The extent to which a person intends to use a particular system, and (4) Actual System Use, which is The extent to which a system is used in practice. 90

106 The Intention to Use is influenced by both the Perceived Usefulness and Perceived Ease of Use, which is a person s subjective appraisal of respectively performance and effort (Davis, 1989). The Methodological Pragmatism emphasizes that methods only have pragmatic value rather than truth-value: The validity of a method can only be established by applicative success in practice (Rescher, 1977). Pragmatic success is defined as the efficiency and effectiveness with which a method achieves its objectives (Rescher, 1977). The objective of validation is not demonstrating that the method is correct, but that it is rational practice to adopt the method based on its pragmatic success (Rescher, 1977). For this reason, the Performance-oriented extension of the CHOOSE approach was implemented and tested in a case study. Based on TAM (Davis, 1989) and the Methodological Pragmatism (Rescher, 1977), Moody (2003) constructed the MEM, which is displayed in Figure 44. Figure 44: Method Evaluation Model (from (Moody, 2003)) The model has the following six constructs: (1) Actual Efficiency, which is The effort required to apply a method (Methodological Pragmatism) (Rescher, 1977) (2) Actual Effectiveness, which is The degree to which a method achieves its objectives (Methodological Pragmatism) (Rescher, 1977) (3) Perceived Ease of Use (TAM) (Davis, 1989) (4) Perceived Usefulness (TAM) (Davis, 1989) (5) Intention to Use (TAM) (Davis, 1989) (6) Actual Usage (TAM) (Davis, 1989) 91

107 The causal relationships between the constructs of the model shown in Figure 44 by the arrows, are the following: Actual Efficiency measures the effort required to apply the method, by which the Perceived Ease of Use (i.e. the perception of effort required) is influenced. Actual Effectiveness measures how well the method achieves its objectives, by which the Perceived Usefulness (i.e. the perception of its effectiveness) is influenced. Perceived Ease of Use has an impact on the Perceived Usefulness (TAM) (Davis, 1989). Both Perceived Ease of Use and Perceived Usefulness have an impact on Intention to Use (TAM) (Davis, 1989). The Intention to Use a method determines its Actual Usage. This is according to TAM (Davis, 1989) and the Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1991), which states that perceptions influence intentions which in turn influence the actual behavior of the individual. It is important to notice that Intention to Use is only indirectly influenced by Actual Efficiency and Effectiveness through the Perceptions of Ease of Use and Usefulness (in contrast to TAM). This emphasizes the fact that subjective reality is more important than objective reality, as perceptions are also influenced by other factors not included in the evaluation model, such as prior knowledge, experience with particular methods and normative influences (Moody, 2003). According to Moody (2003), the relative importance of Perceived Ease of Use in making decisions about method adoption is much higher for practitioners than it is for undergraduate students. Therefore, it is essential to make sure that EA techniques can be easily applied by practitioners in SMEs, and that these practitioners moreover are willing to apply the method (Bernaert et al., 2014). Moody (2003) reformulated the TAM six-item scales for Perceived Usefulness and Perceived Ease of Use (cf. Table 2) on a 7-point Likert scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree. Perceived Usefulness 1. Work More Quickly 2. Increase Job Performance 3. Increase Productivity 4. Increase Effectiveness 5. Make Job Easier 6. Useful Perceived Ease of Use 1. Easy to Learn 2. Controllable 3. Clear and Understandable 4. Flexible 5. Easy to Become Skilful 6. Easy to Use Table 2: Six-item scales of Perceived Usefulness and Perceived Ease of Use (from (Davis, 1989)) 92

108 During the evaluation phase of the action research in this master thesis, four different persons evaluated the CHOOSE method by a questionnaire compiled by Bernaert, Callaert, Poels, et al. (2013) based on the six-item scales of Moody (2003) and Davis (1989) (cf. Table 3). The evaluators are four participants of the case study enterprise: the CEO (Mr. Jan Moons), the HR manager (Mr. Luc Jacobs), the Supply Chain manager (Ms. Kristel Walschots) and the external consultant of the Board (Mr. Peter Manet), who also is a PM expert. Perceived Usefulness Perceived Ease of Use PU 1 PU 2 PU 3 PU 4 PU 5 PU 6 PEU 1 PEU 2 PEU 3 PEU 4 PEU 5 PEU 6 The CHOOSE method enabled me to more quickly create the CHOOSE model. With the aid of the CHOOSE method, I was able to create a better and more consistent model. The structured CHOOSE method contributes to an increased productivity. The applied CHOOSE method increases the effectiveness of the enterprise architecture process and contributes to the final result. The offering of the method facilitates the enterprise architecture process. I consider the applied method as a useful aid in creating the enterprise architecture model. It is easy to learn to work with the CHOOSE method. The CHOOSE method is easily controllable. The structure of the CHOOSE method is straightforward, clear, and understandable. The CHOOSE method can be applied flexibly. I feel that I will quickly get to master the CHOOSE method. The CHOOSE method is easy to use. Table 3: Questionnaire for Perceived Usefulness and Perceived Ease of Use (from (Bernaert, Callaert, Poels, et al., 2013)) 1.2 User Evaluations Based Quality Model for Conceptual Models The User Evaluations Based Quality Model (UEBQM) proposed by Maes and Poels (2007) consists of four model constructs (quality dimensions: PEOU, PU, PSQ, US) and five relationships between those constructs (H1, H2, H3, H4, and H5) (cf. Figure 45). The relationships and the explanatory power of the model have been proven empirically (A. Maes & Poels, 2007). The model constructs are: The Perceived Ease of Understanding (PEOU), which defines to which extent a person believes that using a model for understanding the problem domain and IS requirements is free of mental effort. The Perceived Semantic Quality (PSQ), which measures the accuracy and completeness by which the reality is represented by the model, as perceived by a model user. 93

109 The Perceived Usefulness (PU), which defines the effectiveness of a model related to the expression and communication of the user s view of the domain and the IS requirements. The User Satisfaction (US), which measures the satisfaction of the users about the model with respect to its purpose and thereby gives a general evaluation of the model quality. Figure 45: UEBQM (from (A. Maes & Poels, 2007)) Table 4 displays the proposed multi-item measurement instrument for the four constructs (A. Maes & Poels, 2007). For each item, a 7-point Likert scale ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree is recommended. PEOU1 PEOU2 PEOU3 PEOU4 US1 US2 US3 US4 PU1 PU2 PU3 PSQ1 PSQ2 PSQ3 PSQ4 PSQ5 It was easy for me to understand what the conceptual model was trying to model Using the conceptual model was often frustrating Overall, the conceptual model was easy to use Learning how to read the conceptual model was easy The conceptual model adequately met the information needs that I was asked to support The conceptual model was not efficient in providing the information I needed The conceptual model was effective in providing the information I needed Overall, I am satisfied with the conceptual model for providing the information I needed Overall, I think the conceptual model would be an improvement to a textual description of the business process Overall, I found the conceptual model useful for understanding the process modelled Overall, I think the conceptual model improves my performance when understanding the process modelled The conceptual model represents the business process correctly The conceptual model is a realistic representation of the business process The conceptual model contains contradicting elements All the elements in the conceptual model are relevant for the representation of the business process The conceptual model gives a complete representation of the business process Table 4: The UEBQM measurement instrument concerning the four quality dimensions (from (A. Maes & Poels, 2007)) 94

110 This measurement instrument is used to evaluate the developed CHOOSE model by the same four participants of the case study enterprise. The CHOOSE metamodel will thereby be indirectly evaluated by evaluating its model instance developed in the case study. The proposed adapted measurement instrument for the CHOOSE model of Bernaert, Callaert, Poels et al. (2013) (cf. Table 5) is used, with a specific focus on the Performance-oriented viewpoint. PEOU 1 PEOU 2 PEOU 3 PEOU 4 US 1 US 2 US 3 US 4 PU 1 PU 2 PU 3 PSQ 1 PSQ 2 PSQ 3 PSQ 4 PSQ 5 It was easy for me to understand what the CHOOSE model was trying to model Using the CHOOSE model was often frustrating Overall, the CHOOSE model was easy to use Learning how to read the CHOOSE model was easy The CHOOSE model adequately met the information needs that I was asked to support The CHOOSE model was not efficient in providing the information I needed The CHOOSE model was effective in providing the information I needed Overall, I am satisfied with the CHOOSE model for providing the information I needed Overall, I think the CHOOSE model would be an improvement to a textual description of the company Overall, I found the CHOOSE model useful for understanding the company modeled Overall, I think the CHOOSE model improves my performance when understanding the company modeled The CHOOSE model represents the company correctly The CHOOSE model is a realistic representation of the company The CHOOSE model contains contradicting elements All the elements in the CHOOSE model are relevant for the representation of the company The CHOOSE model gives a complete representation of the company Table 5: Measurement instrument to evaluate the CHOOSE metamodel (from (Bernaert, Callaert, Poels, et al., 2013)) 1.3 CHOOSE criteria The CHOOSE approach entails ten design criteria (cf. Figure 5): five criteria for a good EA technique, where the fourth criteria Suitable for target audience (SME) is replaced by the six SME-related criteria (Bernaert et al., 2014). These criteria are used as well to evaluate the Performance-oriented viewpoint extension of the CHOOSE metamodel and method. The criteria are summarized in Table 6. The evaluation will be done by an external PM and ICT Architecture expert, Mr. Mark Van Gastel and by the internal PM expert of the case study company, Mr. Peter Manet. 95

111 EA 1 EA 2 EA 3 SME 1 SME 2 SME 3 SME 4 SME 5 SME 6 EA 5 The CHOOSE model has succeeded in managing and controlling the complexity of the enterprise (and its corresponding systems, processes, ). (Control) The CHOOSE model describes the enterprise completely/holistically. (Holistic Overview) The CHOOSE model facilitates the translation from strategic objectives to operational processes. (Objectives) The CHOOSE model allows the SME to work time efficiently on strategic matters. A person with few IT skills must be able to use and/or adapt the CHOOSE model. The CHOOSE model is useful without support from external specialists. The CHOOSE model enables clear process description and overview. The CEO must be involved in the development of the CHOOSE model. The expected returns of the CHOOSE model must be bigger than the expected costs and risks. The model optimizes the company as a whole instead of doing local optimization within individual domains. (Enterprise) Table 6: Ten design criteria of the CHOOSE approach (translated from (Bernaert, Callaert, & Poels, 2013)) 96

112 CHAPTER II: EVALUATION RESULTS 2.1 Evaluation by the SME After the development and refinement of the Performance-oriented extension of the CHOOSE approach, both the CHOOSE model (as an instance of the metamodel) and method were evaluated by the CEO, HR manager, Supply Chain (SC) manager and the external member of the board (who is a PM expert) by means of a questionnaire based on the questions in Table 3 and Table 5. It is important to notice that the metamodel and method were refined several times during the cyclical process of Action Research (Susman & Evered, 1978), and thereby the final CHOOSE metamodel and method were only established after some time. As a result, the evaluators cannot be considered as independent evaluators. Furthermore, as the case study research consisted of only one case study, the results cannot be generalized statistically (Yin, 2009). The results of the method and model evaluation are shown in Table 7. The results of the negatively formulated statements of PEOU 2, US 2, and PSQ 3 are interpreted as the inverse results (so 1 becomes 7, etc.) to calculate the average and interpret these results correctly General Evaluation The participants of the enterprise in general evaluated the CHOOSE approach on average as very good on a 5-point Likert scale (from very bad to very good ) (cf. General Evaluation in Table 7, average: 4.75). The CEO is the only person who evaluated the CHOOSE approach as good rather than very good. He argues that the CHOOSE approach could be a very useful tool to manage the complexities of the firm. Identifying measures through the Performance-oriented viewpoint furthermore stimulates a good way of thinking and a positive attitude in the organization. However, he remarks that the failure or success of the model will depend on the persons keeping the model up to date. Furthermore, he wonders who will construct the initial model and whether or not this should be an external person. These remarks corresponds with the critical remark of the CEOs in case studies three and six of Bernaert, Callaert and Poels (2013): Who within the SME will make an initial EA model and will keep it up to date? The HR manager states that the model gives an organized and clear view of what really matters and clearly shows where the company can still improve, but the difficulty will be to keep a 97

113 general overview without having an overload of information. In addition, the SC manager wishes to use the model on a permanent basis in the future, as it clearly shows the pressing issues the company is currently dealing with. The external member of the board, who is an expert in PM, furthermore argues the following: The performance-oriented viewpoint is a substantial improvement to the CHOOSE approach. As I am big believer of What you measure is what you get, I certainly suggest including this extension in the final CHOOSE approach. Table 7: Evaluation results of CHOOSE metamodel and method by the CEO, SC manager, HR manager and member of the board 98

114 2.1.2 Method Evaluation The CHOOSE method was evaluated based on MEM (Moody, 2003). To remind the participants of the case study company of the applied method, a transcript of the applied CHOOSE method (cf. PART III, Section (5)) was first given before filling in the questionnaire. The adapted six-item scales of Davis (1989) (cf. Table 3) of both variables (Perceived Usefulness and Perceived Ease of Use) are positively evaluated. The participants on average agree that the CHOOSE method has a high degree of Perceived Usefulness (cf. PU in Table 7, average: 6.08). The external member of the board states the following: The strength of the CHOOSE approach lies in the structured process representation (i.e. the method). Without this method, it would be difficult to interpret the metamodel. Nevertheless, the HR manager only gives an average score in between neutral and slightly agree on the Perceived Usefulness. This could be caused by the fact that the HR manager was the only person who did not have any prior knowledge of the used framework (BSC) and of performance indicators in general. The persons involved also agree that the CHOOSE method has a high degree of Perceived Ease of Use (cf. PEU in Table 7, average: 5.96). The high score of the Perceived Usefulness and Ease of Use will lead to an Intention to Use and to the Actual Usage of the CHOOSE method and thereby to the Actual Usage of the CHOOSE approach. This inference is based on the MEM (cf. Figure 44) (Moody, 2003) Model Evaluation Based on the UEBQM (A. Maes & Poels, 2007), the participants of the case study agreed that the CHOOSE model (as an instance of the CHOOSE metamodel) has a good Perceived Ease of Understanding (cf. PEOU in Table 7, average: 6,13) and Perceived Semantic Quality (cf. PSQ in Table 7, average: 5,95). The SC manager did however have a remark concerning the third question of the Perceived Ease of Understanding (cf. PEOU 3 in Table 5). She noted that it was difficult and ambiguous to answer this question correctly, since the model was constructed by the CHOOSE Architect rather than the participants of the case study. The same remark has also been made during the second and third case study of Bernaert, Callaert and Poels (2013). Therefore, it could be useful to more actively involve the participants of the company during the construction of their CHOOSE model. 99

115 In accordance with the causal relationships in UEBQM (cf. Figure 45), this resulted in an approval with a good Perceived Usefulness (cf. PU in Table 7, average: 6.25) and with a good User Satisfaction (cf. US in Table 7, average: 5.88) General Evaluation of the Existing CHOOSE Approach As a side note, some general evaluation remarks concerning the existing CHOOSE approach established by Bernaert, Callaert and Poels (2013) are given as well. During the first interview where the Goal dimension was elaborated, both the CEO and the external member of the board found the following three aspects very useful: (1) The refinements of Goals through the How and Why questions are a convenient and efficient way to establish the goal tree. (2) By the clear distinction between the different dimensions (Goal, Actor, Operation and Object) and by starting with the elaboration of the goal tree, the CHOOSE approach ensures that the CEO first thinks on a very general level and does not immediately proceed to the corresponding actions (Operations). (3) The elaboration of the goal tree is of great value during a strategy meeting with the board. 2.2 Evaluation by an expert The CHOOSE model was evaluated based on the ten initial criteria for EA in an SME context (cf. Table 6) by Mr. Mark Van Gastel, an expert in PM and ICT Architecture. The aim of this evaluation step is to indirectly evaluate the CHOOSE metamodel towards these criteria, as the CHOOSE model is an instance of the CHOOSE metamodel. The results are shown in Table 8. CHOOSE Criteria EA 1 EA 2 EA 3 SME 1 SME 2 SME 3 SME 4 SME 5 SME 6 EA 5 Yes / No YES NO YES YES YES NO YES YES YES YES Table 8: Evaluation results of the CHOOSE model by the external PM and ICT Architecture expert As aforementioned in the introduction of PART III, the Performance-oriented dimension focuses mainly on the Control criteria (EA 1) and the Objective criteria (EA 3), while keeping in mind the Suitability for SMEs (SME 1 to SME 6). The expert positively evaluated these criteria, expect for the third SME criteria (SME 3 in Table 8), which states that the CHOOSE model could be used 100

116 without support from external specialists. Furthermore, the expert believes that the CHOOSE model does not describe the enterprise completely or holistically (EA 2 in Table 8). Nevertheless, this could be caused by the intention of this particular case study research: the CHOOSE model (as an instance of the CHOOSE metamodel) was constructed to develop and refine the Performance-oriented dimension of the CHOOSE approach. Thereby, this master thesis did not aim to construct a complete CHOOSE model and provide a holistic overview. Moreover, the expert confirms the value in practice of the added sentence in step one of the Roadmap-method (Goal dimension: The CEO of the enterprise is asked to first define the strategy, vision and mission of the enterprise and afterwards define the highest-level Goal in each of the four Balanced Scorecard dimensions, cf. PART III, Section 3.3(5)). He states that in practice, it is more convenient to start with the value proposition before starting with the four BSC perspectives. In addition, another PM expert (Mr. Peter Manet) evaluated the CHOOSE model based on the CHOOSE criteria. As this expert is a member of the board of the case study company, the evaluation results are not independent and value-free, but they can still be important. The results (cf. Table 9) correspond with the results of the external expert in Table 8, except for the second SME criteria (SME 2 in Table 9). CHOOSE Criteria EA 1 EA 2 EA 3 SME 1 SME 2 SME 3 SME 4 SME 5 SME 6 EA 5 Yes / No YES NO YES YES NO NO YES YES YES YES Table 9: Evaluation results of the CHOOSE model by the internal PM expert 101

117 PART V: CONCLUSION First of all, this part provides a general conclusion of the master thesis, then it presents its limitations and finishes with several guidelines for future research. GENERAL CONCLUSION This master thesis presented a Performance Management System for the CHOOSE approach for Enterprise Architecture for SMEs. Two artifacts of the existing CHOOSE approach (Bernaert, Callaert, Poels, et al., 2013) are extended with a Performance-oriented dimension: the metamodel and the method. This sets the total number of viewpoints to five: a Goal, Actor, Operation, Object and Performance-oriented viewpoint. The extension can be considered as an optional add-on to the current CHOOSE approach, specifically developed for SMEs that are facing increasing complexities and that perceive the need to measure the achievement of their goals. The additional viewpoint permits SMEs to measure their goals through indicators, provided that these goals are written in a SMART way (Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Relevant and Timebound). An indicator has an assigned actor, can include another indicator and is measured against a long-term target and possibly against several other short-term milestones as well. To achieve these milestones, appropriate actions (operations) can be defined. Furthermore, the Performance-oriented viewpoint gives the SME the opportunity to calculate the degree of goal satisfaction and to perform a more profound and detailed as-is/to-be goal analysis than was the case previously. The Performance-oriented viewpoint was accomplished in three consecutive phases: a literature research phase, a case study research phase and an evaluation phase. Since the CHOOSE approach is an EA approach for SMEs (Bernaert et al., 2014), the literature research first of all focused, where possible, on studies concerning SMEs and secondly, the selected case study enterprise complies with the definition of SMEs. Despite the fact that the case study research was executed from an interpretive perspective, the two positivist design tests (external validity and reliability) were taken into consideration (Yin, 2009). Based on the literature research, four classes (two general classes and two specialization classes) and five relationships were added to the existing CHOOSE metamodel (Bernaert, 102

118 Callaert, Poels, et al., 2013). Furthermore, several guidelines were given for the CHOOSE method. Secondly, the metamodel and method were extended and refined through the cyclical process of Action Research by a Case Study Research (Susman & Evered, 1978) that consisted of twelve interviews. By developing and refining the CHOOSE model (as an instance of the CHOOSE metamodel) during the first nine interviews, it was possible to make ten adjustments to the metamodel. The metamodel stayed robust during the last three interviews. In addition, the CHOOSE method was adapted: one step was added to the CHOOSE Roadmap-method, an additional step was added to the second interview of the Interview-method and another step was added to the Stop-criteria. As a final stage, the CHOOSE approach with the Performance-oriented dimension was positively evaluated by the participants of the case study enterprise. Furthermore, a PM and ICT Architecture expert evaluated the developed CHOOSE model towards the initial criteria for EA in an SME context (Bernaert et al., 2014). This evaluation step confirmed the fit between the CHOOSE model and these initial criteria. The impact of this master thesis can be substantial as, to the knowledge of the author, it is one of the first EA approaches for SMEs that incorporates a performance management system (Cardoso, 2013a). Previous research clearly indicates the necessity for a tailored approach adjusted to the specific needs of SMEs, both for EA (Bernaert et al., 2014) as for PM (Chalmeta et al., 2012; Cocca & Alberti, 2010; Garengo et al., 2005; Hudson et al., 2001; Nudurupati & Bititci, 2011; Rompho, 2011). The key contributions of this master thesis are thus the development and refinement of a Performance-oriented viewpoint for the CHOOSE metamodel and method, adapted to the characteristics of an SME context. LIMITATIONS This master thesis has four main limitations. The first limitation concerns the limited number of case studies. Because the Action Research program consists of only one case study (singlecase design) (Yin, 2009), the results cannot be demonstrated statistically. Secondly, design criteria from literature (Bernaert, Poels, et al., 2013; Paige et al., 2000) were used during the evaluation of the potential solutions in the solution space (for the development and refinement of the CHOOSE metamodel and method). Although the evaluation of these 103

119 criteria for the possible solutions was carefully conducted, it is still by its nature subjective, which is the second limitation of this master thesis. Thirdly, the evaluation of the CHOOSE model was conducted by five persons. Four out of five evaluators were participants of the case study itself, so they cannot be seen as independent evaluators. As a result, the CHOOSE model is only evaluated by one external expert. Furthermore, no use was made of an objective measuring instrument. Finally, most of the data of the case study involve strategic issues. A last limitation of this research is the fact that the case study database contains confidential data and thus cannot be made public. FUTURE RESEARCH First of all, future research could increase the number of case studies to further test and evaluate the additional Performance-oriented dimension of the CHOOSE metamodel and method. On the one hand, implementing the CHOOSE approach in more SMEs would result in a more robust CHOOSE metamodel and method. On the other hand, implementing the CHOOSE approach in more companies in general (SMEs and larger companies) would result in more reliable evaluation results. Secondly, these case study companies should be monitored on a longer term to assess the amount of effort they have spent to keep their CHOOSE model up to date. This master thesis focused on the use of CHOOSE in developing EA models integrated with performance indicators, but more attention should be given to the management of such models. Thirdly, it would be advantageous if the Performance-oriented dimension of the CHOOSE metamodel and method were visualized through the CHOOSE tool support. A color coding could for instance be used to measure the degree of goal realization and alarms could ring when actual and target values differ too much. This tool support would certainly enhance the usability of the Performance-oriented viewpoint of the CHOOSE approach. 104

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130 APPENDICES APPENDIX 1 The Roadmap-method (1) (Goal dimension): The CEO of the enterprise is asked to define the highest-level Goal in each of the four Balanced Scorecard dimensions. (2) (Goal dimension): From the four highest-level Goals, the Goals are broken down into lower-level Goals. More Goals are found through the 'Why/How?'-questions (Bernaert and Poels 2011). (3) (Actor dimension): The Human Actors, Roles, Software Actors, and Devices are added through interviewing and consulting other secondary sources (e.g., organization charts). (4) (Operation dimension): The different activity groups of Porter s Value Chain (Porter and Millar 1985) are used to elicit the Operations (Processes and Projects). The Operations are linked with the other two dimensions (Goals and Actors). (5) (Object dimension): The Objects and corresponding relationships with Goals (Concern), Actors (Monitoring/Control), and/or Operations (Input/Output) are added to the model based on the interviews and visual inspection. (6) (Validation): The last step of the Roadmap is a validation round of the model by the CEO. The Interview-method (1) During the first interview, Step 1 and 2 of the Roadmap are executed in order to create a holistic Goal tree of the enterprise. The second part of the interview focuses on the Actor tree by executing Step 3. (2) The second interview is divided in three parts. First of all, a questionnaire, created after the analysis and implementation of the Goal and Actor tree of the first interview, is used to fill the gaps (e.g., missing elements or relationships) of the Goal and Actor tree. Secondly, the activity groups of Porter s Value Chain are used to define the Operations of the enterprise in each activity group (Step 4). Thirdly, the Objects of the enterprise are added based on their relationships with the other three dimensions (Step 5). (3) The third interview consists of two parts. Firstly, after analysis and implementation of the Operations tree and Objects, the interviewer tries to find missing constructs and relations XI

131 or resolve ambiguities. Secondly, the interviewee (CEO of the SME) visually validates the final CHOOSE-model (Step 6). The Stop-criteria (1) Goal dimension: The Goal-check is twofold. (c) Does the downward Goal Refinement path of each Goal AND-Refinement and of one alternative of each Goal OR-Refinement only stop if at least one of its finegrained Goals is Operationalized? (d) Is every lowest-level (AND-Refinement) Goal Operationalized by an Operation? If this is not possible, there are two possibilities: it is a to-be Goal (another alternative of a Goal OR-Refinement) or there is a misfit between strategy and Operations (Henderson and Venkatraman 1993). (2) Actor dimension: The Actor-check is also twofold: (a) Are all employees (Human Actors and Roles) of the organization chart, all other relevant stakeholders, and all relevant Software Actors and Devices included in the Actor dimension? (b) Is every Actor linked to at least one Operation? (3) Operation dimension: First of all, take into consideration that relationships can sometimes be transferred to a related element (Bernaert et al. 2013a): a superoperation groups the relations (with e.g., Goals) of its suboperations and a lower-level Goal inherits the relations of its related higher-level Goals (with e.g., Operations). If for example a superoperation does not Operationalize any Goal, however one of its suboperations does, then this superoperation actually also Operationalizes this Goal through one of its suboperations. The Operation-check is then threefold: (e) Are all Performed Operations for every Actor included? (f) Does each Operation contribute to a Goal? (g) Is every Operation linked to an Actor? (4) Object dimension: In analogy with the three other dimensions, the Object-check is also threefold: (e) Are all products and resources (either physical or not) of the SME represented in the Object model? (f) Are all the necessary Objects (Input/Output) of the Operations (Operation dimension) included in the Object dimension? (g) Are all the necessary Objects of the Goals included in the Object dimension? XII

132 APPENDIX 2 INTERVIEW SOURCE FILE Case Study Database Interview 1 Participants: * CEO (Jan Moons) * External member of the board (Peter Manet) Duration: 7h30min Date: February, 12 Interview 2 Participants: Peter Manet Duration: 2h Date: March, 7 Interview 3 Participants: Jan Moons Duration: 2h10min Date: March, 16 Interview 4 Participants: Supply Chain Manager (Kristel Walschots) Duration: 50min Date: March, 21 Case study notes Case study documents Interviews Case study notes Case study documents Interviews Case study notes Case study documents Interviews Case study notes Case study documents Interviews Image_Goal_Tree.JPG (1 to 5) InterviewGuide.docx Goaltree.pptx Organigram_VMD.xls Organigram_Biové.xls RACI_chart.docx Workshop_VOKA_Notes.pdf Workshop_VOKA_Slides.pdf 1.m4a to 10.m4a (10 parts) InterviewGuide.pptx NotesDuringInterview.pdf NotesAfterInterview.docx / 1.m4a tot 4.m4a (4 parts) GoalDimension_beforeInterview.pptx InterviewGuide.docx NotesAfterInterview.pdf NotedDuringInterview.pdf / 1.m4a to 6.m4a (6 parts) InterviewGuide.docx ModelConstructionAfterInterview.xlsx NotesAfterInterview.pdf AfterInterview.docx Example_ForecastFromClient.pdf Example_M-Soft.pdf ForecastProductsBelgium.xlsx OutOfStock_2010_A.xls to OutOfStock_2010_E.xls OutOfStock_2013.xlsx ProductionFromBiové.pdf 1.m4a 2.m4a XIII

133 Interview 5 Participants: HR manager (Luc Jacobs) Duration: 1h Date: March, 21 Interview 6 Participants: Jan Moons Duration: 50min Date: April, 4 Interview 7 Participants: Kristel Walschots Duration: 50min Date: April, 4 Interview 8 Participants: Luc Jacobs Duration: 1h Date: April, 14 Interview 9 Participants: Jan Moons Duration: 1h Date: April, 21 Case study notes Case study documents Interviews Case study notes Case study documents Interviews Case study notes Case study documents Interviews Case study notes Case study documents Interviews Case study notes Case study documents Interviews InterviewGuide.docx NotesAfterInterview.pdf RightPeopleRightSpotModelAfterInterview.xlsx / 1.m4a 2.m4a 3.m4a InterviewGuide.docx NotesAfterInterview.pdf ReliableForecast_ModelAfterInterview.xlsx ReliableForecast_ModelBeforeInterview.xlsx / 1.m4a 2.m4a 3.m4a InterviewGuid.docx NotesAfterInteriew.pdf ReliableForecast_ModelAfterInterview.xlsx ReliableForecast_ModelBeforeInterview.xlsx ActivityForForecasting_VEToFlash.docx ExpiryDateProducts.xlsx NumberInStockProducts.xlsx 1.m4a 2.m4a InterviewGide.docx NotesDuringInterview.pdf RightPeopleRigheSpot_ModelAfterInterivew.docx RightPeopleRightSpot_ModelBeforeInterview.docx BalanceSheetAnalysis.xlsx EmployeesEvaluation.xlsx PersonnelRegister.xls 1.m4a 2.m4a FinancialGoalsAfterInterview.xlsx InterviewGuide.docx NotesDuringInterview.pdf BorrowingBaseCalculation.xsl ConsolidatedP&LAccount2012.pdf ConsolidatedP&LAccountEstimates.xlsx 1.m4a 2.m4a XIV

134 Interview 10 Participants: Kristel Walschots Duration: 40min Date: May, 5 Interview 11 Participants: Luc Jacobs Duration: 20min Date: May, 5 Case study notes Case study documents Interviews Case study notes Case study documents Interviews InterviewGuide.docx ReliableForecast_ModelBeforeInterview.xls / 1.m4a 2.m4a InterviewGuide.docx RightPeopleRightSpot_ModelBeforeInterview.xlsx / 1.m4a Interview 12 Participants: Jan Moons Duration: 10min Date: May, 5 Case study notes Case study documents Interviews / InterviewGuide.docx / Total Interview 13 Correspondence Case Study Model Evaluation Questionnaires GoalDimension.choose_diagram.xlsx FinalCHOOSEModel.xlsx Evaluatie_JanMoons.docx Evaluatie_KirstelWalschots.docx Evalutie_LucJacobs.docx Evaluatie_PeterManet.docx Evaluatie_CHOOSEcriteria_PeterManet.docx Evaluatie_CHOOSEcriteria_MarkVanGastel.docx XV

135 APPENDIX 3 Summary of the CHOOSE concepts and Language notation, from (Zutterman et al., 2013). XVI

136 XVII

137 APPENDIX 4 XVIII

138 Mission, Values, Strategy and highest-level BSC perspectives XIX

139 Financial Perspective XX

140 Customer Perspective XXI

141 Internal Processes Perspective XXII

142 Learning and Innovation Perspective XXIII

143 APPENDIX 5 DELIVERY TIME from Biové to VMD (ind. 7) Causality EXPIRED PRODUCTS (ind.2) Inverse correlation OUT-OF-STOCKS of Biové products for Belgium (ind. 1) Derived VARIANCE in Belgian Forecasting (ind.3) On time forecasting from important & special export customers (ind.4) Sum LOSS ON OUT-OF-STOCKS On time forecasting from important export customers (ind.5) On time forecasting from special export customers (ind.6) CEO NAME Use Reliable forecasting system from VMD to Biové RACI Description Who wishes this? who is assigned? Reshape the forecasting system from VMD to Biové to a reliable system so that Biové's delivery time to VMD becomes 8 to 10 weeks. Jan Moons Kristel Walschots OBJECTIVE Responsible Accountable Consulted Informed (Verantwoordelijk) (Eindverantwoordelijk) (Geraadpleegd) (Geinformeerd) XXIV

144 INDICATORS Actions 1 Indicator 1 Name Investigate unexpected peaks/declines Are there unexpected peaks or declines for specific products? Out-of-stocks of Biové-products for Belgium Description Name When? Reason? Estimation of augmentation/decline? = number of Biové-products for Belgium out of stock where number out of stock = (stock gecontroleerd) + 1 Who (RACI) Responsible: belgische area manager: PJ; Accountable: Kristel Description (stock niet gecontroleerd) - reservaties Actual Value 82 Where Experience + Past sales Frequency Two-weakly Deadline End 2014 Type of target Reduction Relationship with other classes Object: m-soft: stocklijst, niet gecontroleerde stocklijst, reservaties Name Are is always particular products that are out of stock? R: Kristel Description Compare the out-of-stock lists from the previous months, years, and search for Actor (RACI): specific products that are more out-of-stock than others 2 Milestones Who (RACI) Resp: Mine/Kristel; Acc.: Kristel deadline 1 end 2014 Where out-of-stock lists previous years in excell value 1 50 Deadline End 2014 deadline 2 / value 2 / deadline 3 jun/15 Name Perform a stricter and fairer policy for out-of-stocks target value 10 Description When there is an out-of-stock, the person who made a forecast, gets priority to the person who did not. 3 Who (RACI) Where msoft Deadline end 2014 R: Kristel; I: area manager Name Investigate why Biové delivers too late for a specific product Description Are we out-of-stock because Biové delivers too late? Who (RACI) R: Kristel; C: Laurence (assistente planning) 3 Where / Deadline End Indicator 2 Name Provide on-time information on expiry dates to sales persons Send a notification well in advance to all sales person Expired products Description Name so that they can still sell the product WITHOUT big discounts Description value of Biové-products in stock expired in the previous year 1 Who (RACI) R: Kristel; A: Kristel; I: sales persons Actual Value Where Msoft Frequency Daily Deadline end 2014 Type of target Reduction Relationship with other classes Object: M-soft: 2 different places by Mine and Excell Name Give a weakly list if stock goes under or over min or max stock Actor (RACI): R: Kristel; Consulted: Mine (she makes the list) Description Automatic alarm when min or max stock is attained Milestones Who (RACI) R: Mine; A: Kristel 2 deadline 1 end 2014 Where Msoft value Deadline end 2014 deadline 2 / value 2 / deadline 3 jun/15 Name Get information from registration expiries target value Description Better communication about which registrations are going to expire Who (RACI) 3 R: Registration department; A: Kristel Where Msoft Deadline end 2014 Name Stock & Expiry date together in one document Description Provide one document with both the stock and expiry date so that Kristel can check this DAILY 4 Who (RACI) R: Mine; A: Kristel Where Msoft Deadline end 2014 XXV

145 3 Indicator 3 Name Get more input from registrations, Sales vb. Antibiotica in België aan banden gelegd, had variance in Belgian forecasting Description Name eerder moeten gecommuniceerd worden estimated value of the last twelve monthsreal value of the last twelve months 1 Who (RACI) registration department, sales Description / real value of the last twelve months Actual Value 33% Where / Frequency Monthly Deadline end 2014 Type of target Reduction Relationship with other classes Object: Excel list: ForecastBelgium Name Include promo actions in forecasting Responsible: Supply Chain Manager, When a product is sold as a discount, more is sold, Description Actor (RACI): Consulted: Sales Belgium so the forecast should be adjusted Milestones 2 Who (RACI) R: PJ, A: Kristel deadline 1 dec/14 Where / value 1 25% Deadline end 2014 deadline 2 value 2 deadline 3 jun/15 target value 15% 4 Indicator 4 Name Awareness actions to customer On time forecasting from important & special Show to benefits of the forecasting Description Name export customers (shorter delivery times, ) number of forecast from important & special export customers received quarterly / 1 Who (RACI) R: Area managers, A: Kristel Description total number of important & special export customers Actual Value 40-50% Where / Frequency Quarterly Deadline june 2015 Type of target Absolute Relationship with other classes Object: list of agents Name Awareness actions to area managers Actor (RACI): R: Kristel; C: agents/sales persons Description Stimulate the area managers to stimulate their clients Milestones Who (RACI) Kristel Walschots 2 deadline 1 june 2015 Where / value 1 60% Deadline june 2015 deadline 2 june 2017 value 2 80% deadline 3 end 2019 Name Reminder actions to customer target value 100% Description Send s, especially to nigeria 3 Who (RACI) Where / Deadline june 2015 R: Area managers / partners; A: Kristel XXVI

146 5 Indicator 5 Name On time forecasting from export important customers number of forecast for the next 3 months from important customers received quarterly / Description total number of important customers Actual Value 40-50% Frequency Quarterly Type of target Absolute Relationship with other classes Object: list of agents Actor (RACI): R: Kristel; C: agents/sales persons Milestones deadline 1 june 2015 value 1 60% deadline 2 june 2017 value 2 80% deadline 3 end 2019 target value 100% 6 Indicator 6 Name on time forecasting from export special products number of forecasts from special products received before december / Description total number of special export products Actual Value 40-50% Frequency Quarterly Type of target Absolute Relationship with other classes Object: list of agents Actor (RACI): R: Kristel; C: agents/sales persons Milestones deadline 1 june 2015 value 1 60% deadline 2 june 2017 value 2 80% deadline 3 end 2019 target value 100% 7 Indicator 7 Name Delivery time from Biové to VMD Description Week of delivery product - Week of order product Actual Value >12 weeks Frequency monthly Type of target Min/Max Relationship with other classes Object: msoft Actor (RACI): R: Kristel; I: Jan Milestones deadline 1 end 2014 value 1 between 10 and 12 weeks deadline 2 / value 2 / deadline 3 jun/15 target value between 8 and 10 weeks XXVII

147 APPENDIX 6 Contribution ADDED VALUE HUMAN CAPITAL (ind.1) AVERAGE SCORE OF WORKERS ON EVALUATION TOTAL NUMBER OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISALS NUMBER OF RECRUITMENTS WITH ASSESSMENTS OF HIGHLY SKILLED PERSONS Sum Sum AVERAGE SCORE OF WORKERS ON ATTENDANCE AVERAGE SCORE OF WORKERS ON GOOD BEHAVIOR NUMBER OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISALS FROM HR MANAGER (Ind.6) NUMBER OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISALS FROM QUALITY DEPARTMENT (Ind.8) NUMBER OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISALS FROM SALES BELGIUM DEPARTMENT (Ind.7) NUMBER OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISALS FROM SALES EXPORT DEPARTMENT (Ind.9) Leo PJ Jan NAME Perform a good internal HR Management RACI Description Who wishes this? who is assigned? Retain neither over, nor underqualified persons for a function Jan Moons Luc Jacobs OBJECTIVE Responsible Accountable Consulted Informed (Verantwoordelijk) (Eindverantwoordelijk) (Geraadpleegd) (Geinformeerd) Measures Actions 1 Indicator 1 Name Added value of human capital '= added value / average number of FTE where added value = (turnover) + (other operating revenues) - (trade goods, raw and auxiliary materials)-(servies and other goods)-(other Description operating expenses Actual Value per FTE Frequency monthly Type of target Minimum/Maximum Relationship with other classes Object: Where? Balance sheet analysis (excell) Actor (RACI): Who? Luc Jacobs Milestones deadline 1 dec/14 value 1 between 100 and 110 deadline 2 / value 2 / deadline 3 dec/15 target value between 110 and 120 XXVIII

148 2 Indicator 2 Name Average score of workers on evaluation Description = 50% * Value Indicator % * Value of Indicator 4 Actual Value 299 Frequency Yearly Type of target Achievement Relationship with other classes Object: Where? Indicator 3 and Indicator 4 Actor (RACI): Who? R: Luc Jacobs; C: Kristel Walschots; I: Jan Moons Milestones deadline 1 value 1 deadline 2 value 2 deadline 3 end 2015 target value Name Indicator 3 Average reward for attendance Name Description Implement a reward system The workers can chose between a group insurance or an extra bonus on their salary = average sum of (bonus * multiplicator*gross salary) of all workers Where multiplicator is dependent on number of sick and leave days Action 1 (0 days: 2; 1 day: 1,75; 2: 1,50; 3: 1,25; 4-5:0,90; 6-10:0,60;11-15:0,30; 16- Who (RACI) R: Luc Jacobs, C: Kristel Walschots, I: Jan Moons Description 20: 0,10; >20:0) Actual Value 168 Where / Frequency yearly Deadline end 2015 Type of target Achievement Relationship with other classes Object: Where? Excell file 'WorkersEvalution' Name Actor (RACI): Who? Luc Jacobs Description Milestones Who (RACI) Action 2 deadline 1 Where value 1 Deadline deadline 2 value 2 deadline 3 end 2015 target value Indicator 4 Name Provide training Name Average score on good behavior Description Provide training on GMP, cleanliness and tidiness, =average sum of bonus*gross salary*( sum of 4 scores regarding good behavior on ten)/10 of all workers 1: application of labor regulations 2: compliance with GMP Action 1 Who (RACI) R: Luc Jacbobs 3: work volume Description 4: attitude/loyalty Actual Value 130 Where / Frequency yearly Deadline End 2015 Type of target Achievement Relationship with other classes Object: Where? Excell file 'WorkersEvalution' Actor (RACI): Who? Luc Jacobs Milestones deadline 1 value 1 deadline 2 value 2 deadline 3 end 2015 target value 135 XXIX

149 5 Indicator 5 Name Gather infromation on basic elements of performance appraisal What should always be included in a performance appraisal? For Total number of performance appraisals Description Name example absence rate, Functioning in group Description Number of performance appraisals per person per year Action 1 Who (RACI) A: Luc Actual Value 0 Where Frequency half-yearly Deadline end 2014 Type of target Absolute Relationship with other classes Object: Where? List in excell Name Establish a postive athmosphere around the interviews R: Jan, Luc, Leo, PJ; A: Luc Description Make sure that the employees do not feel threatened by the interviews, but that they understand its benefits. Actor (RACI): Who? Open culture, everything can be said,,.. Action 2 Milestones Who (RACI) R: Luc Jacobs deadline 1 1 Where value 1 end 2014 Deadline end 2014 deadline 2 / value 2 / deadline 3 2 target value end Indicator 6 Name Gather infromation on specific elements of performance appraisal Which elements are specific for a certain department Total number of performance appraisals in Description (administration)? Administration, Production, Name Production: GMP Number of performance appraisals per person per year in the Action 1 Description following departments Who (RACI) R: Luc, A: Luc, Consulted: Jan Actual Value 0 Where Frequency half-yearly Deadline end 2014 Type of target Absolute Relationship with other classes Object: Where? List in excell Name Gather information on personal elements What is a characteristic of a certain person, how does he/she work, Luc Jacobs Description Actor (RACI): Who? does he/she has remarks/suggestions for the company, Milestones Action 2 Who (RACI) R: Luc, A: Luc, Consulted: Jan deadline 1 1 Where value 1 end 2014 Deadline end 2014 deadline 2 value 2 deadline 3 2 Name Make a planning and list for the next 6 months target value end 2015 Description Luc has to do 8 performance appraisals (production not included) Action 3 Who (RACI) Where Deadline end 2014 R: Luc ; A: Luc; C: Ingrid, mine, els, cindy, linda, kristel, griet, chantal, 7 Indicator 7 Name Gather infromation on specific elements of performance appraisal Total number of performance appraisals in Name Sales department Belgium Description Which elements are specific for a certain department (sales)? Number of performance appraisals per person per year in the sales Description department Action 1 Who (RACI) R: PJ, A: Luc, Consulted: Jan Actual Value 0 Where Frequency half-yearly Deadline end 2014 Type of target Absolute Relationship with other classes Object: Where? List in excell Name Gather information on personal elements What is a characteristic of a certain person, how does he/she work, R: PJ; A: Luc; C: Jan Description Actor (RACI): Who? does he/she has remarks/suggestions for the company, Milestones Action 2 Who (RACI) R: PJ, A: Luc, Consulted: Jan deadline 1 1 Where value 1 end 2014 Deadline end 2014 deadline 2 value 2 deadline 3 2 Name Make a planning and list for the next 6 months target value end 2015 Description PJ has to do 5 performance appraisals Action 3 Who (RACI) Where Deadline end 2014 R: PJ ; A: Luc; C: Linus, Christel, Tanja, Anne-Sophie, Luc XXX

150 8 Indicator 8 Name Gather infromation on specific elements of performance appraisal Total number of performance appraisals in Name Registration department Description Which elements are specific for a certain department (sales)? Number of performance appraisals per person per year in the Description registration department Action 1 Who (RACI) R: Leo, A: Luc, Consulted: Jan Actual Value 0 Where Frequency half-yearly Deadline end 2014 Type of target Absolute Relationship with other classes Object: Where? List in excell Name Gather information on personal elements What is a characteristic of a certain person, how does he/she work, R: Leo; A: Luc; C: Jan Description Actor (RACI): Who? does he/she has remarks/suggestions for the company, Milestones Action 2 Who (RACI) R: Leo, A: Luc, Consulted: Jan deadline 1 1 Where value 1 end 2014 Deadline end 2014 deadline 2 value 2 deadline 3 2 Name Make a planning and list for the next 6 months target value end 2015 Description Leo has to do 4 performance appraisals Action 3 Who (RACI) R: Leo ; A: Luc; C: Tinne, Mieke, Leen, Chris, Sophie Where Deadline end Indicator 9 Name Gather infromation on specific elements of performance appraisal Total number of performance appraisals in Name Sales department export Description Which elements are specific for a certain department (sales)? Number of performance appraisals per person per year in the sales Description department Action 1 Who (RACI) R: Jan, A: Luc, Consulted: Jan Actual Value 0 Where Frequency half-yearly Deadline end 2014 Type of target Absolute Relationship with other classes Object: Where? List in excell Name Gather information on personal elements What is a characteristic of a certain person, how does he/she work, R: Jan; A: Luc Description Actor (RACI): Who? does he/she has remarks/suggestions for the company, Milestones Action 2 Who (RACI) R: Jan, A: Luc, Consulted: Jan deadline 1 1 Where value 1 end 2014 Deadline end 2014 deadline 2 value 2 deadline 3 2 Name Make a planning and list for the next 6 months target value end 2015 Description Jan has to do 5 performance appraisals Action 3 Who (RACI) Where Deadline end 2014 R: ; A: Luc; C: Christoph, Véronique, Teresa, Mark, Yawar XXXI

151 OBJECTIVE NAME Perform a good selection process RACI Description Hire neither over, nor underqualified persons for a function Responsible Accountable Consulted Informed Who wishes this? Jan Moons who is assigned? Luc Jacobs (Verantwoordelijk) (Eindverantwoordelijk) (Geraadpleegd) (Geinformeerd) Measures Actions 1 Name Indicator 1 Number of recruitments with assessment of highly skilled people Name Description Perform an assessment on new person registration dep Perform an assessment on the person who will replace Ann Bracke in registration departement = number of recruitments that is done with assesments/number of recruitments that Action 1 should be done with assesments Description Who (RACI) R: Registration manager (Leo), A: HR Manager (Luc), C: CEO (Jan) Actual Value 0,3 Where Mr. Goelen (assesment centre) Frequency half-yearly Deadline end 2014 Type of target Absolute Relationship with other classes Object: Where? Personnel register in Excell + personnel map in archive Name Perform an assessment on new assistant controller Actor (RACI): Who? R: HR manager (Luc Jacobs) Description Perform an assessment on new function of assistant controller Milestones Action 2 Who (RACI) R: HR (Luc), A: HR (Luc), C: CEO (Jan) deadline 1 Where Mr. Goelen (assesment centre) value 1 Deadline end 2014 deadline 2 value 2 deadline 3 end 2014 target value 1 XXXII

152 APPENDIX 7 Consolidated EBITDA (Ind.1) Consolidated sum EBITDA VMD (Ind.2) EBITDA Biové (Ind.3) Consolididated Absolute GROSS MARGIN (Ind.1) Derived Consolidated Relative GROSS MARGIN (Ind.2) OBJECTIVE NAME Realize a high level of profitability (financial perspective) Strive for a consolidated EBITDA of million by the end of Description 2016 Who wishes this? Jan Moons who is assigned? / Measures 1 Indicator 1 Name Consolidated EBITDA = consolidated turnover - costs (except interests, taxes, Description amortizations and depreciations) Actual Value million Frequency half-yearly Type of target Achievement Relationship with other classes Object: Where? Consolidated Profit & Loss account Actor (RACI): Who? R: Revisor; A: Jan Moons; C: Luc Jacobs Milestones deadline 1 End 2014 value mio deadline 2 End 2015 value mio deadline 3 End 2016 target value mio XXXIII

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