# Network Tomography and Internet Traffic Matrices

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1 Network Tomography and Internet Traffic Matrices Matthew Roughan School of Mathematical Sciences 1

2 Credits David Donoho Stanford Nick Duffield AT&T Labs-Research Albert Greenberg AT&T Labs-Research Carsten Lund AT&T Labs-Research Quynh Nguyen AT&T Labs Yin Zhang AT&T Labs-Research 2

3 Problem Have link traffic measurements Want to know demands from source to destination C B A TM =... x A B x..., A, C... 3 L L L L

4 Example App: reliability analysis C Under a link failure, routes change want to predict new link loads B A TM =... x A B x..., A, C... 4 L L L L

5 Network Engineering What you want to do a)reliability analysis b)traffic engineering c)capacity planning What do you need to know Network and routing Prediction and optimization techniques? Traffic matrix 5

6 Outline Part I: What do we have to work with data sources SNMP traffic data Netflow, packet traces Topology, routing and configuration Part II:Algorithms Gravity models Tomography Combination and information theory Part III: Applications Network Reliability analysis Capacity planning Routing optimization (and traffic engineering in general) 6

7 Part I: Data Sources 7

8 Traffic Data 8

9 Data Availability packet traces Packet traces limited availability like a high zoom snap shot special equipment needed (O&M expensive even if box is cheap) lower speed interfaces (only recently OC192) huge amount of data generated 9

10 Data Availability flow level data Flow level data not available everywhere like a home movie of the network historically poor vendor support (from some vendors) large volume of data (1:100 compared to traffic) feature interaction/performance impact 10

11 Netflow Measurements Detailed IP flow measurements Flow defined by 3 Source, Destination IP, 3 Source, Destination Port, 3 Protocol, 3 Time Statistics about flows 3 Bytes, Packets, Start time, End time, etc. Enough information to get traffic matrix Semi-standard router feature Cisco, Juniper, etc. not always well supported potential performance impact on router Huge amount of data (500GB/day) 11

12 Data Availability SNMP SNMP traffic data like a time lapse panorama MIB II (including IfInOctets/IfOutOctets) is available almost everywhere manageable volume of data (but poor quality) no significant impact on router performance 12

13 SNMP Pro Comparatively simple Relatively low volume It is used already (lots of historical data) Con Data quality an issue with any data source 3 Ambiguous 3 Missing data 3 Irregular sampling Octets counters only tell you link utilizations 3 Hard to get a traffic matrix 3 Can t tell what type of traffic 3 Can t easily detect DoS, or other unusual events Coarse time scale (>1 minute typically; 5 min in our case) 13

14 Topology and configuration Router configurations Based on downloaded router configurations, every 24 hours 3 Links/interfaces 3 Location (to and from) 3 Function (peering, customer, backbone, ) 3 OSPF weights and areas 3 BGP configurations Routing 3 Forwarding tables 3 BGP (table dumps and route monitor) 3 OSPF table dumps Routing simulations Simulate IGP and BGP to get routing matrices 14

15 Part II: Algorithms 15

16 The problem 1 route 3 y = + route 1 router x x route 2 Want to compute the traffic x j along route j from measurements on the links, y i y x 1 y 2 y 3 = x 2 x 3 16

17 The problem 1 route 3 y = + route 1 router x x route 2 Want to compute the traffic x j along route j from measurements on the links, y i y = Ax 17

18 Underconstrained linear inverse problem Traffic matrix y = Ax Link measurements Routing matrix Many more unknowns than measurements 18

19 Naive approach 19

20 Gravity Model Assume traffic between sites is proportional to traffic at each site x 1 y 1 y 2 x 2 y 2 y 3 x 3 y 1 y 3 Assumes there is no systematic difference between traffic in LA and NY Only the total volume matters Could include a distance term, but locality of information is not as important in the Internet as in other networks 20

21 Simple gravity model 21

22 Generalized gravity model Internet routing is asymmetric A provider can control exit points for traffic going to peer networks peer links access links 22

23 Generalized gravity model Internet routing is asymmetric A provider can control exit points for traffic going to peer networks Have much less control over where traffic enters peer links access links 23

24 Generalized gravity model 24

25 Tomographic approach 1 route 3 y = + route 1 router x x route 2 y = A x 25

26 Direct Tomographic approach Under-constrained problem Find additional constraints Use a model to do so Typical approach is to use higher order statistics of the traffic to find additional constraints Disadvantage Complex algorithm doesn t scale (~1000 nodes, routes) Reliance on higher order stats is not robust given the problems in SNMP data Model may not be correct -> result in problems Inconsistency between model and solution 26

27 Combining gravity model and tomography 1. gravity solution 2. tomo-gravity solution argmin{ y Ax 2 + λ 2 J( x) } x tomographic constraints (from link measurements) 27

28 Regularization approach Minimum Mutual Information: minimize the mutual information between source and destination No information The minimum is independence of source and destination 3 P(S,D) = p(s) p(d) 3 P(D S) = P(D) 3 actually this corresponds to the gravity model Add tomographic constraints: 3 Including additional information as constraints 3 Natural algorithm is one that minimizes the Kullback-Liebler information number of the P(S,D) with respect to P(S) P(D) Max relative entropy (relative to independence) 28

29 Validation Results good: ±20% bounds for larger flows Observables even better 29

30 More results Large errors are in small flows >80% of demands have <20% error tomogravity method simple approximation 30

31 Robustness (input errors) 31

32 Robustness (missing data) 32

33 Dependence on Topology 30 star (20 nodes) clique relative errors (%) random geographic Linear (geographic) unknowns per measurement 33

35 Part III: Applications 35

36 Applications Capacity planning Optimize network capacities to carry traffic given routing Timescale months Reliability Analysis Test network has enough redundant capacity for failures Time scale days Traffic engineering Optimize routing to carry given traffic Time scale potentially minutes 36

37 Capacity planning Plan network capacities No sophisticated queueing (yet) Optimization problem Used in AT&T backbone capacity planning For more than well over a year North American backbone Being extended to other networks 37

38 Network Reliability Analysis Consider the link loads in the network under failure scenarios Traffic will be rerouted What are the new link loads? Prototype used (> 1 year) Currently being turned form a prototype into a production tool for the IP backbone Allows what if type questions to be asked about link failures (and span, or router failures) Allows comprehensive analysis of network risks 3 What is the link most under threat of overload under likely failure scenarios 38

39 Example use: reliability analysis 39

40 Traffic engineering and routing optimization Choosing route parameters that use the network most efficiently In simple cases, load balancing across parallel routes Methods Shortest path IGP weight optimization 3Thorup and Fortz showed could optimize OSPF weights Multi-commodity flow optimization 3Implementation using MPLS 3Explicit route for each origin/destination pair 40

41 Comparison of route optimizations 41

42 Conclusion Properties Fast (a few seconds for 50 nodes) Scales (to hundreds of nodes) Robust (to errors and missing data) Average errors ~11%, bounds 20% for large flows Tomo-gravity implemented AT&T s IP backbone (AS 7018) Hourly traffic matrices for > 1 year Being extended to other networks 42

44 Validation Look at a real network Get SNMP from links Get Netflow to generate a traffic matrix Compare algorithm results with ground truth Problems: 3 Hard to get Netflow along whole edge of network If we had this, then we wouldn t need SNMP approach 3 Actually pretty hard to match up data Is the problem in your data: SNMP, Netflow, routing, Simulation Simulate and compare Problems 3 How to generate realistic traffic matrices 3 How to generate realistic network 3 How to generate realistic routing 3 Danger of generating exactly what you put in 44

45 Our method We have netflow around part of the edge (currently) We can generate a partial traffic matrix (hourly) Won t match traffic measured from SNMP on links Can use the routing and partial traffic matrix to simulate the SNMP measurements you would get Then solve inverse problem Advantage Realistic network, routing, and traffic Comparison is direct, we know errors are due to algorithm not errors in the data 45

46 Estimates over time 46

47 Local traffic matrix (George Varghese) 0% 1% 5% 10% for reference previous case 47

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