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1 Collection of database exams Rasmus Pagh October 25, 2011 This collection of database exams is meant to provide students of the course Introduction to Database Design extensive practice towards achieving the intended learning outcomes of the course relating to databases. The first exam covers all intended learning outcomes, including those related to XML. Several E-R notations are used that differ from the one used in our textbook, by Kifer, Bernstein and Lewis (KBL). In the fall 2003 and January 2004 exams the relationship R2 means that for each entity of type BRAVO there is at most one entity of type CHARLIE. In the january 2005 exam, arrows in relationships are placed next to the entity types, and not the relationships. However, the meaning of an arrow in each direction is the same as in KBL. In the June 2006 exam the notation has been changed to coincide with that in KBL. In the January 2007 exam, the syntax for data accesses is different from that of KBL, but straightforward: R(A) denotes a read of database element A, and so on. In the January 2006 exam, Γ is the grouping operator of extended relational algebra, and not described in KBL. 1

2 Data Storage and Formats IT Universitety of Copenhagen January 5, 2009 This exam is a translation, by Michael Magling, of an original Danish language exam. It consists of 6 problems with a total of 15 questions. The weight of each problem is stated. You have 4 hours to answer all questions. The complete assignment consists of 7 pages (including this page). It is recommended to read the problems in order, but it is not important to solve them in order. If you cannot give a complete answer to a question, try to give a partial answer. The pages in the answer must be ordered and numbered, and be supplied with name, CPR-number and course code (BDLF). Write only on the front of sheets, and order them so that the problems appear in the correct order. KBL refers to the set in the course book Database Systems - an application approach, 2nd edition, by Michael Kifer, Arthur Bernstein and Philip M. Lewis. All written aids are allowed. 1

3 1 Data modeling (25%) Micro loans are small loans, which is beginning to gain popularity especially among borrowers in developing countries. The idea is to bring venture lenders together using information technology. Typically, the loans will be used to finance startup or development of the borrower s company, so that there is a realistic chance for repayment. The money in a loan can, unlike traditional loans, come from many lenders. In this problem, you must create an E-R model that describes the information necessary to manage micro loans. The following information form the basis for creating the model: Each borrower and lender must be registered with information about name and address. A loan starts with a loan request, which contains information about when the loan should at latest be granted, The total amount being discussed (US-dollars), and how long the payback period is. Also, a description is included of how the money will be used. The rent on the payment is calculated in the loan amount, which is to say, the full amount is not paid. Lenders can commit to an optional portion of the total amount of a loan request. When the commitments for the loan request covers the requested amount, the request is converted to a loan. If not enough commitments can be reached, the loan request is cancelled. A borrower can have more than one request, and more than one loan at a time, but can at most make one request per day. The loan is paid through an intermediary, typically a local department of a charity, who has a name and an address. The borrower chooses when he or she will make a payment. Every payment must be registered in the database with an amount and a date (at most one payment per loan per day). The lenders share the repayment based on how large a part of the loan they are responsible for. If the loan is not repaid before the agreed upon deadline, a new date is agreed. The database must not delete the old deadline, but save the history (the deadline can be overridden multiple times). Each lender can for each burrower save a trust, which is a number between 0 and 100 that determines the lender s evaluation of the risk of lending money to that person. The number must only be saved for the borrowers, for whom there has been made such an evaluation. 2

4 a) Make an E-R model for the data described above. If you make any assumptions about data that doesn t show from the problem, they must be described. Use the E-R notation from KBL. Put an emphasis on having the model express as many properties about the data as possible, for instance participation constraints. b) Make a relational data model for micro loans: Describe at least two of the relations using SQL DDL (make reasonable assumptions about data types), and state the relation schemas for the other relations. The emphasis is if there is a correlation between the relational model and the E-R diagram from a), along with primary key and foreign key constrations being stated for all relation. It is not necessary to state CHECK constraints and the like. 2 XML (20%) Consider the following XML document, loaners.xml: <?xml version="1.0" encoding="iso "?> <?xml-stylesheet href="mystylesheet.xsl" type="text/xsl"?> <microloans> <loaner> <name> <first>nandela</first> <last>melson</last> </name> <address>freedom Way 1, Johannesburg, South Africa</address> <loan> <amount>1000</amount> <payout-date> </payout-date> <repayment amount="100" date=" "/> <repayment amount="100" date=" "/> </loan> <loan> <amount>500</amount> <payout-date> </payout-date> <repayment amount="100" date=" "/> </loan> </loaner> <loaner> <name> <first>majeev</first> 3

5 <last>rotwani</last> </name> <address>circle Strait 8, Bumbai, India</address> </loaner> </microloans> a) Write an XPath expression that returns all of the name (name elements) in loaners.xml. Emphasis is on if the expression also works on other, similar, XML documents. b) Write an XPath expression that returns all the names of borrowers, who have (had) at least one loan, which is to say, where there is a loan element. Emphasis is on if the expression also works on other, similar, XML documents. Consider the following XSL stylesheet, mystylesheet.xsl: <?xml version="1.0" encoding="iso "?> <xsl:stylesheet version="1.0" xmlns:xsl="http://www.w3.org/1999/xsl/transform"> <xsl:template match="microloans"> <html> <body> <xsl:apply-templates select="//loan"/> </body> </html> </xsl:template> <xsl:template match="loan"> <xsl:apply-templates select="../name/last"/>, <xsl:apply-templates select="../name/first"/>: <xsl:apply-templates select="amount"/><br/> </xsl:template> </xsl:stylesheet> c) State the result of running mystylesheet.xsl on loaners.xml. d) Write an XQuery expression that for each borrower in loaners.xml computes the total amount, which is to say the sum of the numbers in the amount elements, minus the sum of the numbers in the repayment attribute of the repayment elements. The output must be valid XML that for each borrower states name and outstanding amount (in a debt element). 4

6 3 Normalization (10%) The following relation schema can be used to register information on the repayments on micro loans (see the text in the problem 1 for the explanation on micro loans, and the example on data about micro loans in problem 2). Repayment(borrower_id,name,address,loanamount,requestdate,repayment_date,request_amount) A borrower is identified with an unique borrower_id, and has only one address. Borrowers can have multiple simultaneous loans, but they always have different request dates. The borrower can make multiple repayments on the same day, but not more than one repayment per loan per day. a) State a key (candidate key) for Repayment. b) Make the normalization to BCNF. State for every step in the normalization, which functional dependency that causes it. 4 SQL (25 %) This problem is about writing SQL for the relation Repayment from problem 3: Repayment(borrower_id,name,address,loanamount,requestdate,repayment_date,repayment_amount) To solve the problem, the information from the description in problem 3 must be used. a) Write an SQL request that returns all the tuples with information on repayments from the borrower with id equal to 42, and where the lent amount exceeds 1000 USD. b) Write an SQL request that for each address finds the total repaid amount for the address. c) Write an SQL request that finds all names which has a unique address, which to say is where there does not exist a tuple with a different name and same address. d) Write an SQL command, which deletes all information on ended loans, which is to say loans where the total repaid amount equals the lend amount. 5

7 5 Transactions (10 %) Consider the following transactions, which uses explicit locking of tuples. Here?1,?2,?3,?4 is used to reference parameters that are substituted in. 1. SET TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL READ COMMITTED; SELECT * FROM R WHERE id=?1 FOR UPDATE; SELECT * FROM S WHERE pk=?2 FOR UPDATE; UPDATE R SET a=?3 WHERE id=?1; UPDATE S SET b=?4 WHERE pk=?2; COMMIT; 2. SET TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL READ COMMITTED; SELECT * FROM S WHERE pk=?1 FOR UPDATE; SELECT * FROM R WHERE id=?2 FOR UPDATE; UPDATE S SET d=?3 WHERE pk=?1; UPDATE R SET c=?4 WHERE id=?2; COMMIT; a) Argue that there is a possibility for deadlocks, if the two transactions are run at the same time. State a specific sequence of locks, that leads to a deadlock. b) Suggest a change of the transactions, so deadlocks can no longer be created, and give a short argument that this is in fact the case. Emphasis is on that the transactions keep their original effect. 6

8 6 Indexing (10%) We again look at the relation Repayment from problem 3 (un-normalized). Assume that the following four SQL commands are known to be frequent (with actual parameters substituted in for?): 1. SELECT DISTINCT name, address FROM Repayment WHERE borrower_id =?; 2. SELECT * FROM Repayment WHERE borrower_id =? AND repayment_date >?; 3. SELECT borrower_id, loanamount FROM Repayment WHERE loanamount BETWEEN? AND?; 4. INSERT INTO Request VALUES (?,?,?,?,?,?,?); a) Suggest one or more indexes, taking into account of the above. State the indexed attributes for each index, along with the index type (primary or secondary). Argue shortly for your choices. Emphasis is on the suggested indexes supports the SQL commands as effectively as possible. 7

9 Database Systems IT University of Copenhagen January 2, 2007 This exam consists of 5 problems with a total of 15 questions. The weight of each problem is stated. You have 4 hours to answer all questions. The complete assignment consists of 6 numbered pages (including this page). If you cannot give a complete answer to a question, try to give a partial answer. You may choose to write your answer in Danish or English. Write only on the front of sheets, and remember to write your CPR-number on each page. Please start your answer to each question at the top of a new page. Please order and number the pages before handing in. RG refers to Database Management Systems by Raghu Ramakrishnan and Johannes Gehrke, McGraw-Hill, All written aids are allowed / Alle skriftlige hjælpemidler er tilladt. 1

10 1 SQL DDL and normalization (20%) The national railroad company in the Republic of Delalaya maintains a relational database of information on (physical) trains, train personnel, and manning. The database stores key numbers for each train, and information on which employees work on a given train departure. To simplify administrative procedures, employees always work on the same physical train, and always work all the way from the departure station to the final destination. The database has the following schema: Train(Tid,type,productionYear,capacity) Personnel(Pid,worksOnTrain,worksAs,hiredDate,salary) Manning(Tid,Pid,Sid,onDate) The attribute type of Train refers to the train manufacturer s code for a specific kind of trains. All trains with the same code are identical. The attribute worksontrain of Personnel is a foreign key reference to Train(Tid). This reflects the fact that each person always works on the same train (but of course not all the time). Any tuple in Personnel must contain a valid reference to a tuple in Train. The Sid attribute of Manning is a reference to a code for a specific departure in the time table. However, the time table is not part of the database. The attribute pair (Pid,Tid) in Manning is a foreign key reference to Personnel(Pid,worksOnTrain). a) Write SQL statements that create the above relations, including key and foreign key constraints. You can make any reasonable assumption about the data types. b) Identify all functional dependencies in the relations that do not have a superkey on the left hand side (i.e., are avoidable ). Use the dependencies to decompose the schema into BCNF, and state the resulting database schema. Briefly discuss the quality of the new schema (ignoring efficiency issues). 2 Data modeling (30%) The transportation authority in the Republic of Delalaya has decided to implement a database to keep statistics on public transportation (fuel-driven buses and electricity-driven trains), with emphasis on keeping track of delays and the number of travelers. In particular, it should be used to identify particular weaknesses in the transportation systems (e.g., stretches of railroad that often cause delays, or employees who have trouble keeping the schedule). First of all, data from the railroad company, as described in Problem 1, should be integrated into the system, but not necessarily using the schema stated there. 2

11 a) Draw an ER diagram corresponding to the data described in Problem 1, including, if possible, all integrity constraints stated there. You should follow general rules for making a good ER design your design does not need to translate to the three relations stated in Problem 1. In addition to the above, the following information is needed: Information on buses. Similar to the information on trains, but in addition the range of each bus (the number of kilometers it will drive on a full tank) should be recorded. Information on bus drivers. Similar to to the information on train personnel, with the following changes: All bus drivers have the same work (driving the bus). A bus driver does not drive a specific bus, but may drive any bus. Route information. The sequence of stops on each train/bus route. Each route has a unique route number. Vehicle usage. For each route and departure time, on each day, record which physical train/bus was used. (In Delalaya, this is always a single bus or train several trains can t be coupled together.) Timetable information. Information on planned arrival and departure times for each route and every stop. Timetable statistics. Information on actual arrival and departure times for every train/bus and every stop, on every day. Traveler statistics. Periodically, surveys are being made that record the destinations of all travelers in a given bus/train at a given time (between two stops). Manning. Who has worked on a particular vehicle at every time. It should be taken into account that manning may change at any time during a route. b) Draw an ER diagram that integrates the additional data described above with the ER diagram of Problem 2 a). You should follow general rules for making a good ER design. If you need to make any assumptions, state them. c) Suppose that we desire the database to evolve over time (e.g. with new time tables), but we also want to be able to store and query historical data. Outline how the ER diagram of Problem 2 b) could be changed to achieve this. 3

12 3 SQL (25 %) Consider a database of flight departures and airplanes, with the following schema: Departure(departureID,airplaneID,destination,departureTime,bookedSeats) Airplane(airplaneID,modelID,fabricationYear) Model(ModelID,name,capacity) a) Write an SQL query that lists the airplaneid of all airplanes made before b) Write an SQL query that lists the departureid for all departures bounded for destinations starting with the letter D. c) Write an SQL query that lists the average capacity of airplanes fabricated 1970 or later. d) Write an SQL query that lists the departureid for every overbooked departure (i.e. where the number of bookings exceed the capacity of the plane). e) Write a query in relational algebra that lists the model-name of every airplane that was fabricated in f) Write an SQL query that lists the fabricationyear of the oldest and second oldest plane. You may assume that the two oldest planes have different values on the attribute fabricationyear. (Note: Some versions of SQL have a special syntax for this kind of query however, you are required to write the query using only SQL features found in RG.) g) Write an SQL query that lists all destinations that has more empty seats than the average number of empty seat on all departures (we assume that the number of empty seats is the number of booked seats subtracted from the capacity of the plane). 4

13 4 Transactions (10 %) a) Consider an initially empty table T with the schema T(number) and transactions running at isolation level READ COMMITTED Transaction 1 Transaction 2 1 INSERT INTO t VALUES (1) 2 INSERT INTO t VALUES (2) 3 SELECT * FROM T 4 SELECT * FROM T 5 ROLLBACK 6 SELECT * FROM T 7 SELECT * FROM T State what is returned from each of the SELECT queries at line 3, 4, 6, and 7. If there are several possibilities, you may state any of them. b) Consider the two schedules below. Schedule 1: Schedule 2: Transaction 1 Transaction 2 Transaction 1 Transaction 2 R(A) R(B) R(A) R(B) R(B) W(B) R(A) W(A) rollback W(A) commit commit W(B) commit State for each of the two schedules whether it is serializable or not. If the schedule is serializable write a serialization of the schedule, otherwise give a brief explanation of why the schedule is not serializable. 5

14 5 Database efficiency (15%) Consider the relation T(id,name) with 100,000 tuples. Values of id are positive integers, and values of name are strings of length at most 30. The following queries are of interest: 1. SELECT * FROM t WHERE id = SELECT * FROM t WHERE id > SELECT * FROM T WHERE id > 100 and id < 9000 and name = 'Mads' a) State for each of the above queries whether an index would speed it up. In the cases where the answer is yes you also have to specify: Would a Hash-index or a B-tree index be the fastest index? Which attribute(s) should be indexed? Would a clustered index make the query significantly faster than an unclustered index? 6

15 Database Systems IT University of Copenhagen June 8, 2006 This exam consists of 5 problems with 16 questions, printed on 7 numbered pages. The weight of each problem is stated. You have 4 hours to answer all questions. If you are unable to answer a question, try to give a partial answer. You may choos to write in English or Danish. Pages in your answer should be numbered and contain name, CPR number, and course code (DBS). Write only on the front page of pages, and put the pages in order before handing in. MDM refers to the course book Modern Database Management 7th edition by Jeffery A. Hoffer, Mary B. Prescott, and Fred R. McFadden. All written aids are allowed. 1

16 1 Data modeling (35%) Consider the below EER diagram (extended Chen notation), modeling data on national team soccer: Coaches, fan clubs, matches, championships, and players. For coaches, it is recorded who is assisting (Assists). For players it is modeled with national league team (LEAGUE TEAM) they have a contract with (Contract with). Some national teams are youth teams the YOUTH TEAM and NATIONAL TEAM entity sets are connected by an IsA relationship. For fan clubs it models who are members, and who is president. For each game it models which players were active (Plays), and in what time period (between starttime and endtime). If the whole match is played, these numbers are 0 and 90, respectively 2

17 a) Indicate for each of the following statements if they agree with the EER diagram. (Observe that the diagram does not necessarily model reality exactly.) 1. A national team always has at least 1 coach. 2. The assistant of a coach can have an assitant herself. 3. A player has a contract with at most 1 league team. 4. A player cna take part in matches for more than 1 country. 5. A player can be substituted in and out several times in a match, and hence have several starting times. 6. A youth team can take part of a championship. 7. There can be 20 players on court for each team in a match. 8. There can be two fan clubs of the same name. b) Convert the EER diagram to relations. When there are several choices, you should choose a method that minimizes the number of relations. Write the schemas of the resulting relations, with primary key attributes underlined. The EER diagram does not model historic data on player careers (what teams they have played for, in what periods, and for what salary). Further, a playing coach will correspond to an instance of the COACH entity as well as a PLAYER entity, with no information that this is the same person. A new data model is sought where these restrictions do not apply. Further, the new data model should make it possible to register not only the result of the match, but also the most important events in a match: Goals (who is goal scorer is, and in what minute the goal was scored). Penalties (what minute, who committed the penalty, and against whom). Red and yellow cards (who and when). Substitutions as in the present ER diagram. c) Draw a revised ER model in your chosen notation, taking the above wishes into account. You should strive to make a flexible data model, which can easily be extended with more detailed information. Write explanatory text if needed to understand your reasoning. 3

18 2 Normalization (15%) Consider a relation with the schema: Sales(seller,producer,product,amount). The following is a legal instance of Sales: seller producer product amount Silman SoftFloor AG Velour Bjarnes Tæpper Bøgetæpper Berber Top Tæpper Bøgetæpper Kashmir Silman SoftFloor AG Berber Bjarnes Tæpper Bøgetæpper Valnød a) Which of the following potential FDs do not hold, based on the instance above? 1. amount product 2. amount product seller 3. product producer 4. producer product 5. seller product amount The instance above can be computed as the join of these relations: seller Silman Bjarnes Tæpper Top Tæpper producer SoftFloor AB Bøgetæpper Bøgetæpper seller product amount Silman Velour Bjarnes Tæpper Berber Top Tæpper Kashmir Silman Berber Bjarnes Tæpper Valnød b) State a functional dependency (FD) that ensure that Sales can be split as in the example given with no loss of information. In other words, the FD should ensure that the SQL statement (SELECT seller, producer FROM Sales) NATURAL JOIN (SELECT seller, product, amount FROM Sales) always returns a relation that is identical with Sales. Further, give an explanation in words of what the FD expresses. c) Give an instance of Sales where the chosen split does not work, i.e., where the SQL statement in question b) does not return the same instance. 3 SQL (30 %) Consider the relations fan(id,name,cprnr,membersince,favorite) og player(id,name,country), and instance with the following data: 4

19 id name cprnr membersince favorite 1 Birger Hansen Mads Mikkelsen Jens Green Hans Westergaard Christian Lund Jesper Andersen Betina Jørgensen id name country 1 Peter Ijeh Nigeria 2 Marcus Allbäck Sverige 3 Martin Bernburg Danmark 4 Jesper Christiansen Danmark 5 Michael Gravgaard Danmark The relations contain data on members in a fan club, and their favorite players. a) How many tuples are returned for each of the following queries, when run on the instances above? 1. SELECT * FROM fan WHERE membersince = 2003; 2. SELECT * FROM fan WHERE membersince >= 2000 AND favorite <> 5; 3. SELECT COUNT(*), membersince FROM fan GROUP BY membersince; 4. SELECT * FROM fan WHERE name LIKE Hans% ; 5. SELECT R1.name, R2.name FROM fan R1, fan R2 WHERE R1.favorite = R2.favorite and R1.id < R2.id; 6. SELECT name FROM fan R1 WHERE (select count(*) FROM fan R2 WHERE R2.favorite=R1.favorite) > 1; 7. SELECT name FROM fan WHERE favorite NOT IN (SELECT id FROM player WHERE country= Danmark ); b) Write an SQL command that, for each tuple in the relation fan where cprnr is larger than or less than , sets cprnr to the value NULL. c) Write an SQL command that deletes all tuples in fan where cprnr has the value NULL. 5

20 d) Write a query that, for each member in the fan club, computes the name of the member and the name of his/her favorite player. e) Write an SQL query that computes the average of the column membersince in the relation fan. f) Define an SQL view that for each member in the fan club shows the name of the member, and the name of the members favorite player. Use your view to write a query that computes the number of fans of each player (the name of the player must be shown). g) Write an SQL query that returns a relation with a single attribute, containing all names in fan and player. You can assume that the data types for the name attributes are identical. h) Write an SQL query that returns the names of all players that have more female than male fans. A person in fan is male if and only if the expression cprnr % 2 = 1 is true. 4 Transactions (10 %) Consider two database connections that make updates and queries on the relation MyFan(id, name): Connection 1 Connection 2 INSERT INTO MyFan VALUES (3, Bent Ølgård ); INSERT INTO MyFan VALUES (7, Birger Hansen ); INSERT INTO MyFan VALUES (5, Birger Hansen ); SELECT * FROM MyFan; (1) COMMIT; DELETE FROM MyFan; SELECT * FROM MyFan; (2) ROLLBACK; SELECT * FROM MyFan; (3) a) Assume that MyFan does not contain any tuples, that the transactions are running at isolation level READ COMMITED, and that the individual SQL commands are sent to the DBMS in the sequence shown above. Which tuples are returned for each of the 3 SELECT statements? 5 Constraints (10%) Assume that the relations fan and player have been created with no constraints, and that the tables contain the data shown in problem 3. We now add constraints with the following commands: 6

21 ALTER TABLE player ADD CONSTRAINT MyFirstConstraint PRIMARY KEY (id); ALTER TABLE fan ADD CONSTRAINT MySecondConstraint FOREIGN KEY (favorite) REFERENCES player(id); ALTER TABLE fan ADD CONSTRAINT MyThirdConstraint UNIQUE (cprnr); a) State for each of the following commands which of the three above constraints (if any) are violated, i.e., result in an error message. 1. DELETE FROM spiller WHERE land= Sverige ; 2. INSERT INTO spiller VALUES (6, Michael Gravgaard, Danmark ); 3. UPDATE fan SET cprnr= where navn LIKE %Hans% ; 4. INSERT INTO fan VALUES (7, Hans Metz,NULL,2001,7); 5. UPDATE fan set favorit=null where navn LIKE %e% ; 7

22 Introduction to Databases IT University of Copenhagen January 16, 2006 This exam consists of 5 problems with a total of 16 questions. The weight of each problem is stated. You have 4 hours to answer all 16 questions. The complete assignment consists of 12 numbered pages (including this page), plus an answer sheet to be used for several of the questions. If you cannot give a complete answer to a question, try to give a partial answer. You may choose to write your answer in Danish or English. Write only on the front of sheets, and remember to write your CPR-number on each page. Please start your answer to each question at the top of a new page. Please order and number the pages before handing in. GUW refers to Database Systems The Complete Book by Hector Garcia-Molina, Je Ullman, and Jennifer Widom, All written aids are allowed / Alle skriftlige hjælpemidler er tilladt. 1

23 1 Database design (25%) The academic world is an interesting example of international cooperation and exchange. This problem is concerned with modeling of a database that contains information on researchers, academic institutions, and collaborations among researchers. A researcher can either be employed as a professor or a lab assistant. There are three kinds of professors: Assistant, associate, and full professors. The following should be stored: For each researcher, his/her name, year of birth, and current position (if any). For each institution, its name, country, and inauguration year. For each institution, the names of its schools (e.g. School of Law, School of Business, School of Computer Science,... ). A school belongs to exactly one institution. An employment history, including information on all employments (start and end date, position, and what school). Information about co-authorships, i.e., which researchers have co-authered a research paper. The titles of common research papers should also be stored. For each researcher, information on his/her highest degree (BSc, MSc or PhD), including who was the main supervisor, and at what school. For each professor, information on what research projects (title, start date, and end date) he/she is involved in, and the total amount of grant money for which he/she was the main applicant. a) Draw an E/R diagram for the data set described above. Make sure to indicate all cardinality constraints specified above. The E/R diagram should not contain redundant entity sets, relationships, or attributes. Also, use relationships whenever appropriate. If you need to make any assumptions, include them in your answer. b) Convert your E/R diagram from question a) into relations, and write SQL statements to create the relations. You may make any reasonable choice of data types. Remember to include any constraints that follow from the description of the data set or your E/R diagram, including primary key and foreign key constraints. 2

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