ITA Conference February 16-18, 2015 Crowne Plaza Hotel, Jerusalem כנס את"י בפברואר 5162 מלון קראון פלאזה ירושלים

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1 ITA Conference February 16-18, 2015 Crowne Plaza Hotel, Jerusalem כנס את"י בפברואר 5162 מלון קראון פלאזה ירושלים Lectures הרצאות Cloudy with a Chance of IFRS Avraham Schurder, CPA A few years ago, it looked as if the accounting world was going to converge under one set of accounting standards, the International Financial Reporting Standards or IFRS. The hope of a single set of standards seems to be receding. What do translators of financial statements need to know about this and what is in the pipeline as far as further changes are concerned? Easy Methods to Create Glossaries and TMs Delphine Guérou Nowadays, TMs and glossaries are standard tools for translators. For a long time, it was necessary to use very complex software to create them, but many user-friendly tools are now available. While creating terminology resources for the Alexandria Library, I was able to identify several tools that were easy to use and made the entire process seem like child s play. What s more, they enabled me to create hundreds of glossaries in a very short time. In this presentation for both beginners and seasoned-translators, I will demonstrate some of them including PowerArchiver, Glossary Converter, Bulk Rename Utility and others and show what can be achieved with them. After listening to this presentation, participants should be able to create TMs and glossaries from all kinds of documents, including Excel, PDF and Word files. Establishing Partnership with Russian Clients Natalie Shahova Israeli translators should not overlook opportunities to offer their services in the enormous and rapidly growing Russian translation market. Partnering with customers located abroad, however, involves some challenges. This presentation includes a general profile of Russian customers, a description of typical problems that may arise in working with them, and approaches to finding solutions. 1

2 Facebook for Translators: Waste of Time or (Net)working Tool? Anne Diamantidis Facebook is the world's biggest social network. Designed as a private network originally - and it still is one - it is however widely used by many translators professionally and the Facebook community of translators is now a huge one, growing everyday, and very active on a daily basis - much more than LinkedIn groups. There are job groups, terminology help groups, general groups, CAT-tools help specific groups, and much more. In this brief overview, we will discuss the pros and cons, what it can bring to you, etc. The aim is not to convince anyone about how great or how awful it is, but rather, give you a realistic overview of what to expect so that you can decide for yourself whether this is something you'd like to try or definitely not. File Preparation and Conversion Ellen Singer When importing files for translation directly into a CAT tool or converting a project from one CAT tool to another, the result often includes incorrect segmentation and/or text that should not be translated. The problems are greater when translating PDF files: there are various tools for text extraction and some CAT tools can handle PDF files as is, but the extracted text often gives the translator problems when processing it using a CAT tool. And sometimes we can translate the file, but we cannot export the clean translated file. Spending some time on file preparation before the actual translation can often save time and aggravation at a later stage. During the talk, Ellen will propose options to deal with various types of source files [PDF, DOC(X),... and CAT tool packages and export files], and how to prepare these for smooth processing. She will show you simple, time-saving tricks and enhanced search and replace functions. Hebrew to English Translation of Clinical Trial Documents Eve Hecht & Carl Wurzel Clinical trials and associated documentation now represent a significant source of translation work, with strict quality standards for the many types of translations required for these very complex studies. One interesting and challenging feature of clinical trials translation is that different documents concerning the same trial may be addressed to audiences as varied as physicians, regulators and patients (or is that subjects?), or their guardians. In addition to specific vocabulary, register and tone must also be noted and replicated. While the terminology may at first appear daunting, most of it is standardized and often repetitive. This presentation will introduce the players, procedures and the documents themselves, along with sources for vocabulary, explanations and regulations. The particular challenges of Hebrew to English translation will be discussed, and participants will exchange suggestions for dealing with them. 2

3 How Traditionally Jewish is the ArtScroll Translation of the Tanakh? Meshulam Gotlieb Recent studies of American Haredi society have postulated that a process of acculturation (coalescence, filtering, and monopolizing) informs the complex relationship between ultra- Orthodoxy and American culture. One particular test case for this claim is the recent ArtScroll translation of the Tanakh. While the ArtScroll translators explicitly acknowledge many of the translation issues informing their work and adopt a traditionalist stance, I would like to investigate whether they really remain true to their stated intentions and succeed in creating a uniquely traditional, Jewish translation of the Bible. Do conscious and unconscious self-censorship or surreptitious borrowing from earlier (and even non-jewish) translations compromise the translation s traditional imprimatur? Does the complex process of ultra-orthodox acculturation affect this purportedly traditional translation? It Is Possible to Translate for Equality: Gender Analysis and Intersectionality as Tools for Equality Nuria Brufau-Alvira Feminist translation theories and practice have been traditionally based on feminist theoretical grounds. At the moment, it is sometimes hard to see how translations can be understood and executed from a gender equality perspective. However, there are concepts of feminist origin which can prove useful when translating. Proper gender analysis itself can help to avoid spreading sexism without crossing the boundaries of the always conflicted frontier of what translators can and cannot do. Also, the notion of intersectionality, developed during the eighties in a very diverse context, can be applied to the present interconnected and mixed world we live in as an analytical tool in order to respect equality in all its dimensions. These two ideas, gender mainstreaming and intersectionality, will be presented together with real examples, in an attempt to offer them to translators as two very updated instruments to work for equality today. IT Security, Cloud Computing, Big Language and Big Data: New Trends, Threats and Challenges in Our Profession Anne-Charlotte Perrigaud This session will provide attendees with a clear idea of how cloud computing works for translators and will describe the way translation data fuels and empowers translation engines, without overlooking the challenges and risks when using such solutions. The presenter will also discuss the opportunities that the cloud affords freelance translators in terms of productivity, quality, real-time communication, content sharing and added value. Each attendee will go home with an IT security strategy to implement and with a methodology to customize and adapt good practices in their own businesses in a practical way that works for freelancers. Finally, the Q/A session will be an opportunity to share and exchange with attendees. 3

4 Latest Trends in the Translation Industry David Canek, CEO, Memsource Our industry is changing rapidly these days. Approximately 50% of all professional translations are produced with some machine translation support today. However, we still need to figure out how to integrate MT into our pricing and quality assurance models. A focus on crowdsourcing and communities is gaining attention among translation buyers as an alternative for professional human translation. Sharing and collaboration changes the way we translate and interact with our clients and vendors. The constant price pressure and commoditization of translation services forces translation providers to look for new business models. Many of them are exploring ways of becoming solution providers rather than just translation providers. A general trend of removing intermediaries from a supply chain, or disintermediation, affects also the translation industry. Most multilanguage vendors aim to source translations from freelancers at the expense of singlelanguage vendors in the future. Legal Translation and Interpreting: from Illegal Parking to Serial Killing Josephine Bacon Legal translators and interpreters have to deal with every aspect of the law, from illegal parking to serial killing, from commercial cases to divorce and family. They also work on all sides, for the defendant, the respondent, the petitioner, third parties to the case, etc. Legal translation and interpreting can be very lucrative, but one is sometimes having to translate apples into oranges when working from one legal system to another. If you work into English, for example, you will need to know something about the legal system of England and Wales and possibly Scotland, and the four legal systems of the States of the USA, plus the Federal system, as well as the systems of countries of the source language(s). Plenty of resources are available, including overviews of the various systems and how they vary. For instance, a suspect is treated as guilty until proven innocent in Napoleonic law but innocent until proven guilty in the case law system used by the UK, the USA and Israel. The laws of countries that use the Napoleonic system are based on codes or codexes. In some cases, this makes the law clearer, but if a litigant does not like what the codex says, his/her counsel will have to put forward arguments to refute the application of the codex to the particular case. Remember that if you work into or from a language that is spoken in several countries, the civil and criminal law in each country will vary. Specialist legal dictionaries are required and the internet is not necessarily a good resource in this respect. Bilingual dictionaries as well as monolingual dictionaries in the source language are useful. Since Latin is used frequently in legal circles (mens rea, intuiti personae, etc.) it is a good idea to have a Latin dictionary. As for court interpreting, lawyers can be strangely reluctant to brief interpreters, you must insist politely but firmly to know something about the case before you go into court. 4

5 Like this. Share that. Content Marketing and Social Media - What's the Real Deal for Entrepreneurs? Hilary Faverman You run your own business! Congratulations. Now, how do you expand your client base without leaving your house? Content marketing is a revolution. It gives small businesses (you) a voice that can rival the biggies. It empowers individuals (again, you) to have a say, make a mark, establish yourself as an innovator and thought leader. The content marketing movement lends itself to a sense of efficacy for the entrepreneur. I've seen it work, made it work, and will help you learn this tactic to give "the littles" a powerful voice. Everywhere you look, you're being asked to "like" this and "share" that. Why? Because it's one of the best ways to get your potential clients to subscribe to your content. The more relevant, quality content that makes it to your potential client, the better. Social media is one of the ways in. Machine Translation: A Threat or a Shift Opportunity for the Translator? Pascale Amozig-Bukszpan In recent years, machine translation has widely surfaced in new forms: research projects, consumer software and websites, giving it a growing place in most of the conferences dedicated to translation and making it the hottest topic in localization forums. After briefly covering the history of machine translation over a period of six decades, the presentation will describe the different MT systems in use today and how they work. We will then go through the various MT applications and show how MT is likely to redefine the role of translators (or perhaps not ) Making the Jump From Part-Time to Full-Time Translator Stephen Rifkind This lecture will discuss the transition from part-time to full-time translator. First, the reasons will be discussed with emphasis on the importance of clear thinking as compared to idealism. Enterprising translators can successfully deal psychologically with any challenge or surprise, if the reasons for and consequences of their decision are clear in their minds. Then, some steps for preparing for this transition will be suggested. These include analysis of current and future income, marketing, and setting of goals. Current and future expenditures should be considered to provide financial and psychological security. In addition, it is vital to invest in expert services such as an accountant and/or attorney. Likewise, translators should discuss this transition and its financial and emotional consequences with all those affected by the change beforehand, as their support is necessary. Finally, we will cover the actual consequences of this decision. They include the understanding of changes in the attitude towards work, the manner of conducting the business, the psychological stress of variable income, the potential lack of social interaction, as well as the process of selfredefinition. 5

6 Marks & Spencer, Business Ethics, and the Translator Micaela Ziv Whether you are an independent, freelance translator/editor or a running an agency, your organizational business practices are an essential component of success. But is that enough? My claim is that any successful business must develop its own business philosophy and ethical principles for stress-less success. What s M&S got to do with it? Come and find out! Membership in the ITA? Certification? Recognition? Acknowledgement? Does It Add to My Bottom Line? Perry Zamek This will be a blatant example of self-promotion! I plan to show, through some well-chosen examples, why it s useful, and even important, to obtain certification and/or recognition, as well as having one s translation work acknowledged or recognized in some way, and how it comes back in the form of additional work, meaning additional income. I will also throw in some useful anecdotes about how it is our clients who often give us the tools to market ourselves. Examples will be drawn from my work as a translator of official and personal documents, and will illustrate some of the issues involved: official documents whose format or content has changed over time; how to deal with clients who provide their own translations, and ask for you to rubber stamp them; important questions to ask clients before or during the work; payment methods and how to communicate them to clients, without having to constantly repeat yourself. I will also discuss the importance of carving out a niche market, and how it is possible to enhance your income by being a big fish in a small pond. New Faces of Crowdsourcing in the Translation & Localization Industry Igor Vesler Crowdsourcing, as a process of obtaining services or content by soliciting contributions from an online community (rather than from traditional employees or suppliers), celebrates its 10 th anniversary. Five major components (originator/initiator; venue; audience; goal, and process) and three major phases of the crowdsourcing project have been identified. As a new trend in the translation and localization industry, crowdsourcing commercialization led to the development of several online platforms created for freelancers, based on the simple premise that an average freelancer is not always busy, so they may use their downtime to contribute to a project online by translating small chunks of text, one at a time, at a lower-than-regular rate. Typical examples of these platforms (ALCONOST, MOTAWORD, and ACCLARO) and their modus operandi are presented and discussed. 6

7 Not to Be Devoured Is the Most Perfect Sentiment: Emotions in Translation Dr. Tal Goldfajn This paper explores the relationship between emotion, culture and translation. It examines how emotions and emotional lives have been dealt with in translation. How can we translate emotional lives from one language to another, from one affective cultural repertoire to another, without reducing what is other to the same? If linguistic expressions of emotion are often linked to broader issues of cultural values and worldviews, how can we extend the possibilities of their translation and representation in different languages? Drawing on my experience of translating into Hebrew the canonical Brazilian authors Carlos Drummond de Andrade and Nelson Rodrigues, this paper asks how the translator s emotion manifests itself in the text, to what extent it foregrounds or shadows specific emotions how does the translator s emotion orient or dictate certain translation strategies? The paper suggests that translation not only allows us to investigate the kind of emotional scripts available in the target language, but also reveals a rich history of emotional nuances, moral norms and moving frontiers between languages and cultures. Objectivity, Subjectivity and Bias: A Journalist's View of Translation in Conflict Eetta Prince-Gibson In a conflict situation, what is the role of the translator/interpreter and what is the role of the journalist, and what are their responsibilities to the consumers of the information they provide? What is objectivity in this context? Is it a reasonable, feasible goal? Is it a desirable goal? Based on her experience as a journalist who has covered the Israeli-Arab conflict for nearly three decades, Eetta will discuss questions of "objectivity" and "bias" in translating and reporting from this region. Productivity Tools for Translators: an Overview Alessandra Martelli Freelance translators are required to perform several different tasks every day. Some are directly related to translation work, others are more about running a business; nevertheless, they are all equally important, and ought to be managed as quickly and effectively as possible. Time is one of the most valuable assets for freelance professionals, and it is our responsibility to make the most out of our daily work. Good news is technology can help in achieving time-effectiveness and enhancing productivity. In this session, Alessandra Martelli illustrates the benefits of implementing productivity tools in a translator s workflow, offers a brief overview of the key areas for improvement in a typical working day, and provides hints and tips on how to select the tools that suit your needs best. 7

8 Remembering Kaniuk Anthony Berris After a translator-author relationship that began in 2002 and ended with the author s death in 2013, a translator takes a wistful look back at his association and friendship with author and journalist Yoram Kaniuk, an association that produced translations of three of the author s novels, a novella, and various journalistic pieces. It was also an association in which the translator broke at least one of his guide and mentor s ground rules with no regrets. The lecture will be delivered in English, a language that Kaniuk loved. Social Networks: What s All the Fuss About? Anne Diamantides Don t judge a book by its cover. The social networking world is a true jungle and the range of offerings can be overwhelming. As a translator, which networks should I use? Which ones are useless? What can I realistically expect from each network and which can help me reach my objectives? The presentation will attempt to break some prejudices by showing that nothing is black or white, and provide a neutral and complete overview of the main social sites, what can be expected from them, and how they make and don t make sense for our profession. Participants will: Have a clearer overview of social networks and a better idea of where to be, where it might make sense to be, and where not to be Decide whether this is relevant to their translation business to make the decision of investing in it or not This presentation is for both industry newcomers as well as seasoned translators. Sustainable Pricing for Sustainable Business Alessandra Martelli Pricing and rates are amongst the biggest taboos of the translation industry. Many industry newcomers ask for help on this delicate issue on professional forums and discussion boards, with little to no results; and the common question how much should I charge? often remains unanswered, if not sunk in a wealth of vagueness. This session aims at casting some light on such an obscure topic, with a focus on providing attendees with a solid understanding of how price determination should work to cater for the needs of a healthy freelance business. By the end of the presentation, you will be able to answer the question How much do I need to charge? effectively, thus helping in laying the foundations for sustainable business growth. 8

9 Technology for Technophobes A Discussion between a Techie and a Non-Techie Shoshana London-Sappir and Moshe Devere Shoshana London-Sappir will be telling you how technology is helping her improve her bottom line and advance herself professionally. Moshe Devere will be discussing translation in the 21 st century: What software is available, the Internet, machine translation, translation teamwork, and why it makes dollars and sense to step up and embrace technology. The discussion between Moshe and Shoshana will include the audience asking each other and the audience questions that concern the translator community and technology. This session is dedicated to the memory of our dear departed colleague, Yitschak Horneman, z l. Terminology Management from the Translator s Perspective Marek Pawelec Many translators see terminology management defined here as the process of creating and maintaining term bases as an unnecessary burden, which makes their work more time consuming and less productive. This presentation will show that it s just the opposite: while terminology work does require some effort, the use of term bases results in substantial productivity gain and improved quality and consistency. The terminology-related features of popular CAT tools will be shown, along with terminology verification capabilities of available QA tools. The Cookbook Editor: Master Chef, Food Fundi or Plain 'Ole' Nitpicker? Leanne Ravid What are umeboshi, speculoos, tempeh and triticale? What are plett pans and mandoline cutters used for? Is a pot heavy-bottomed or heavy-based, and is a mixture left to rest, sit or stand? Do recipes call for bread crumbs or breadcrumbs, whisky or whiskey, and amaretto or Amaretto? What's the difference between finely-sliced cucumbers and cucumbers, thinly sliced? How many, if any, of these answers do you need to know to edit a cookbook? Join me for a light-hearted, hands-on analysis of some of the finer issues of cookbook copy editing. You may even come away with some great recipes. 9

10 The Impact of the Iberian and Latin American Literatures in Israel Ruth Fine The vastness and variety of the Iberian and Latin American literatures' translation to Hebrew constitute a unique phenomenon in the horizon of the translation from Spanish and Portuguese to foreign languages. If we adopt as a loan the concept used for the Latin American literature of the 60s, it would be appropriate to refer to this phenomenon as a real "boom" of Spanish and Portuguese literature in Israel, hence expressing the great interest, intensity, quality and dissemination of the languages and their literatures in this country. This in no way constitutes a new situation circumscribed to recent years. Iberian and Latin American studies and the interest in the language have a long tradition since the creation of the state of Israel, but it reveals a phenomenon whose enhancement is noticeable in the last decades, driven undoubtedly by the unusual interest in the Spanish language. My contribution will analyze this phenomenon in its development and till the present days, reflecting on the predominant authors, genres and regions identified in the corpus of translated works from Spanish and Portuguese, while also elaborating on the causes of the interest and success of these literatures. The Translator Scammers' Plague João Roque Dias The devastating effects of identity fraud are found throughout all professions, and the language industry is no exception. Currently, some companies report that about 80 90% of the unsolicited CVs they receive are fake. Others even say that fake CVs received account for over 90%! For language professionals, their inboxes have probably come in contact with scammers trying to use your name and qualifications to make an easy buck. And, for translation companies, they have unknowingly requested work from someone who was not who they thought they were. Surprisingly, they have succeeded in their efforts, at least more than we should expect or desire The speaker will describe the most common (and not so common) practices used by the scammers and run down a checklist to spot fake CVs. 10

11 Translating Creativity Joanna Chen For the past two years, I have been translating the poetry of the Israeli poet Agi Mishol. My talk will outline the creative path Mishol and I have taken while working together, a path that is both dynamic and demanding. As a writer of poetry, this path has been particularly inspiring since it involves a process of digging for meanings hidden within each word. The Hebrew language is particularly rich in layers of meaning biblical, cultural and political. Cynthia Ozick wrote that a translation can serve as a lens into the underground life of another culture, and my wish while translating was to create this lens for readers of English. The poetry of Mishol is evocative, accessible, grounded in the present yet steeped both in Mishol s personal past and in the public past of Israel. The lyricism of her poems nestles within a language that is colloquial and familiar. Despite the simple diction, the challenge for me was to translate the words without removing them from their larger cultural context and also to preserve the gentle lyrical quality that Mishol s poetry possesses in the original Hebrew. The lecture, conducted in English, will include examples of recent published translations. Understanding the Translation of Western Terminology into Chinese Zöe Zhai Yu Benjamin Jowett once said: All translation is a compromise the effort to be literal and the effort to be idiomatic. The talk will take a close look at the historical process of translating early western terminologies into Chinese with an emphasis on political terms, such as liberty, democracy, etc. From the evolution of translation in modern Chinese, it shows the domestic understanding and acceptance of translation within certain ideology. For example, in the literary world and the political world, the role of translation has been practiced respectively under the similar ideological requirements. The talk will also include a comparison between consecutive translation and simultaneous translation in terms of understanding three fundamental principles Yan Fu (one of the most important translators in contemporary China) has raised xin 信 (faithful to the text), da 达 (comprehensive) and ya 雅 (eloquent in style). What Should Be the "Human" Added Value in a Quality-Driven Post-Editing Process? Anne-Charlotte Perrigaud What is post-editing? What are the challenges and pitfalls in this emerging market? Why should we post-edit/refuse to post-edit material? What about user-friendliness and rates? What are the best practices for post-editing? What are the challenges and future evolutions for this new linguistic service? This session will focus on giving attendees hints and keys to help them recognize and define several types of post-editing jobs available, make informed decisions, and chose whether they d like to start specializing to offer post-editing services or not, and spot the difficulties and traps, and learning basic tricks and techniques for efficient post-editing. 11

12 Who s Afraid of the Big Bad Word Ruth Moses Microsoft Word has undergone many changes over the years, and the transition to Word 2007/2010/2013 has been difficult for people who are used to the earlier versions of Word. Where is...? is a common question, as is What has happened to the [take your pick] button? Suddenly the menus are gone, and where does one find the table options? But problems always crop up, irrespective of versions: Here s a table, but it s in the wrong place, and I can t move it!! It is stuck in the wrong place on the page. What am I doing wrong? The text is supposed to start at the top of the page but for some reason it starts about five centimeters down and I can t get it to go to the top of the page. These are but a few of the questions that plague Word users. This session will try to answer these and other questions and to show that Word can be fun to use and easy to master. Your Smartphone as a Business Tool Bryna Lee Jacobson OK, I admit it. My goal here is to WOW you. But maybe not like a really decadent and fabulous chocolate dessert will wow you. More like when you get an AHA moment and you say, WOW! I get it! I can do it! This works for me! This is EASY!!!!! I will be sharing some tips and techniques for using your so-called Smartphone to help you get more out of your day and take some of the stress out of wearing multiple hats. Our focus will be on ways to help you in your business, on empowering you to do more, and do it more easily. Maybe you are like so many people who feel that either their Smartphone isn t so smart; or someone who asks Why does everyone else say, It s so easy to use, when it really is NOT? -- You are neither alone, nor is it a terminal condition... With some plain English explanations and examples about how to use your Smartphone for your convenience, efficiency and pleasure, you can gain new appreciation for that little gadget tethered to your hand. You too can enjoy enormous satisfaction by ordering it around with less frustration and greater ease. Even if you are an experienced smartphone user, there will be some new tidbit just for you. איך להקטין את חבות המס מבלי לעבור על החוק או לעצבן את רשות המיסים טל דיל, רו"ח בהרצאה זו ניתן הסבר אודות שיעורי המס הגבוהים בארץ, על עבירות שנישומים עוברים ביודעין או שלא ביודעין, ומה המשמעויות הכספיות והפליליות. איך מתבצע התהליך בפועל כשלקוח מקבל דיון מס, והולך יד ביד עם רואה החשבון שלו להתדיינות מול המפקח ממס הכנסה? מה הסבירות לקבלת דיון מס? מה בודקים שם? על מה נשאלים? ממה צריך להיזהר? איך סוגרים דיון שומה? מה מקבל המפקח לאחר סגירת הדיון? האם כדאי לוותר או להתעקש בנוגע לסוגיות מסוימות? האם ישנם תחומים אפורים ומי מחליט מי צודק? דוגמאות מהחיים האמיתיים של דיוני מס מהשנה האחרונה. ובנוסף, איזה הוצאות כדאי לדרוש ביום יום, ואיזה הוצאות כדאי מאוד לא להעביר לרואה חשבון. 12

13 איך למצוא את הלקוחות שלכם ברשת? תמר ברסטוביסקי, מנהלת שיווק לעסקים, Google ישראל היכרות עם כלי Google לקידום העסק שלכם ברשת: איך אתם יכולים לפרסם את עצמכם באמצעות Google בקלות, להגיע בצורה אפקטיבית לקהל הלקוחות הפוטנציאלי שלכם, ולשלוט בתקציב הפרסום שלכם על בסיס יומי? איך תוכלו להגדיל את החשיפה שלכם לקהל הנכון גם בסכומים צנועים, ולשלוט בכל רגע בהיקף הפרסום וקהלי היעד. אמן או עסק - ואולי שניהם גם יחד? אינגה מיכאלי מתרגמים רבים מתקשים לתרגם את מלאכתם ואמנותם לעסק. זה נפוץ במיוחד בקרב מתרגמי ספרות וכתוביות, אך ניסיון רב שצברתי בשנים האחרונות לימד אותי כי "האידיאולוגיה" הזו של האמן הרעב קיימת גם בנישות אחרות בעולם התרגום, ואף מחוצה לו. בהרצאה זו, אנסה למפות את התופעה בשוק התרגום הישראלי, לבדוק מה מקורה ולהמחיש כיצד היא פוגעת בכולנו, העוסקים היום בעולם התוכן. בהמשך, נבדוק יחדיו האם וכיצד כולנו יכולים לשנות את מה שניל אינגליס מכנה,Poverty Cult כדי להעצים את האמן הרעב שנמצא בכל אחד מאיתנו ואולי אף לקחת איתנו קווים מנחים שיסייעו לנו להגדיר את עצמנו כבעלי עסק. גלגולה של כתובית על האילוצים הייחודיים בתרגום כתוביות בטלוויזיה ובאינטרנט זהבית אהרה כולנו נתקלים בכתוביות כמעט בכל פעם שאנו צופים בטלוויזיה. מדובר בתהליך תרגום מורכב. בהרצאה זו תוצג עבודתם הייחודית של מתרגמי הכתוביות הנדרשים לעסוק בז'אנרים מגוונים הדורשים בכל פעם מחדש חקירה מעמיקה בתחומים שונים. כמו כן, התרגום משפה מדוברת לשפה כתובה מצריך שימוש באסטרטגיות תרגומיות שונות מאלה שבתרגום מטקסט כתוב, במיוחד בשל הצורך להתאים את התרגום למסגרת הנוקשה של כתובית המוגבלת במקום ובזמן. בהרצאה יוצגו האילוצים הייחודיים לתרגום כתוביות בתחום הלשוני, הטכני והתרבותי כגון: התייחסות מיוחדת לשפה מדוברת; דיבור סימולטני של שני דוברים או יותר; התמודדות עם ניואנסים תרבותיים, מטפורות ומשחקי מילים, וכן התייחסות אל כתוביות כמודל לאוריינות. בהמשך ההרצאה יוצג השימוש ההולך וגובר בכתוביות באינטרנט, שם משמשות הכתוביות ככלי נגישות וכאמצעי לקידום אתרים. הגלוסרי )לא( קדוש ליאת נוי איך מתרגמים את המילה keyboard לעברית "מקלדת" או "לוח מקשים"? והמילה application יישום או אפליקציה, או אולי בכלל הגשת בקשה? account חשבון או תיק לקוח? ה ק ש ר תמיד עוזר, אבל בפרויקטים של לוקליזציה לא תמיד אנו מקבלים את ההקשר המלא. בתחום הלוקליזציה, לרוב הלקוחות יש לפחות מונחון )גלוסרי( אחד, אם לא יותר. לנו כמתרגמים חשוב לדעת מהי הטרמינולוגיה של הלקוח שלנו, וכאשר אנו מקבלים גלוסרי מהלקוח, יש לכך משמעות מבחינות שונות באלו כלים אנחנו משתמשים, איך להתייחס למונחים השונים, ועוד. מנקודת המבט של הלקוח, לגלוסרי יש חשיבות שכן הוא מבטיח אחידות גם אם מוציאים תרגומים לכמה חברות תרגום או למספר מתרגמים שונים. הגלוסרי והסטייל גייד נועדו להבטיח שבמוצרים ובפרויקטים השונים ייעשה שימוש באותה טרמינולוגיה ובאותה שפה סגנונית בכל המקומות שבהם מפיצים את המוצר או השירות. מנקודת המבט של המתרגמים, לשימוש בגלוסרי יש יתרונות, אך צריך לדעת איך להתייחס אליו. ומה עושים אם אין גלוסרי? מה עושים כשעובדים עבור מספר לקוחות במקביל, אבל לכל אחד מהם יש תרגום אחר לאותו מונח? מה זה אומר ליצור גלוסרי בעצמנו? גלוסרי מקוון או בעותק מקומי על המחשב שלנו? ואם רוצים לשתף עם מתרגמים נוספים? 13

14 הפנים החדשות של מיקור המונים בתעשיית התרגום והלוקאליזציה איגור וסלר מיקור חוץ, או הפנייה וביצוע משימות )שלרוב היו מתבצעות בידי עובדי חברה או אנשים מטעמה( על ידי קהל גדול או "המונים", חוגג עשור. עד כה זוהו חמישה מרכיבים )יוצר/יוזם, סביבה, קהל יעד, מטרה ותהליך( ושלושה שלבים עיקרים בפרוייקטים אלה. כמגמה חדשה בתעשיית התרגום והלוקאליזציה, המסחור של מיקור המונים הוביל לפיתוח של פלטפורמות מקוונות לפרילנסרים, המבוססות על הנחה שלפרילנסר ממוצע תמיד ימצא זמן לא מנוצל ויוכל לתרום לפרויקט ע"י תרגום קטעים קצרים של טקסט בתעריף נמוך מהממוצע. נציג ונדון בדוגמאות אופייניות של פלטפורמות אלה,ALCONOST( MOTAWORD ו- ACCLARO ( וב-מודוס אופרנדי )שיטת פעולה( שלהם. הקץ לטעויות העברית, עכשיו במהירות ובקלות מהמחשב בבית רחלי לביא כמתרגמים, חשוב לנו לא רק לדעת את נבכי השפה שממנה אנחנו מתרגמים, אלא גם איך להפיק מסמך איכותי ומקצועי, חף מטעויות עברית. מביך למצוא את הטעויות בדפוס, וגם כשהמסמך עובר עריכה מאכזב נורא לקבל את התרגום מהעורך כשכל כולו מלא סימוני שגיאות... וכמה מדכא למצוא שגיאות תחביר דווקא במשפטים שעבדנו עליהם שוב ושוב, וחזרנו והחלפנו מילה אחת באחרת, מדויקת ממנה, ובסוף מתברר שדווקא שם פספסנו, כי לא ראינו שזה לא מסתדר עם שאר המשפט... )עריכה, אגב, היא אחת הסיבות הנפוצות להיווצרותן של בעיות תחביר.( עד היום הפתרון האוטומטי היחיד לבעיות עברית היה המאיית )speller( של Word )וכיום קיים מאיית בתוכנות נוספות(, אך לא היה כל פתרון לבעיות תחביר, או לביטויים שגויים, או לשגיאות כתיב הנובעות מפונטיקה דומה )למשל בלבול בין "אם" ו"עם"(. הבשורה המשמחת היא שכיום יש פתרון גם לדברים האלה! "עברי" הוא כלי חדש שנותן מענה למגוון רחב של בעיות עברית )והמענה הזה הולך ומתרחב מדי יום(. הכלי מטפל בבעיות משלושה תחומים עיקריים: בעיות תחביר: חוסר התאמה במין ובמספר )גם במשפטים מורכבים כמו: "הסיבה המשותפת לכל חברי הארגון בהתנגדותם לקרב היה חוסר אמון"( בעיות פיסוק )רווחים כפולים, רווח לפני פסיק ועוד( שימוש בביטויים שגויים )במידה ו, בכדי, הינו, וכן הלאה כיום קיימים במערכת יותר מ- 333 חוקים מהסוג הזה( ועוד מגוון תחומים, כמו כתיבה של מספרים מימין לשמאל בתוך משפט בעברית, ועוד. הכלי מוצא את כל הדברים הללו, מסביר אותם ומציע פתרון אחד או יותר. בהרצאה אציג את הכלי ואראה כיצד הוא מסייע להפיק טקסטים איכותיים ומקצועיים יותר. להיות נחמד שווה כסף. כיצד לשפר את ההתנהלות הבינאישית כדי לעשות יותר כסף אלה בשן ככל שתחום התרגום הולך ומתמחשב, נעשית החוליה האנושית חשובה יותר. כשמתרגמים הופכים לשורה בבסיס הנתונים של חברות תרגום במקום אנשים, כשמתרגמים לא יודעים שאפשר לצעוק בהודעת דוא"ל - כולם יוצאים נפסדים: מבחינת האיכות, מבחינת החוויה וגם מבחינה כספית. 14

15 לתרגם את מתרגם התרגומים: יצירת מהדורה מודרנית של מפעל יהודי-נוצרי לתרגום טקסטים ערביים מעברית לסלאווית משה טאובה ודבורה גריינימן בסוף המאה החמש עשרה, מתרגם יהודי בשיתוף פעולה עם סופר סלאווי תרגם ללשון הסלאווית-מזרחית של דוכסות ליטא שלושה חיבורי פילוסופיה בעברית שתורגמו בימי הביניים מן הערבית החיבור "מלות הגיון" המיוחס לרמב"ם, ושניים מתוך שלושת פרקי החיבור "כוונות הפילוסופים" מאת ההוגה המוסלמי אבו-חאמד אל-גזאלי. תרגומים אלה, השופכים אור על תפקידם המפתיע של יהודים כסוכני תרבות באווירה המשיחית שסחפה נוצרים וגם יהודים בהתקרב שנת 2941, משכו את תשומת לבם של ראשי הכנסייה האורתודוכסית הרוסית מעצם הימצאותם ברשותו של חוג המשכילים ה"כופרים" המתקרא "תנועת המתייהדים". המהדורה הביקורתית החדשה של משה טאובה )האקדמיה הלאומית למדעים, 1322( משקפת שלושה ולעתים אף ארבעה רבדים של תרגום, בהציגה את הטקסטים הסלאוויים לצד התרגומים העבריים ששימשו להם מקור, תרגום אנגלי של הסלאווית, ופירוש שמצביע, בין השאר, על המקורות היווניים ולעתים גם הפרסיים של המונחים הפילוסופיים. נאמנותו של הסופר הסלאווי לתרגום המוכתב בע"פ על ידי המתרגם היהודי מאפשרת הצצה לתוך מלאכת התרגום, כאשר המתרגם מתאמץ להמציא מינוח פילוסופי עבור מושגים שלא היו עבורם מונחים במסורת הסלאווית, או שהוא לא הכיר אותם. המתרגם גם משעבד לעתים את הנורמות הלשוניות של שפת המטרה לאלה של שפת המקור למשל, על-ידי ייחוס מין דקדוקי של העברית לשמות עצם סלאוויים שהמין הדקדוקי שלהן שונה. הכנת המהדורה הרב-לשונית והתקנתה לדפוס היוו אתגר בלתי רגיל הן למחבר המהדיר והן לעורכת שהכינה את המהדורה לדפוס. מיקי מאוס בעברית? דיבוב לתוכניות ילדים רחלי גליקמן מהו דיבוב, תהליך העבודה מהתרגום עד לשידור. עם אילו קשיים מתמודדים המתרגמים לדיבוב, ומה תפקידו של העורך הלשוני. ממתרגם למו"ל - התפתחות מתבקשת או אקט של טירוף? מנחה אינגה מיכאלי, בהשתתפות שי סנדיק, שירה חפר וגילי בר-הלל בשנתיים האחרונות נוסדו בארץ כמה וכמה הוצאות קטנות, שזוכות לתשומת לב תקשורתית ולחיבוק חם מקהל קוראי הספרים בארץ, וכל זה דווקא בתקופה שנודעה כאחת הקשות ביותר בשוק הספרים הישראלי. בפאנל זה קיבצנו יחדיו כמה מהשמות הבולטים במו"לות החדשה - שירה חפר מהוצאת "זיקית", גילי בר-הלל מהוצאת "עוץ" ושי סנדיק מהוצאת "סנדיק ספרים" - כולם מתרגמים שהפכו למו"לים. נלמד על הרקע ועל הגורמים שהביאו אותם לעשות את הצעד האמיץ, נעמוד על המשותף ועל השונה ביניהם, ונברר אתם סוגיות שמעניינות אותנו כקוראים, כמתרגמים וכעורכים. משני צידי הדף דיון בין קוראים ומתרגמים בהשתתפות ענבל שגיב נקדימון, גילי בר בלל וקוראים מתרגמי ספרות מדקדקים בכל מילה ומשפט כדי ליצור את הטקסט הטוב והנכון ביותר. אבל עד כמה הנמענים הסופיים, הקוראים, מודעים בכלל למלאכת התרגום ולאיכותה? בפאנל המפגיש בין נציגי הקוראים והמתרגמים נדבר על העניין ונעלה שאלות רלוונטיות: האם התרגום חשוב לקוראים? מה בולט בעיניהם ומה נסתר? מה דעתם על הערות תרגום? האם יש לקוראים השפעה על התרגום? ואם כן, מהי? האם יש קוראים שבוחרים ספר לקריאה לפי שם המתרגם/מת? האם נכון מצידם לעשות זאת? מה דמות הקורא שרואה המתרגם לנגד עיניו? האם זאת הדמות הנכונה? 15

16 עולם הפנסיה בישראל והמתרגמים רמי סגמן עולם הפנסיה והביטוח הינו עולם מורכב הנתון לרגולציה אקטיבית המשנה את כללי המשחק בו חדשות לבקרים, בתוכו חיים בצוותא מספר בעלי מקצוע שכל אחד מייצג אינטרסים אחרים. בתהליך הייעוץ הפנסיוני נבדקים כל התוכניות הפנסיוניות והביטוחיות של הלקוח, החל מביטוחי המנהלים וקרנות הפנסיה, דרך קופות הגמל וקרנות ההשתלמות וכלה בכיסויים הביטוחיים )ריסקים( השונים וביטוחי הבריאות והסיעוד. הייעוץ הפנסיוני האובייקטיבי תורם ומשפר את הגנתו של הלקוח, משביח את תיקו הפנסיוני, מספק יידע רב יותר לגביי המוצרים הפנסיונים שברשותו וכל זאת בכמה רמות: הייעוץ הפנסיוני האובייקטיבי מציג בפני הלקוח תמונה מלאה ורחבה על מצבו הפנסיוני, כולל הכיסויים הביטוחיים שברשותו. הייעוץ כולל הסבר מעמיק ומקצועי על המוצרים השונים שברשות הלקוח ואת אפשרויות השיפור העומדות בפניו. הייעוץ הפנסיוני, להבדיל מהשיווק הפנסיוני, שומר על אובייקטיביות מלאה והוא ממוקד לקוח. היועץ העצמאי מקבל את שכרו מהלקוח )ולא כעמלות מחברות הביטוח( ובכך הוא מחויב לטובת הלקוח בלבד תוך הימנעות מוחלטת ממצב של ניגוד עניינים.בסוף תהליך הייעוץ הפנסיוני מקבל הלקוח דו"ח מפורט הנותן לו תמונת מצב מדויקת של מצבו הפנסיוני והביטוחי. בהרצאה נשוחח על עולם הפנסיה והביטוח, על השחקנים השונים, היתרונות והחסרונות של כל אחד מהם, ועל הדרך שבה יכול הציבור, ובייחוד המתרגמים, לנווט בתוך עולם מורכב וחסר פשרות זה. רבדים של משמעות בשירי זמר דוד בן-נחום כפי שידוע לכל מתרגמת ומתרגם, המשמעות היא, בדרך כלל, מורכבת. אפילו במילה אחת ניתן לא פעם למצוא פנים לכאן ולכאן, ורק מתוך ההקשר נוכל להבין את משמעותה. על אחת כמה וכמה נכון הדבר, כשהמסר מועבר לא על ידי מילים בלבד, אלא גם באמצעות מערכות סמלים נוספות. יחסי הגומלין בין מערכות סמלים אלה יכולים להיות מורכבים וליצור משמעות מרובת-פנים, ולא פשוטה כפי שנדמה לנו ממבט ראשון. לדוגמה, בהצגת תיאטרון ישנם יחסי גומלין בין המחזה, הבימוי והמשחק. מחזות שנכתבו לפני זמן רב מועלים לעתים בגרסה חדשה ונטענים במשמעויות שהמחזאי לא יכול היה להעלות בדעתו. ישנן תזמורות המנגנות יצירות מתקופתו של באך בכלים מאותם ימים, וזה נשמע אחרת מאשר קונצרט בתזמורת הפילהרמונית, שלא לדבר על "ג'אז סבסטיאן באך" או הסווינגל סינגרס. בשירי זמר ישנן לפחות ארבע מערכות סמלים המשתתפות ביצירת המשמעות: המילים, הלחן, העיבוד והביצוע. שלושת האחרונים מעניקים למילים פרשנות, שככל פרשנות, תלויה בנסיבות וכמובן במי שיוצר אותה. לעתים נכתבים המילים והלחן במועדים סמוכים, אך לפעמים הזמן חולף והנסיבות משתנות, וכמובן שישנם לחנים, עיבודים וביצועים שונים לאותו שיר. כשאנו שומעים את השיר, או שרים אותו, אנו מתייחסים אליו כיחידה משמעותית אחת, ואיננו מודעים, בדרך כלל, לתמהיל שיצר משמעות זו. המודעות למורכבותה של המשמעות ולהיבטיה השונים, ולעתים אף המתנגשים, היא אחד הכלים החשובים למתרגם ולמתרגמת. במפגש זה נקרא ונשיר כמה שירים מוכרים ואהובים ונדון בשאלה מהי משמעותו של שיר ועד כמה היא חד-משמעית. ריבונו של עולם, איית לי את שמך! אליעזר נובודבורסקי בשנים האחרונות יצאו לאור תרגומים חדשים של התנ"ך וספרים קדושים לדתות אחרות. הריבוי מתחייב גם היות וכל אחד מדגיש עניין אחר בהתאם להשקפתו. האם אנחנו מודעים באיזו גירסה לצטט כאשר פונים לקהלים שונים? נסקר זאת באמצעות ניתוח של שניים או שלושה מקרים לכל היותר. 16

17 Google Apps לעסקים קטנים יעל סלע-שפירו, Google ישראל Google היא לא רק ג'ימייל ומנוע החיפוש הנפוץ, אלא שלל כלים שימושיים לעצמאים ולחברות. - Calendar לנהל בו את כל הפגישות שלכם ולבצע דרכו שיחות ועידה בקלי קלות. Drive לאחסן בו את כל המסמכים שאתם צריכים, לשתף אותם בקלות ולעבוד עליהם יחד עם לקוחות וקולגות. Maps, לשים את עצמכם על המפה לנוחותם של לקוחות. YouTubeלהעלות סרטונים שיפרסמו אתכם. Groups לנהל בו דיונים, ועוד ועוד. רוב הכלים מוגשים לכם חינם אין כסף - פיתחו חשבון והתחילו לעבוד ברגע. בנוסף נציג גם טיפים לשימוש מושכל במנוע החיפוש כדי להאיץ ולשפר את העבודה. 17

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