1 Doug Wilson s - Submission to the New Prosperity Mine Review 21 September 2012 Douglas W. Wilson September 21, 2012 Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency 22nd Floor, Place Bell 160 Elgin Street Ottawa ON K1A 0H3 Dear Commission Re: Submission Regarding the New Prosperity Mine Project Although retired, as a long term resident of the Cariboo/Chilcotin Central Coast area of British Columbia I have a great interest in the economic opportunities that the development of the New Prosperity Mine would have within the Cariboo/Chilcotin Central Coast area of British Columbia. I see this mine development providing long term employment directly and indirectly for hundreds and possibly thousands. While I support the New Prosperity project, I believe it is our responsibility as Canadians to insure that such development meets and maintains stringent environmental standards. If these standards can be maintained and enforced, couple this with the actual record of Taseko Mines, and the Gibraltar/ McLeese Lake operation, in existence since the early 1970 s, Taseko Mines have shown great respect for the environment, and it is with this experience also coupled with Federal and Provincial environmental regulations that I support the development of the New Prosperity Mine Development. Regarding those that are against the development of this mine, I find the people called Xeni Gwet in and the people called Chilcotin to be truly wonderful people with reasonable dreams and aspirations. It is cultural differences and community life styles where conflict seems to rest between dreams and aspirations. The world is in a continual state of change young Xeni Gwet in and Chilcotin native people; in an increasing awareness of the things of the world are also having an increasing desire to have the things of the world. Whatever life style in our various generations we have had in our own childhood homes, young people everywhere have new, different, and diverse interests. The Xeni Gwet in and the people of the Chilcotin are facing the same problems as the rest of us; a great majority of our children have little interest in their parent s life style. Obtaining education, finding employment and providing for developing families needs, becomes the new and most important criteria for a great number of the young generation. The Xeni Gwet in, of all the Chilcotin native populations have lived in somewhat Isolation for a great number of years, it is understandable that they have a desire to Wilson Page 1 9/22/2012
2 Doug Wilson s - Submission to the New Prosperity Mine Review 21 September 2012 preserve this heritage and life style. However to keep our children home and in our communities, employment has to be of the greatest importance, and not just a preservation of our elders more isolated life style. I summit, that the overall arguments put forward by Xeni Gwet in against development of New Prosperity are not based on fact. Prior to the Homathko massacre of the 1860 s the people who now call themselves Xeni Gwet in, were part of the native population of the Anahim Lake area of BC. For generations these people historically traveled to the Bella Coola Valley to fish at the confluence of the Talchako, the Atnarko, and the Bella Coola Rivers at a place called Stuie, traveling over mountains streams and creeks, about thirty miles from their Anahim/Nimpo Lake homes to fish at the above mentioned location. Certainly there was a good supply of trout in nearby Anahim and Nimpo Lakes, so why would these people travel so far to fish at Stuie, simply speaking the fish at Stuie were normally of substantial size and very plentiful to make these treks very worthwhile. The process of preserving these fish by smoke curing could mean a good winters food supply. Located at Stuie lie the remains of many natives buried in the unique native style of above ground boxes as similarly found in other Chilcotin locations particularly at Anahim Lake. Traveling a great distance to fish would mean that some would die in these locations and their bodies would not be brought home for burial to their traditional location. When the chiefs that were responsible for the road builders deaths in the Homathko Canyon of the 1860 s, found that the Victoria government were in search of them to account for the deaths that had occurred at Homathko, these chiefs separated themselves from their Anahim/Nimpo Lake brothers and sisters and took their families into the wilderness to hide from the law. That Wilderness happened to be located at the place now called Nemiah, this was an excellent location, because here at the mouth of the Chilco River sockeye returning to spawn provided an historical similar source of winter food supply, where the natives could preserve winter food supply exactly the same as their fore fathers had done for generations at the Stuie, Talchako/Atnarko Bella Coola River confluence. All land claims to the Nemiah Valley basically start from this 1860 s period. And like the Anahim/Nimpo Lakes area, trout abound in the various nearby lakes in the Nemiah Valley. Fish Lake is also some thirty miles distant from the village of the Xeni Gwet in, the 1860 s is not so distant in time, that had the Xeni Gwet in been traveling to Fish Lake over this 100 year period of time from the 1860 s to the 1960 s, and had Fish Lake been a great source of food, it would seem logical that some deaths would have occurred at Fish Lake and that there would be graves, and remains of smoke houses as similarly located at Stuie, would also be found at Fish Lake. Transportation methods of the 1860 s until the mid 1960 s would not have allowed the return of a body to Nemiah. Children and adults would surly have drowned or died of other causes and their burial plots would have been absolute evidence of native families having come to Fish Lake on some regular basis since the 1860 s, even yet today there is no evidence of such activity. Wilson Page 2 9/22/2012
3 Doug Wilson s - Submission to the New Prosperity Mine Review 21 September 2012 The method of smoking and drying fish as practiced at Nemiah and at Stuie would also be in evidence at this location. My conclusion is that prior to the 1960 s there is little or no evidence that Fish Lake or it s abundant trout played any substantial part in the lives of the Xeni Gwet in, beyond the odd individual trapper possibly trapping in the Fish Creek Canyon. Drying Fish at Nemiah Suzuki Report From the late 1940 s through to the 1960 s mining exploration commenced in the Fish Lake area, one such miner/explorer/prospector is Rudy Johnson, currently residing here in Williams Lake, Rudy flew into Fish Lake established a campsite and staked claims in the area. He states unequivocally that other than one Nemiah native that he employed there, there was absolutely no evidence that any native traveled to this lake on any regular basis. Mr. Johnson is ninety years old and cannot attend the commission, but he is very adamant that this is the facts as regards to his experience at Fish Lake. I am confident that Mr. Johnson could be asked, outside of attending the commission, questions regarding his experience at Fish Lake prior to roads being built to this lake. Mr. Johnson can be reached at his home phone as listed in the local directory. It was following the mining interests at Fish Lake that a road of some sort, first a rough Jeep trail and then increasing work by prospectors on this trail made Fish Lake accessible, not only to prospectors but as well to natives and other fisherman. However there remained a problem with the fish at Fish Lake, because Fish Lake is very shallow, although fish are very abundant, they are very small and taste muddy following a hot summer. It is, however a good lake for children to learn how to fish. It is because of the muddy taste of the Fish Lake fish that there is absolutely little reason Wilson Page 3 9/22/2012
4 Doug Wilson s - Submission to the New Prosperity Mine Review 21 September 2012 why anyone would desire to preserve and haul these fish back to Nemiah, when good clean sockeye can be obtained right at Nemiah. From the 1860 s to 1960 s due to the Taseko River needing to be crossed and the general inaccessibility of Fish Lake, prior to the mining interest s road access, Xeni Gwet in, Nemiah peoples, or Chilcotin native populations had little interest in Fish Lake. There is just no irrefutable evidence, such as Graves or Smoke Houses within this time period and prior to road access, indicating that native populations were in any way active at this Fish Lake location. April of the year 2000, the David Suzuki foundation prepared a report, (referenced herewith), regarding the life and times of the Nemiah People. This report is called (¹) Nemiah Pacific Salmon Forests Project Home of the Xeni Gwet in, prepared by David Littlemore. This excellent report details the life and times of the Nemiah people, what I find strange when one considers the current arguments being put forth by Nemiah leaders such as Marilyn Baptist about how important Fish Lake is to the Nemiah people, and the argument that this heritage extends over some great number of years, I find it strange that there is absolutely no mention of this Fish Lake heritage in the David Suzuki report. The David Suzuki report discusses the land claimed by the Xeni Gwet in as an area described as follows, (out of context). Nemiah Aboriginal Wilderness Preserve, an area within which there was to be no logging, no mining and no commercial road building. The jewel in this preserve is the Brittany Triangle, bounded on the south by Nemiah valley, on the west by Chilco River and to the east by Taseko River. Called the Britney Triangle The point here is on the East by Taseko River Fish Lake is East of Taseko River, and therefore not included in the Xeni Gwet in original year 2000 recognized claimed territory. Later in the (²) Tsilhqot in Nation v. British Columbia Court case brought about by Roger William April 11, 2002 to Judgment November 20, (Again out of Context). The plaintiff seeks declarations of Tsilhqot in Aboriginal title in part of the Cariboo-Chilcotin region of British Columbia defined as Tachellach ed Britney Triangle and the Trapline Territory. Later in this court case Fish Lake is included as Trapping Territory. No other declaration as heritage or otherwise is declared for Fish Lake. My family includes many Wilson Page 4 9/22/2012
5 Doug Wilson s - Submission to the New Prosperity Mine Review 21 September 2012 trappers, trappers were lone individuals, often walking several lonely miles in a day checking their Trapline, not whole groups of people. My conclusion is that any claim that the Xeni Gwet in has to Fish Lake area as being of deep heritage significance to the Xeni Gwet in is not borne in historical fact, and is not part of their proposed no mining territory as described in the Xeni Gwet in Britney Triangle claims, and that Xeni Gwet in added Fish Lake as part of their heritage, only when it became apparent that Taseko planed on establishing a mine in this location. I argue that the Xeni Gwet in claim that Fish Lake holds historical significance to the Xeni Gwet in and the people of Nemiah is a Johnny come lately claim a claim of convenience not a claim of fact. The original Xeni Gwet in website, when it was available did not include Fish Lake as part of the Xeni Gwet in life style. Their website is now indicated as being under construction. Inconsideration of this publically available information I see no reason why the New Prosperity should not be able to proceed forthwith. With this letter I am questioning the integrity of the Xeni Gwet in s claim that Fish Lake is part of their deep rooted heritage of the area. Therefore the New Prosperity Mine project is not, repeat is not, interfering with the heritage of the Nemiah People. The Xeni Gwet in is awaiting an eventual decision in regards to their Tsilhqot in Nation v. British Columbia court case. Whatever the result, certainly an appeal will be made to the highest court in Canada. This land claim is very significant as to who owns a great percentage of the Province of British Columbia. Sincerely yours Douglas W. Wilson ¹ Nemiah Pacific Salmon Forests Project Home of the Xeni Gwet in, prepared by David Littlemore. Attached herewith ² Tsilhqot in Nation v. British Columbia Court case brought about by Roger William April 11, 2002 to Judgment November 20, Attached herewith Wilson Page 5 9/22/2012
6 Nemiah P A C I F I C S A L M O N F O R E S T S P R O J E C T Home of the Xeni Gwet in by Richard Littlemore David Suzuki Foundation
7 The Authors Richard Littlemore Richard Littlemore is a Vancouver-based magazine writer and political consultant. He is an activist on aboriginal and e n v i ronmental issues, having sat as an executive member of the Lower Mainland Treaty Advisory Committee and as a B.C. re p resentative to the national Public Education and Outreach Table in the Kyoto agreement implementation process. Littlemore also has two books to his credit, a compilation of fiction and non-fiction called Howe Sounds and a volume on the construction of the Ekati diamond mine in the N.W.T. David Suzuki Foundation The David Suzuki Foundation is a federally registered Canadian charity working to design a vision of Earth in which humans live within the planet s productive capacity and finding and communicating practical steps to bring that vision to reality.
8 Table of Contents Nemiah The Building of a Road The Xeni Gwet in Declaration Building a Partnership The?Inteniluyni Team List of Photographs 1 Ts il?os 05 2 Henry Solomon 06 3 Francis & Agatha Setah 08 4 Chief Roger William 09 5 Nemiah Traditional 10 Territory 6 The Xeni Gwet in 11 Declaration 7 David Suzuki & Tara Cullis 13 8 Nemiah Ranchland 14 9 Roberta Martell Francy Merritt & 16 Lucy Lulua 11 Maryann Solomon & 16 Bonnie Myers 12 A Community Garden Trail Riding in Nemiah Straw-bale House 18 Construction 15 Smoking Fish Ranching Xeni Gwet in Territory The?Inteniluyni Team 20
9 02 N e m i a h
10 Consider the implications of a dead-end road. It is, in the modern world, a metaphor for hopelessness, literary shorthand for the place you don t want to be a blind alley. Take the same road, call it a cul-de-sac and you get a completely different impression; a vague suggestion of prestige in fact. No longer a place you don t want to go, it becomes a haven, a refuge, a cloistered retreat for the privileged. Make this haven a valley, bordered by water, coddled by mountains - raw, wild and mostly unspoiled - and you have found Nemiah. David Suzuki Foundation 03
11 N e m i a h The name carries a ring of romance, and if it falls gently on the ear, it is easier still on the eyes. The valley is beautiful in every direction. Icy blue Chilko Lake lies to the west, north and east, a low range of mountains gives way to the rolling hills and rocky pine forests of Chilcotin country. Turn south and you will be awed by Ts il?os, the overwhelming stone presence of a spirit that was once a man. Ts il?os is the Nemiah name for Mt. Tatlow, which rises to 3,000 metres and dominates the view in every direction. Its presence is so haunting following as it does your every move through the valley that if it did not already feature in a spirit story, you would have to invent one. This entire scene, 200 kilometres northwest of Vancouver as the crow flies, is exquisite. But beauty alone cannot turn a valley at the terminus of a dead-end road into a refuge. Humans have demonstrated time and again that between our technological mastery and our insatiable appetites for the wealth wrought from minerals and fibre, we can deliver devastation to the most out-of-the-way place. Fortunately, due to a combination of geography and chance, Nemiah has been spared such ruin thus far. 04 N e m i a h
12 Ts il?os T s i l? o s The Xeni Gwet in tell the story of Ts il?os, the man who turned to stone and formed the mountain that non-natives call Ta t l o w. Ts il?os had a wife named?eniyud and they had six children. The union, howe v e r, was an unhappy one and the two parted, each taking three children. Ts il?os stayed in the Nemiah v a l l e y, turning to stone above Xeni Lake.?Eniyud withdrew to the far side of Chilko Lake and turned to stone on the shores of Lake Tatlayoko. In both cases, the ranges dominate the modern landscape. t h Nor and east, the peaks are lower and o u r n d e r, while mountaintops surrounding?eniyud and Tatlow rise to prominence among some of the largest peaks in the Coast Range. A traditional story among the Xeni Gwet in says that if you pointed at Ts il?os, you would bring on a terrible change in the weather. Modern times have brought a new version that says if you point at the peak when you arrive in the valley, your vehicle will break down. It seems unlikely that anyone arriving in Nemiah could resist pointing at the spectacular mountain. Given the state of the road, it would be just as surprising if you got in and out without one minor disaster to attribute to Ts il?os. David Suzuki Foundation 05
13 The Building of a Road The Xeni Gwet in have occupied the Nemiah valley since before time was recorded. They are a people steeped in tradition, but shaken by contact; a people whose customs suffered because of the civilizing forces that were intended to help. To understand the story of Nemiah, you have to go back to the road. Henry Solomon 06 N e m i a h
14 The biggest surprise is that Nemiah is i n a c c e s s i b l e rather than remote. Physically, it lies less than 200 kilometres northwest of Va n c o u v e r, but with the Coast Mountains looming in between, the only road access f rom BC s largest city is through the Pemberton Valley or up the Fraser Canyon to Williams Lake and then west into the mountains. Figure eight or 10 hours by car, but preferably truck. This is not a nice road. For most of the last 100 kilometres, it is not even up to the standard demanded by the Ministry of Forests for logging roads. You bounce and slide and pray (pointlessly, it turns out) that you don t get a flat tire. But the most important thing about the road is that until 1973, it didn t exist at all. While that made life diff i c u l t then, today the road brings new pro b l e m s as well as opportunities which the Xeni Gwet in hope to maximize. Henry Solomon was the Xeni Gwet in chief in 1973 and he remembers the wrenching effort required to get the road finished. The project was started by an e n t re p reneur trying to improve transport a t i o n to a nearby fishing lodge. He ran out of money, however, leaving the Xeni Gwet in scrambling for resources to finish the job. Solomon and band members lobbied the federal government for aid and support until, finally, the Army Corps of Engineers stepped into the breach. Life changed o v e rnight, Solomon says in his native Tsilhquot in, his daughter translating. Before, no one wanted to help the Indian. We never got welfare or anything and we had to make our own money, he said. Earning a living in this isolated valley was no easy feat. The Nemiah ran cattle and trapped through the winter, gardening This is not a nice road. For most of the last 100 kilometres, it is not even up to the standard demanded by the Ministry of Forests for logging roads. and fishing in the finer months. Once a y e a r, they hitched up their horses, loaded the wagons and journeyed into Wi l l i a m s Lake, driving cattle for sale and buying seeds and dry goods for the coming year. The trip took a week, one way. It was a life little changed from 100 years earlier, when the survivors of the short-lived Chilcotin War withdrew into the valley to live in safety apart from the white man. B e f o re the road came in, the Xeni Gwet in communicated in Ts i l h q u o t i n. Today, almost everyone over the age of 25 is still a fluent speaker. If outsiders came into the valley back then, Solomon said locals would default into Chinook, a lingua franca derived from aboriginal languages, English and French and shared by natives and non-natives from the BC coast into the Interior. There was some knowledge of English but not much affection for a language drummed in at the Oblate Mission school in 150 Mile House, east of Williams Lake. They were pretty mean, Henry Solomon says of the missionaries. We couldn t speak to each other, couldn t speak Tsilhquot in. Smiling, he adds, But they couldn t hold the kids; the kids would run away, as he did before he reached his teens. And life just seemed to get tougher, David Suzuki Foundation 07
15 he remembered. Fur prices fell and there was hardly any game, no beaver, no lynx. Francis Setah, at 69, is three years older than Henry Solomon. He speaks fondly of the coming of the road. Before, he remembers, if you ran low on supplies it was three days to Lees Corner, at what is now Hanceville, 90 kilometres away. The trip home, loaded down in bad weather, usually took a week. Now you can go to Williams Lake and back in a day, Setah says, somewhat proudly. At first, few people made the trip. The a d v e n t u rous would go perhaps once a month, according to Henry Solomon. But as more people got vehicles (and money to spend after the government started paying welfare in 1975) people started going more often. Now, many Nemiah residents make the three-hour drive to Williams Lake every week, to shop, visit relatives or their c h i l d ren in school or just to do the laundry. Yes, the laundry. In 2000, Nemiah is still off the provincial power grid so luxuries like laundromats are reserved for town. Soon people became aware that all kinds of luxuries were available in town off the shelf at the Overwaitea supermarket and Nemiah residents gradually stopped working to protect their gardens from the harsh climate. Some young men lost interest in trapping and even ranching lost its urg e n c y. Centuries-old traditions began to whither. Something else the Xeni Gwet in picked up on more frequent trips to Wi l l i a m s Lake was English. While the middle generation, between the ages of 25 and 50, speaks Tsilhquot in and English with equal ease, many residents under 20 speak English almost exclusively. What the Oblates could never do banish the Tsilhquot in tongue Francis & Agatha Setah the road did in one generation. This has become such a concern that the band has started a Tsilhquot in immersion class in pre-school and kindergarten, and Chief Roger William and the council have decre e d that all band meetings will be conducted in the traditional language. 08 N e m i a h
16 The Xeni Gwet in D e c l a r a t i o n To a great degree, Chief Roger is the linchpin in the story of Nemiah, although if you said so in his presence, he would surely look down at his championship bull-rider belt-buckle and deny any personal credit. At the tender age of 34, Roger William has been chief for nine years a reign marked by modesty and defined by a relentless insistence on consensus. Perhaps most impressive in one so young is Chief Roger s ready ability to admit his mistakes; one he readily discusses is the time he tried to negotiate a logging plan for the near-sacred Brittany Triangle. Chief Roger William The Nemiah valley has never been logged. Flying over its bre a t h t a k i n g expanse, diff e rent aged forests cover the landscape, but the patches and layers of g rowth were designed by fire, not by logging cutblocks. Pressure is mounting, however, to change that as mill owners in Williams Lake and as far away as Prince Rupert are ranging wider in their search for fibre. So far, the Xeni Gwet in have said no. In 1989, the Nemiah Indian Band issued a declaration, setting out the David Suzuki Foundation 09
17 Nemiah Traditional Territory Nemiah Aboriginal Wi l d e rness Pre s e rv e, an area within which there was to be no l o g g i n g, no mining and no commercial road building. The jewel in this preserve is the Brittany Triangle, bounded on the south by Nemiah valley, on the west by Chilko River and to the east by Ta s e k o R i v e r. For three short years after the d e c l a r a t i o n, all seemed well, but in 1992 the BC Ministry of Forests gave Prince Rupert s Carrier Lumber a permit to log in the Brittany. The Xeni Gwet in immediately e rected barricades and the pro v i n c i a l g o v e rnment pulled the permit. On May 7, 1992, Carrier Lumber turned away. To mark this auspicious date and to thank the native and non-native people who joined locals on the barricades, the Xeni Gwet in hold the Brittany Gathering celebration every May 7. In part, this event is to help focus discussion on how to build a better future for the Xeni Gwet in, but the preoccupation over logging in their exquisite terr i t o ry remains paramount. Aware that his people had won the battle without necessarily prevailing in the war, Chief Roger has tried to move to a new, perhaps more pragmatic position. If there is to be logging, he says, the Xeni Gwet in must be in control and must share in the 10 N e m i a h
18 The Xeni Gwet in Declaration bounty - a position advocated elsewhere in the Tsilhquot in Nation where several communities have made alliances with l o g g i n g companies. To this end, the Xeni Gwet in invited forest companies to make partnership proposals: Lignum Resources o ff e red the best terms. The band and Lignum applied together and received a cut allocation for 250,000 cubic metres, potentially within the Brittany Triangle. Following numero u s meetings with Lignum, Chief Roger and the council agreed to put a proposal to the community. I pushed for a (logging) plan that I agreed with, Chief Roger said. The people didn t agree. Twice in the last three years, the council brought logging plans to the community and on each occasion the people turned it down. A lesser leader would have re s i g n e d : A m o re divided community would have demanded it. But Chief Roger seems to have lost none of his popularity or support. He waived the agreement with Lignum, f reeing the company to take advantage of its cut allocation elsewhere, and began looking for a diff e rent path. The Xeni Gwet in lawyer, Victoria aboriginal law specialist Jack Wo o d w a rd, suggested the David Suzuki Foundation. David Suzuki Foundation 1 1
19 Building a Partnership In early 1998, scientist and broadcaster Dr. David Suzuki and Chief Roger William met. They soon discovered that the goals for a Nemiah community p r o j e c t and the solutions sought by the Foundation to address ecological concerns were indeed intertwined. F o r Chief Roger, the local project was clear enough: To restore prosperity to his community and ensure that his people have firm control over any resource extraction. His vision matched the Foundation s, which believes communities must be involved from the outset in order to achieve responsible economic development that will conserve ecological treasures for future generations. We at the Foundation believe that biodiversity is the key to the life support systems of the earth, that without biod i v e r s i t y we don t have the fundamental elements of life, says Dr. Suzuki, chair of the non-profit organization. But we don t think the solution is just parks, humanity is too large a presence. The challenge is to find a way to make a living and to protect b i o d i v e r s i t y. We need to find a way to maintain the integrity of that ecosystem without trashing the land for a one-time-only injection of cash into the local economy. Having spent decades as a committed environmentalist and experiencing firsthand battles that split rural communities and mostly urban-based conserv a t i o n g roups, Dr. Suzuki believes new appro a c h e s must be found. It s fine for us to wish that logging companies would submit a 500-year logging plan, but the economy doesn t work that way. Trees don t grow fast e n o u g h, even here trees add two to three per cent per year to their mass. But if you cut the trees down and put the money in the bank, you ll get eight per cent. In those circumstances, no shareholder in the world is going to tolerate a CEO who will accommodate a two- to three-per-cent return. If that s a bleak picture, it is at least a clear one for the Xeni Gwet in. If c o nventional resource extraction is the only choice for economic revival, the result may help in the short-term, but could spell 12 N e m i a h
20 David Suzuki & Tara Cullis economic and ecological ruin for future generations. If the local economy can be invigorated creatively, however, resource extraction will be only one element of the plan, and one that can be pursued at a sustainable pace. Looking at it this way, community development encompasses a social agenda as well as an environmental agenda, which is an ethos that has guided the Xeni Gwet in for centuries: What is good for the land is good for the people; if you look after the people, they will look after the land. After further meetings with staff of the Foundation s Pacific Salmon Forests Project (an initiative designed to support community economic development and natural resource conservation), the Xeni Gwet in we don t think the solution is just parks, humanity is too large a presence. The challenge is to find a way to make a living and to protect biodiversity. Dr. David Suzuki David Suzuki Foundation 1 3
21 If the local economy can be invigorated creatively, however, resource extraction will be only one element of the plan, and one that can be pursued at a sustainable pace. decided a partnership made sense. The relationship was established with clear goals and parameters, including time frames and responsibilities. Then the fun began! On July 13, 1998, two Foundation facilitators travelled to the community of 250 residents to help prepare the Nemiah Valley Economic Development Roadmap. A SWOT analysis, conducted during a threeday workshop, defined the community s s t rengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. The result is an overlapping list of dreams and fears. Under opportunities you find tourism, under threats, tourists; under weaknesses you find TV, while back in opportunities appear video stores. After all this hard work, the community produced a working paper, well-stocked with complexities and challenges but also bristling with good ideas. With that in hand, the Xeni Gwet in and the Foundation agreed to undertake a two-year project and set about finding a facilitator. 14 N e m i a h
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Education Juris Doctor, Florida State University College of Law, Tallahassee, FL Bachelor of Science, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL Associate in Arts, Indian River Community College, Fort Pierce,