Editorial by Alain LE VERN, President of the Haute-Normandie Region

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2 Editorial by Alain LE VERN, President of the Haute-Normandie Region The Haute-Normandie region conceals many resources that remain little known by many of its inhabitants. The aim of this educational booklet is to provide the keys to improving the understanding and appreciation of this region. The following pages will introduce the reader to the particularities that make ours a region of excellence. I am chiefly thinking of the industrial sector, with its automobile industry (the inventor of the modern car, Edouard Delamare Deboutteville, was Norman), aeronautics, without forgetting the glass industry in the Bresle valley and the textile industry (world leader in high-quality flax growing). The region's geography is considered, providing the Haute-Normandie region with the varied landscapes that are so appreciated by visitors, while history, demography or regional culture are also introduced in the booklet. To complete this panorama of the region, we also wanted to set out the workings of the regional institutions and also the major projects implemented by the community to provide the Haute-Normandie region with the influence it deserves. Enjoy your read and "bon voyage" on your trip around our region.

3 A brief history... page 4 Haute-Normandie, between the Seine and the sea page 8 Rich but fragile natural habitats page 10 The inhabitants of Haute-Normandie today Between industrial tradition and high technology page 12 page 13 Contents 55 BC to 280 AD: the Roman presence 9th - 10th century : the Norman invasions 10th - 13th century : the independence of the Duchy 12th century : construction of the Saint-Romain tower 12th - 15th century : unification of Normandy with the French crown 16th - 18th century : the Renaissance 19th - 20th century : modern Normandy The subsoil: a predominance of limestone The Haute-Normandie coast A landscape of seaside valleys Silt borne on the wind A flat region A reputation for rain Vegetation: exceptional surroundings A fauna of 270 species Remarkable species The forests of Haute-Normandie The distribution of the population Population growth in Haute-Normandie Haute-Normandie : one of France's youngest regions The chemical-petrochemical industry The automobile industry The biology-health industry The agri-food industry The aeronautical and spatial industries Electric power generation Training: from training certificates to post-doctoral studies Port 2000 and the logistics sector Tourism, culture, leisure : a region where life is good! Some major personalities Major events Heritage and architecture : key figures The Abbey Trail The Norman coast Gastronomy page 16 The workings of the regional institution page 19 The Region, a user's guide More information... The division of powers according to the decentralisation laws A forward-looking Region : the regional authority's major projects Transport : the TGV Normandie-Vallée de Seine rapid link Training : the Cité des Métiers Europe : the Arc Manche Sport : ambitious facilities Health : the regional training centre for health personnel Environment : the Agenda 21 Economy : towards employment and co-operation page 21 Table of illustrations page 26

4 A brief history... Haute-Normandie has played an important in the history of France. It was the reason for many wars in the Middle Ages between England and France. Following centuries saw it become on the most prosperous regions of France. 55 BC to 280 AD : the Roman presence Like the rest of Gaul, Haute-Normandie lived under Roman domination from a period extending from the arrival of Caesar's armies in Haute-Normandie (towards 55 BC) to the Frankish invasions toward 280. The reforms of Diocletian, Roman emperor from 284 to 305 AD, established a region similar to modern Normandy. The first cities of Haute-Normandie date from this period, and they were above all Roman cities (Lillebonne, Rouen, Évreux, Brionne, etc...). 9th - 10th century : the Norman invasions The Viking myth Arriving from what is now Denmark and Norway, the Normans landed in the region in 820. They were already known and feared in Normandy for several decades when they pillaged Rouen for the second time in An area lying between the valleys of the Bresle, Epte, and Avre that expanded to middle Normandy in 924 then to western Normandy. 10th - 13th century : the independence of the Duchy 911 : Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte This treaty settled the conflict between the Vikings, who had settled at the mouth of the Seine from 896, and the Frankish king Charles the Simple. This treaty gave Rollo (Norse war leader of a band of Norman pirates) the fief of the city of Rouen and "many lands close to the sea" loosely corresponding to modern-day Haute-Normandie. The lower Seine area1 came under Viking control. The rest of Normandy followed in 933. A century later, the duchy of Normandy had become one of the most well organised "states" in Europe 1066 : William of Normandy, king of England Under the leadership of William the Conqueror, Duke of Normandy, the Normans obtained the most symbolic victory in Normandy's history during the battle of Hastings against The Normans (or Northmen), arriving from what is now Denmark and Norway, were great navigators, pillaging conquerors but also efficient colonizers. From , their expeditions took shape ; they established "main routes" or itineraries of attacks, captures and ransoms. At the height of their conquests, the Vikings had become masters of the sea and lands ranging form Greenland to Sicily. The Vikings were known as Varingians in the east. In our region, the inheritance of the "men from the North" can be found in its toponymy (the 'beuf' (shelters) ; the 'becs' (streams)) and some proper nouns (Angot, Anquetil, Osmond, etc...). According to legend, having Viking blood in their veins makes the Normans stronger, braver and more conquering. the English forces. This success completed the conquest of England with the crowning of William at Westminster on Christmas Day, thus creating the Anglo- Norman kingdom. William's inheritance was intensely coveted after his death in 1087 and the heirs of William were divided from 1087 to One of his sons, Henry Beauclerc restored the Anglo-Norman kingdom by beating his brother Robert Curthose at Tinchebray in He notably strengthened the southern frontiers of the region by constructing the castles of Nonancourt and Illiers. 4

5 A brief history... 1 A predilection for decoration and ornamentation characterises flamboyant art. 12th century : construction of the Saint-Romain tower This was the beginning of the construction of the "Notre Dame" of Rouen gothic cathedral with the erection of the Saint-Romain tower (1150), completed in the flamboyant gothic style 1 of the late 15th century. It was burned down in 1200 and rebuilt in the 13th century, but the work on the building would continue for three centuries. The cathedral over the centuries In the 19th century, with the beginnings of metal architecture, the cathedral was topped in a cast-iron spire which is now the highest in France at 151 m. Greatly damaged during the Second World War, especially during the allied bombings in 1944, the cathedral has now been minutely restored, financed in particular by the State and the Region. Note : Remnants of a paleo-christian cathedral (built towards 395) were discovered during archaeological excavations in the late 1980's. Moreover, a Romanesque cathedral destroyed by fire in 1200 was built on the same site around the year The heart of Richard Lionheart lies in the cathedral. 12th - 15th century : unification of Normandy with the French crown 2 Name of Williams heirs. 3 Hereditary dynasty founded by Hugues Capet, king of France (elected in 987) that continued until th century : Normandy was the object of rivalry between Plantagenets 2 and Capetiens 3. The Plantagenet kingdom included Normandy, and extended from southwest France to the north of Scotland, after the marriage of Henri II and Eleanor of Aquitaine in It was the most powerful state in Europe. The very popular Richard Lionheart succeeded Henry II. On returning from the crusades and feeling threatened by his brother John Lackland (allied with Philip Augustus, King of France), he constructed Château Gaillard in the Andelys area ( ). Philip Augustus captured the fortress in 1204, thus uniting Normandy with the crown of France. However, Normandy retained the special jurisdiction of the Echiquier (supreme court) of Normandy. The Hundred years wars 1337 : Edward III of England disputed the succession to the Capetian throne and declared war on Philippe de Valois. This was the start of the Hundred Years war. Its geographic situation meant that Normandy became a key strategic site. Normandy was ravaged in the 14th century by English troops, particularly during the battle of Crécy on 26 August 1346, where Edward III crushed the French : The English occupied Normandy after the decision of Henry V of England to claim the inheritance of the Plantagenets. This domination began with the taking of Harfleur in Supporting the weight of the war waged by Henry VI of England against Charles VII, King of France, Normandy was crushed by taxes that were mostly borne by the countryside. However, the cities enjoyed a certain amount of commercial prosperity that made them hostile to any attempted rebellion. Hence, the population of Rouen remained indifferent to the torture of Joan of Arc, burned in 1431 after attempting to oust the English from Normandy. But faced with violent English abuses, the exasperation of the population triggered the reconquest and led to the triumphal entrance of Charles VII, King of France, into the castle of Rouen on 10 November Château Gaillard at les Andelys Joan of Arc In the battle for the throne of France, Joan of Arc supported the dauphin Charles VII. She was captured at Compiègne, bought by the English and transferred to Rouen to be judged. Condemned to death for heresy, she was burned on 30 May 1431 at the place du Vieux-Marché. A quarter of a century passed before Joan was officially rehabilitated at Rouen in The national heroine is part of Rouen's collective memory and was canonised in : Normandy was transformed into one of the financial districts of the kingdom and lost its special privileges. The victory of the king of France at the battle of Formigny on 15 April 1450 enabled Normandy to be recovered completely : The ducal ring was symbolically broken by Louis XI and the last duke of Normandy, Charles of France, was dispossessed of his duchy. 5

6 A brief history... Abraham Duquesne 16th - 18th century : the Renaissance The law courts of Rouen Georges d'amboise, chief advisor to Louis XII, played a major role in the Norman Renaissance. Overseer of the diocese of Rouen, he called upon the best Italian artists. In particular, we owe Gaillon castle to him. This period saw the construction of many architectural jewels in the region: Ango's manor near Dieppe, the law court and Hôtel de Bourgtheroulde at Rouen, and many more edifices : Francis 1st founded the city of Le Havre whereas maritime adventuring was at its height, and the English still as menacing The Wars of Religion The spreading ideas of the Reformation divided the French and led to civil war. Normandy was then a strategic region, as the reformers, under the influence of England were firmly settled there. Henry of Navarre, the future Henry IV, fought several times in Normandy, winning important victories at Arques (1589) and Ivry (1590). The Edict of Nantes (1598) put an end to these wars. The Catholic reconquest was marked in Haute-Normandie by the creation of a large number of religious institutions such as the Jesuit colleges at Eu (1582) and Rouen (1592). 17th century The Normans on the seas of the world Under the reign of Louis XIV, a flourishing trade developed between the Norman ports, notably le Havre, and the entire world. The Normans became renowned on all the seas of the world: Abraham Duquesne from Dieppe won victory after victory, Cavelier de la Salle from Rouen gained Louisiana for France, giving her the opportunity to play a major role in North America, and Belain d'esnambuc colonised the Antilles The rebellion of the va-nu-pieds (against the salt tax) Considered as the richest province of the kingdom, Normandy was always a taxation reservoir, to the point of being constantly overtaxed. The war against Spain in the 1630's resulted in new burdens, making the situation of the population unbearable. These were the conditions in which the va-nu-pieds rebellion erupted, relayed by urban disorder in Caen, Bayeux and Coutances. Riots broke out in Rouen on 4 August : tax collectors' offices were attacked and the looting of financial officers' domains multiplied. The fainthearted repression of the local authorities led Richelieu to take radical measures against the leaders. Interesting fact 1685, exile of the protestants : during the revocation of the Edict of Nantes by the "Sun King", many Norman protestants exiled themselves in the Netherlands, England and Prussia (almost 80,000) carrying with them their goods and knowledge at the same time The Revolution and the Norman counter-revolutionary movement The French Revolution in Normandy was born out of a context of economic and political difficulties that made the Normans sensitive to the events in nearby Paris. After the fall of Robespierre, western Normandy saw royalist elements gathering in the forests. From 1794, behind the Comte de Frotté, the counter-revolutionary movement grew in Basse-Normandie then extended to the Eure and becoming greater during the period of the Directory. Attacks on the cities multiplied, culminating in the occupation of Pacy-sur-Eure in This royalist agitation gradually disappeared under the Consulate, especially after the execution of the Comte de Frotté in th - 20th century : modern Normandy The industrial revolution transformed the face of Normandy, which experienced great economic growth. The textile industry was at its height: Rouen was then the leading French centre for spinning and second for weaving. Arriving at Rouen in 1843 and Havre in 1847, the railroad enabled the development of factories, the growth of the cities around stations and the emergence of bathing tourism. Economic influence with the development of the ports of le Havre and Rouen, tourist influence with fashionable sea bathing on the Norman coast ("invented" in France from 1806 at Dieppe), literary influence with the personalities of Flaubert, Maupassant and artistic influence with the development of outdoor painting and the birth of impressionism in the region. 6

7 A brief history... Le Normandie alongside quay First World War The effects of the war were felt in Normandy by the large mobilisation of the male population. Behind the front, the ports of Le Havre and Rouen played a major role during the conflict by provisioning, stationing and comforting the troops. In this way, the exiled Belgian government at Sainte- Adresse on the heights of Le Havre and one of the largest rear bases for the English troops at Rouen was established. Both ports therefore experienced intense activity and Rouen became the leading port of France. The chemical industry was permanently established The interwar period The economic momentum initiated during the First World War continued during the twenties and early thirties. Normandy became one of the leading papermaking regions in France and the lower Seine area welcomed the petroleum industry. The interwar period was also the great period for transatlantic liners at Le Havre (Le Normandie was launched 1935) and the period of the first paid holidays (June 1936) was favourable for the Norman beaches that were closest to the Parisian region. The crisis of the thirties following the stock market crash of 1929 led to the collapse of industrial production combined with a drop in purchasing power and an increase in unemployment (appearance of soup kitchens). The textile industry, however, was unable to remain competitive and in complete decline The Second World War From 1940, the bombing of the Luftwaffe obliterated the heart of the main cities of the Eure, and several neighbourhoods of Caudebec-en-Caux, Le Havre, Neufchâtel-en- Bray, Rouen, to name but a few, were in flames. The German occupation ended on 6 June 1944, with the landing of the allies on the Norman coasts. Normandy was one of the regions most affected both materially and humanly by this conflict, illustrated by Le Havre, the most devastated city in France. Post-war period : Various decrees established twenty-one "programme regions", a relevant platform for applying the national modernisation and development plan. Normandy was divided into two administrative regions: Haute and Basse-Normandie. The thirty-year boom period This was the period of the reconstruction. At Le Havre, work began on the plans of the appointed chief architect, Auguste Perret, which centred on a clear unity that was lacking in other reconstructed cities. However, the operations took time and the first housing was only delivered in The world and in particular the industrial countries experienced sustained economic growth. This enabled Haute- Normandie to welcome several companies that had decentralised from the Parisian region. This was the "concrete is king" period where large structures were built at the least cost so as to house the many employees (Madeleine area at Evreux, les Sapins at Rouen). The 1973 oil crisis profoundly shook this booming economy and the major companies lost many jobs. Les Sapins, 1961 The second half of the 20th century was marked by urbanisation Le Havre, boulevard François Ier : after the bombing and now! 7

8 Successive chalk and flint layers on the Manneporte at Etretat Haute-Normandie, between the Seine and the sea Normandy is renowned for its landscapes as well as its coastline. A few well-known physical features contribute to the region's perennial image : the peaceful bocage with its hedges and fields, symbol of gentility and good living, the twisting meanders of the Seine, the cliffs at Etretat which expose their limestone crust to the elements and the rain, which has earned Normandy a bad name. The subsoil : a predominance of limestone In geological terms, Haute-Normandie belongs to the Paris Basin which lay beneath the sea for hundreds of millions of years, from the Mesozoic era to the end of the Tertiary period (approximately two million years ago). This prolonged contact with the sea together with the ebb and flow of the waters during these periods accounts for the nature of Normandy's sedimentary subsoil, which is covered over most of its surface by limestone layers that may extend hundreds of meters down into the earth. These layers lie beneath superficial formations of clay and silt of variable thickness. Fairly rich in fossils, the limestone layer is formed for the most part by thick layers of chalk dating from the upper Cretaceous period (end of the Mesozoic era) that contain grey or black flint beds, although this is not the case in the south of the Eure and in the Norman Vexin 1. This limestone layer, which varies from the most fragile chalk to the hardest limestone rock, is covered in a flint-clay layer that may be as much as 10 meters thick. The clay was formed during the warm periods of the Tertiary period (which enjoyed a tropical climate) by the erosion of the chalk in the open air. This makes the ground relatively impermeable. The soil is not particularly fertile, but sufficiently rich to support large forested areas. 1 The Norman Vexin extends over an area of 1,225 km² and is bordered to the east by the Epte, to the south by the Seine, to the west by the Andella and to the north by the forest of Lyons. This limestone plateau offers rich agricultural land and sumptuous scenery. The Haute-Normandie coast From the estuary of the Seine to the Somme estuary, Haute-Normandie boasts the most beautiful high cliffs in France, stretching out along the coastline for 140 kilometres. The arch of the Aval gate at Etretat is the most famous landmark. These cliffs, which regularly exceed 100 meters in height, are cut into thick sedimentary chalk layers which form the backbone of the Caux plateau and which are found throughout the Seine valley. They are interspersed with flint layers, which, when battered by the waves, are the source of the characteristic pebbles of the Caux coast. These pebbles, in copious numbers, protect the bases of the cliffs. Above the cliffs runs a thick, reddish mantle of "flint formation" formed principally by the dissolution of the chalk in the open air. Assisted by the rain, this mantle spreads over the cliff producing the familiar ochre hue. 8 Cliffs of Etretat

9 A landscape of seaside valleys Haute-Normandie, between the Seine and the sea The river network of Haute-Normandie Several large incisions in the landscape, created chiefly by streams, provide access to the sea. Some examples are the valleys of the Valmont, Durdent, Veules, Dun, Saâne, Scie, Arques, Yères, and Bresle rivers. In addition, some forty smaller valleys overlook the sea. These are characteristic of our region's coastline. Constantly subject to the effects of the tide and especially the infiltration of rainwater into cracks which causes the chalk to dissolve, the Haute- Normandie cliffs are receding at a rate of 50 cm per year in certain areas. A number of buildings on the perimeter of the plateau have already collapsed, such as the Ailly lighthouse at Varengeville-sur-mer in Other buildings are seriously threatened. Silt borne on the wind Mass of fallen rock at Varengeville The 'Pointe de la Roque' in the Lower Seine Valley The flint-clay is cloaked, especially over the flat surfaces, in a mantle of silt which may be several meters thick. This extremely fertile silt (also known as loess) is composed of fine materials borne on the wind during the Quaternary period (our era). A flat region Haute-Normandie boasts a great variety of landscapes. In the course of a few hundred million years, the earth has moved and various thrusts have created folds and faults that erosion has evened out, this is the case for example in the Pays de Caux and the Pays de Bray. Other factors have modified the landscape of the region: the rivers, in particular the Seine and its tributaries as well as some smaller rivers at the coast, have cut their way deep into the sedimentary plateau. Closer to us, these rivers, especially the Seine, left significant alluvial deposits that often formed terraces covered by vast forests (Brotonne, Roumare, Rouvray, etc...), another characteristic of the region's landscapes. Did you know? Some facts about Haute-Normandie : Highest point : > 239 m (Pays de Bray approach) in Seine-Maritime > 243 m (Mesnil-Rousset) in the Eure Lowest point : > 6 m (Fécamp quay) in Seine-Maritime > 40 m (Seine estuary) in the Eure Length of the coastline : > 140 km, from the estuary of the Seine to the estuary of the Somme. Number of rivers : > 34 including the Risle, the Eure, the Avre and the Iton. The estuary of the Seine : > 170 km long, from the Poses dam, including the Seine bay. Rainfall figures : > From 700 to 1,000 mm for Seine-Maritime and from 650 to 950 mm for the Eure (the driest département in Normandy). Temperatures : > Annual mean for Seine-Maritime : between 10 and 11 C. Note : the upward thrust of the cliffs continues at the rate of 1 centimetre per century. A reputation for rain Wet and mild, oceanic in short, the climate of Haute-Normandie is also very changeable. The Normandy skies, amongst the most diverse in France, have inspired generations of painters with a penchant for the open air. Open skies also bring the wind, which in Haute-Normandie blows in a "west-east" direction 70% of the time. It is this wind that gathers the clouds inland that form out over the ocean. The Normandy climate is often unfairly associated with rain. Rainfall figures are no greater for Rouen than for Bordeaux, although it does rain more frequently in Rouen. In actual fact the region is especially remarkable for its mild temperatures and slight seasonal variation. This is an exceptionally favourable climate for agriculture and economic activity. Average annual rainfall for the period

10 Rouen violet Rich but fragile natural habitats Vegetation : exceptional surroundings Sea spray gives rise to biodiversity A fauna of 270 species 1 Peat : a spongy, light matter resulting from the decomposition of plants deprived of air and which is used as fuel. Peat bog : an accumulation of decomposed plants, which forms a layer of peat. A key element in the countryside, the vegetation depends on a large number of factors: the type and slope of the soils, the climate, the hydrographical network as well as the influence of man and of animals. In addition to grassy areas and arable land, which occupy more than 60% of the total surface area, and forests, which extend over 20% of Haute-Normandie, several areas deserve special attention for their fragility and the significant ecological role that they play : The coast, with a length of 140 km, contains the most famous cliffs in Europe, which are also the most fragile as a result of marine and continental erosion. The estuary of the Seine is full of exceptional features : large mud flats, roselières, halophilic plants (which thrive in salt), etc. The Parc Naturel Régional des Boucles de la Seine Normande contains among other features the Vernier marsh, a former meander of the Seine, which is rich in peat bogs 1. The Heurteauville peat bog, near Jumièges, sustains rare plants (giant ferns). The majority of these remarkable areas are listed and protected as "Natural Zones of Importance for Ecology, Fauna and Flora". Peat bog in the Vernier Marsh The fauna of Haute-Normandie boasts around 270 species of mammals, reptiles, amphibians and birds, not to mention the thousands of species of insects and fish. The fauna of the region possesses many remarkable species, although some of these have disappeared from the countryside : Mammals : the wolf (from the end of the 19th century), wildcat, otter, common genet, marten and stoat have all disappeared. Birds : the peregrine falcon, osprey, white-tailed eagle and red kite. Nevertheless Haute-Normandie still possesses a great wealth of fauna... The 4,500 hectares of the Vernier marsh offer an unusual experience. Visitors may watch the Camargue horses and Scottish cattle that have grazed here for several years in order to sustain the France's largest peat bog. The streams and rivers (even if pollution has emptied them of most of their crayfish and salmon) are teeming with trout, gudgeon, moorhen, water shrew and water voles. Thanks to antipollution measures (including the introduction of more wastewater treatment plants), the Seine is gradually being repopulated with species that were once believed to be extinct. The forests play host to a multitude of birds (warblers, crested tits, goldcrests, great spotted woodpeckers, jays, buzzards) as well as to the squirrel, fox, roe deer, stag and wild boar. The bocage and agricultural lands feature (in addition to the cows!) rooks, jackdaws, crows, starlings, pheasants, kestrel falcons, field mice, tawny owls, moles, voles, as well as hare, wild rabbit and wild boar. A fawn in the forest Highland Cattle at the Vernier Marsh 10 The coastal cliffs mark the end of the chalk plateau.

11 Rich but fragile natural habitats Remarkable species The foreshore at Saint-Valery-en-Caux Each habitat or biotope supports certain species : The foreshore (the area between the high and low tidal zones) abounds with cockles, razor-clams, prawns, crabs and starfish. The cliffs serve as the nesting zone for many seabirds (common black-headed gulls, herring and less black-backed gulls and great cormorants). Herring gull The estuary of the Seine is an exceptional egg-laying area ; that supports many migratory birds every year including numerous species of duck (mallard, teal, etc...). The Vernier marsh 1 is renowned for pike, the largest of the freshwater fish, as well as for perch, carp, the grey heron and even the white swan, which has recently been reintroduced. It also features rare orni- The forests of Haute-Normandie thological2 species : the black-tailed godwit, white spoonbill, chavalier gambat, avocet, etc... 1 A former meander of the Seine, the Vernier marsh forms a natural amphitheatre between the Seine and the wooded slopes of the Eure département.. 2 Ornithology: the branch of zoology dedicated to the study of birds. Much less extensive than in former times, the forests of Haute-Normandie cover at present 20% of the region's surface (approximately 227,000 hectares), a level lower than the French average (23.6%). The figures for the Eure and Seine- Maritime are 21% and 16% respectively. Although this level is stable today following a voluntary policy of reforestation, more than 10,000 hectares were lost to the forests of Haute-Normandie between 1970 and These forests grow mostly in poor soil that lacks silt, in areas where flint-clay and coarse alluvium (close to rivers) rises to the surface. Some of the best-known forests are : In Seine-Maritime : The forest of Eawy in the Pays de Bray, the forest of Eu between the Bresle and Yères valleys, the forest of Lyons. In the Eure : the forests of Conches, Breteuil and Ivry. With broad-leaved trees accounting for 80% of the tree population, the forests of Haute-Normandie are rich in oak (46% of broad-leaved trees), beech (26%), as well as chestnut, alder, hornbeam, hazel, ash, poplar, maple, willow, birch and elm (the elm has almost been eradicated by graphiosis, a disease transmitted by fungi). Introduced more recently (at the beginning of the 19th century) with the exception of the yew which has been present for many centuries, the coniferous forests are still less numerous than their broad-leaved counterparts although their development has been more rapid (Douglas pines, firs, etc.). This rapid growth has not been without problems (impoverishment of the soil, etc.). In addition to the forests' very important ecological role, they retain an economic significance for the timber and glass industries. Historically the forests provided timber for the construction of wooden ships and houses. Implemented with the aid of the Regional Council, Anoribois, a consultative body for the main actors in the forestry-timber industry, assists with the management of Haute-Normandie's forestry heritage. The body's main tasks are to enhance and promote the region's forestry potential and wood processing and to support regional organisations. To ensure the protection of the precious environment of Haute-Normandie, the Regional Council established the AREHN (Regional Agency for the Environment of Haute-Normandie) in Its activities are intended to raise the public's awareness of their ecological responsibilities. To this end, a reference library and a regional follow-up resource for the environment were set up. The agency also publishes brochures, small volumes and multimedia tools. Website : Timber, a source of renewable energy 11

12 The inhabitants of Haute-Normandie today Some figures Source INSEE January Ibid. 1,780,000 inhabitants. 145 inhabitants/km ,000 : population of the Eure (90 inhabitants/km²), 1,239,000 : population of Seine-Maritime (197 inhabitants/km²). Population growth totals 0.25% for the period , i.e. 40,000 inhabitants more in 1999 than in 1990 (the population of our region has increased at a slower rate since 1990). 40% of the population lives in the 4 main urban areas : Rouen, Le Havre, Evreux and Elbeuf. However, for the first time, the population has increased faster in the rural areas than in the cities and towns. The region thus attracts people to both its various urban and rural areas. The distribution of the population 2 With a population density of 145 inhabitants per km², Haute-Normandie ranks fourth amongst the most densely populated regions in France (behind Ile-de-France, Nord Pas-de-Calais and Alsace). This high density is partly a result of the role the region plays as a filter for the Ile-de- France region. The distribution of the population over the region is not uniform. Seine- Maritime is more densely populated than the Eure (194 as opposed to 90 inhabitants/km²). Population growth In 2003 : births : 23,200 deaths : 16,100 difference 3 : 7,100 (idem to 2002) The heatwave of 2003 resulted in an increase in the number of deaths (600 more than in 2002) : + 4,3% in Seine-Maritime + 2,6% in the Eure 61% of the deceased in August 2003 were aged 75 years or older (as opposed to 57% in 2002) Number of marriages in 2002 : 8,700 or 10% less than in In 2003, this decrease seems to be continuing, resulting in the lowest figure recorded in the last decade. Number of PACS in 2002 (civil pact of solidarity) : 679 or an increase of 45% in relation to ,838 PACS have been signed since the law of November Births less deaths. 4 Source : INSEE. One of France's youngest regions For the period : Proportion of inhabitants aged less than 20 of the total population : 27% (25% for the rest of France). The proportion of the aged in the population increased although at a slower rate for the region than for the rest of France: + 2 points in Haute-Normandie as opposed to + 8 for the national average. Haute-Normandie thus appears to be a relatively young region. Only life expectancy at birth for inhabitants of the region is slightly less than the French average. Life expectancy in 2001 : 74.3 years for men and 82 years for woman as opposed to a French average of 75.5 and 82.8 years respectively. 12

13 Between industrial tradition and high technology With a longstanding industrial tradition, Haute-Normandie is currently faced with significant economic, technological and social change. Structured by the presence of large groups and characterised by branches of industry such as the automotive, aeronautical and spatial, health-biology-fine chemistry, agri-food and logistics sectors, the economy of Haute-Normandie offers a rich fabric of dynamic small and medium enterprises and industries. Rouen, a maritime port located 100 km inland The département of Seine-Maritime records the second highest gross domestic product (GDP) of all the French départements. This département boasts robust industrialisation, high productivity in the Seine valley as well as very active ports and derivative industries. The Rouen-Le Havre district ranks first for petroleum and petrochemical refining (Port-Jérôme). The areas close to the Paris region have benefited from decentralisation in the electricity, nuclear energy (Paluel, Penly), and automobile domains. Le Havre is France's first port for containers. Industrial activity in the rural areas is still strong in the Bresle valley (glass industry), in the Dieppe hinterland and in the Pays d'ouche. Wood pulp is still produced, although the small traditional textile industry is in decline. As a result of the high quality soil, the region by and large retains its agricultural importance and Rouen ranks as the biggest port for cereals in Europe. Haute-Normandie develops its links with neighbouring regions through the Normandy Bridge (1993) and its road network, but also through its policy of cooperation with Basse-Normandie and Picardy. Figures The industrial influence of Haute-Normandie 4th industrial region in France, 4.5% of the country's industrial value added, 7% of investments by national industry, 51,000 companies, 680,000 jobs, 68% of salaried employees are active in the tertiary sector. The chemical-petrochemical industry Producing nearly 30% of the gross regional product and employing 23,000 people, the chemical-petrochemical industry puts Haute-Normandie amongst the foremost regions for the refining and economic development of petroleum products : 15 of the world's 20 biggest chemical groups are present in the region. The region's four refineries represent a third of France's current petroleum refining capacity : Total-Fina-Elf and Elf Atochem at Gonfreville-l'Orcher. Esso/Exxon at Notre-Dame-de-Gravenchon. Shell at Petit-Couronne. The existence of this major industrial apparatus has led to the establishment of petrochemical complexes of international distinction, as well as numerous specialised chemical factories. Shell Refinery 13

14 Between industrial tradition and high technology CERTAM Laboratory at the Technopôle du Madrillet The automobile industry The automobile industry is the number 1 regional employer with 28,000 employees distributed in more than a hundred companies. The sector boasts an exceptional hub of innovation in the Technopôle du Madrillet, which is situated in the urban area of Rouen and offers an exceptional potential for research, simulation and modelling. These activities are undertaken in conjunction with the mechanical Institute INSA (National Institute for Applied Science) and the University. Investment in Haute-Normandie's automobile sector amounts to approximately 1.5 billion euros. The automobile industry has become the most dynamic sector in the region as a result of the strong presence of the Renault group (factories in Sandouville and Cléon) and the numerous parts manufacturers and research and development centres that have been established. The biology-health industry The biology-health sector is based on a network of manufacturers of international renown: 5 of the world's leading 10 international groups are present in the region and offer an exceptional range of skills and tools, in particular at the Pharma- Parc sites situated in the communes of Vaudreuil, Val-de-Reuil and the Normandy Bio-sciences Park at Mont-Saint- Aignan. The fine and applied chemistry sector employs approximately 10,000 people, another 9,000 are active in the rapidly expanding packaging/beauty/health sector. A network of major international laboratories has also been established, mainly in the Seine valley and in the vicinity of Evreux. Haute-Normandie has thus become France's 2nd region for medicinal chemistry (1,700 employees) as well as the country's 3rd region for cosmetic products (3,500 employees) and for the health/beauty packaging sector (9,000 employees). This sector benefits from extensive scope for research and development. Glaxo Laboratory The agri-food industry Haute- Normandie is a flax growing region The industrial tradition of Seine-Maritime and the agricultural roots of the Eure have produced a twofold savoir-faire : The agri-food industry, which caters for 14,000 employees in approximately 200 establishments, The green chemistry sector, which has developed on the basis of a powerful industrial apparatus in the lower Seine valley (23,000 employees). Both sectors testify to the sector's dynamic activity both in France and abroad. In agricultural terms, the Haute- Normandie region is the leading French and European region for the production of flax. 60% of French textile flax is cultivated in the Pays de Caux and the Pays d'ouche and on the plains of Neubourg. Regional agriculture also boasts : An established cereal tradition: the port of Rouen ranks first in Europe for cereal exports. Extensive cattle rearing (concerning more than a third of agricultural enterprises) which has earned the region its reputation for dairy products. Red seals, earned primarily for its poultry. AOC graded products (Appellation d'origine Contrôlée): Neufchâtel cheese, Calvados of AOC status and Pommeau de Normandie which are produced mainly in the Pays de Bray and the western areas of the Eure. High quality foie gras: introduced into the Eure some twenty years ago, this sector boasts some forty producers and may ultimately rival its competitors in the South-West of France. Situated on the coast, Haute-Normandie benefits from many fishing resources. Fishing in Haute-Normandie is characterised by its nonprofessional nature : 53% of boats are less than 12 meters in length and the majority of fishermen fish inshore. In Haute-Normandie, the maritime fishing fleet includes some 150 vessels, affiliated to the ports of Dieppe, Fécamp and Le Havre. The fishermen are also renowned for the excellence of their catches : Norman fish, scallops, mussels, whelks and clams are all appreciated throughout the world. Terra Neuvas at Fécamp, at the beginning of the 20th century 14

15 Aeronautical and space industries Operating in an extremely diverse branch of industry, the sector's manufacturers collaborate with the two subsidiaries of the leading European engine manufacturer SNECMA established in the region: Hispano Suiza Aerostructures (at Gonfreville l'orcher), which produces thrust and pod reversers, and SNECMA moteurs (at Vernon), which manufactures engines for the Ariane rocket. In total, the core of the sector is made up of 9 companies which employ a workforce of more than 8,000 and produce a joint turnover of 1.22 million euros. Electric power generation Haute-Normandie's two nuclear power stations (at Paluel and Penly) and the power station at Le Havre produce 11.5% of France's electricity and 13.3% of the country's nuclear electricity. Nuclear Power Station Paluel Between industrial tradition and high technology The Region council : providing assistance to companies Confirmed in its role of community pilot for economic development, the Region Council assists companies at all stages of their development. Haute-Normandie bases its aid policy on three main criteria : Support for future entrepreneurs and new activities. Optimisation of conditions for the establishment of companies. Support for company development. The Regional Council has adopted several development goals, in particular the development of 4 hubs of activity in Haute-Normandie : Health-oriented chemistry and biology Energetics and mechanics Safety and the environment Transport and logistics To promote the development of high technology activities, the Regional Council supports scientific research and its application in the economic sphere. Training: from training certificates to post-doctoral studies An industrial power like Haute-Normandie must offer a comprehensive training system and support research and innovation. The region is well equipped to attain this goal. The synthesis of research, higher education and economic actors is sought chiefly within the 4 technopoles defined within the framework of the regional development strategy. The training offered extends from CAP (vocational training certificate) to post-doctoral studies. Haute- Normandie has 45,000 students, most of whom study in the university centres of Rouen (28,000), Le Havre (7,000) and Evreux (1,000). Several thousand students are also enrolled in higher education establishments that offer further qualifications. Amongst these establishments are 3 polytechnics, 5 engineering schools, 2 grands écoles for commerce, 125 lycées as well as numerous courses offered for additional professional training. Port 2000 and the logistics sector 1 Or "hub". Company base intended to group passengers together and to organise the connecting service to a final destination. The Port of Le Havre modernisation project (Port 2000) is one of Haute-Normandie's principal development projects. Ranking 5th among European ports and 1st among French ports for container traffic and external commerce, the port of Le Havre has set itself the goal of handling 2 million containers. This development of the port infrastructures must be accompanied by the modernisation of road and rail infrastructures: the Normandy- Seine Valley rapid link project (see p. 21) is a potential asset for the region which should help to promote service activities. Mobilisation of regional potential around the CRITT (Regional Centre for innovation and logistical technological transfer) and the search for synergies between actors in the sector has resulted in the establish- ment of CREDIT (Regional centre for the exchange of data for transport). The Regional council is currently enriching its network of logistics parks which already includes a few industry flagships such as Rous Multi-marchandises or Rouen-Vallée de Seine. New logistics zones are also currently undergoing construction, in particular in Evreux and around the Seine estuary. Lastly, the sector can count on its 3 airport platforms (Le Havre, Rouen and Evreux, where Air Base 105 opens periodically for civil air traffic) and on the proximity of the two large air traffic hubs 1, Orly and Roissy-Charles de Gaulle. 15

16 Tourism, culture, leisure : a region where life is good! Haute Normandie, the native land of Corneille, Géricault, Poussin, Flaubert, Maupassant and Queneau, also inspired impressionist painters such as Monet, Pissarro and Sisley. Its unique heritage makes it a land of history. However, it is also an active region where events, festivals, entertainment venues, music and dance institutes, orchestras and artists ensure constant activities and testify to a strong, creative cultural life. The tourist vocation of the region is upheld by the "Villes d'art et d'histoire" (Cities of historical and artistic interest) (Rouen, Le Havre, Fécamp, Dieppe, Evreux) and a rich local monument heritage (the Abbey trail) or natural heritage (the Brotonne forest, the cliffs). Some major personalities Pierre Corneille ( ) Born in Rouen, he was the eldest of six children in a welloff family of Rouen magistrates. Corneille is recognised as the greatest dramatist of the 17th century with major works such as L'illusion comique in 1636, Le Cid in 1637, Cinna in 1642 and Rodogune in The richness and diversity of his works reflect the values and principle issues of his era. Former student of the Rouennais second level school later named for him, Corneille has left his mark in the capital of the Haute-Normandie (see information in "Places to visit" p. 17). Gustave Flaubert ( ) Gustave Flaubert was born in Rouen in His first novel published was Madame Bovary, in In 1857, the trial against Flaubert and Madame Bovary began, for "offences against morals and religion". This trial brought Flaubert real notoriety. He was acquitted of the charges brought against him. Other major works followed: Salammbô in 1862, L'éducation sentimentale in 1869, Les trois contes in Flaubert is sometimes considered as a follower of realism, and even as the founder of the naturalist school of writing. But he denied it. For him, the essential element was the development of style. One can still visit the office where he worked at Croisset, and his library is preserved at the Canteleau town hall. In Rouen, one can also visit the Flaubert and history of medicine museum. Guy de Maupassant ( ) Born in Château de Miromesnil at Tourville-sur-Arques in 1850, Maupassant was trained by Gustave Flaubert, who taught him how to look, observe and analyse by observation before writing. This was the initiation to the realist school of writing. He published his first short story, Boule-de-Suif, in the naturalism manifesto "Les Soirées de Médane" launched by Zola in Amongst his favourite themes one finds writings on the life of Norman peasants. A Normandy for which he offers a naturalist portrayal in his short stories and novels : Une vie (1883), Bel-Ami (1885), Le Horla (1887). Painters from Haute-Normandie Corot, Courbet, Monet, Pissarro, Sisley, Seurat, Signac, Dufy, etc. An abundance of painters have been seduced by the sea, the landscapes, the Norman light. Camille Corot ( ) and Gustave Courbet ( ) are painters of the wild and picturesque aspects of the Norman coast. In 1928, Georges Braque ( ) rediscovered the land and ploughed fields of his childhood when he came to live in Varengeville, charmed by the landscape and the village. However, if we were to retain the name of only one major painter from Haute Normandie, it would be Claude Monet ( ) whose paintings are exhibited in the world's most prestigious museums. The master of the Impressionist movement came to live in Giverny in 1883, which he loved for its bright, changing skies. He immortalised the gothic cathedral in Rouen at different times of the day. 16

17 Claude Monet ( ) Following the birth of Monet on November 14th 1840 in Paris, his family moved to Le Havre in In 1858, Monet met Eugène Boudin with who he worked on the Norman coast. In 1865, Monet was exhibited for the first time at the Salon. In , Claude Monet painted several seascapes around Le Havre and particularly at Sainte-Adresse. He settled in Argenteuil between 1872 and 1878 and began to work on the water, in a boat converted into a studio. In 1873, he painted Impression Soleil Levant (Impression: Sunrise), which represents the port of Le Havre in the early morning, it is this painting that gave its name to the Impressionist movement. Impression : Sunrise,1873, by Claude Monet Tourism, culture, leisure : a region where life is good! In 1883, Monet settled in Giverny where he remained for 43 years. In 1890, work for the creation of the white water lily pond began. It was at Giverny that he began his renowned series that made him famous. Between 1892 and 1898 he painted the Cathédrales de Rouen (Rouen Cathedrals) series (30 paintings, of which 28 of the facade), the Matinées sur la Seine, then the Ponts Japonais and Nymphéas. Major events The Armada Since the "Armada de la Liberté" (the Liberty Armada), in 1989, the biggest yachts in the world come together in Rouen. The Armada is a festival with an international reputation. The Armada in 2003 : 5.8 million visitors. Over 3,000 sailors from all over the world. Over forty yachts and warships. The next Armada will take place in Places to visit... The Pierre Corneille Museum in Petit Couronne : Maison des Champs, 502 rue Pierre Corneille, Petit Couronne Pierre Corneille's Birthplace in Rouen : Rue de la Pie, Rouen The Flaubert and the History of Medecine Museum in Rouen : 51 rue Lecat, Rouen The Claude Monet Museum at Giverny : Fondation Claude Monet, 84 rue Claude Monet, Giverny The Rouen/Haute-Normandie Opera Since 1998, the Rouen/Haute-Normandie Opera, supported by the Region, has managed to implement a high quality project which is reflected today by over 80,000 spectators, 7,000 subscribers, 170 performances, of which 60 are on tour. The Opera includes an orchestra of 35 permanent musicians under the direction of the Austrian conductor, Oswald Sallaberger, and also an associated vocal ensemble which has gained international recognition: the Accentus choir. Heritage and architecture : key figures Buildings protected as historical monuments : 1,075 (655 in Seine-Maritime, 420 in the Eure department). Some of the most remarkable buildings in the Haute- Normandie region : Jumièges Abbey Bec Hellouin Abbey Rouen Cathedral Evreux Cathedral Arques-la-Bataille Castle Beaumont-le-Roger Priory Gaillon Castle The Keep at Château Gaillard 5 Cities of historical and artistic interest : Dieppe Elbeuf Fécamp Le Havre Rouen 60 organs, of which the most outstanding are to be found in the following sacred monuments : Le Bec Hellouin : Abbey church Louviers : Notre-Dame Church Evreux : Cathedral Bernay : Notre-Dame-de-la-Couture Basilica Eu : Collégiale Saint-Laurent Fécamp : Abbey church Rouen : Cathedral Le Havre : Cathedral Listed archaeological sites: 9,732 Evreux Cathedral 17

18 Tourism, culture, leisure : a region where life is good! The Saint-Wandrille Abbey The Abbey Trail The historical "Norman Abbeys" trail, which includes 36 abbeys, covers both Lower and Upper Normandy. In Haute-Normandie (Upper Normandy), this trail proposes visits of approximately twenty Benedictine and Cistercian abbeys, around the Seine valley. These abbeys constitute an important part of the Region's heritage. Charged with history and legends, they are protected sites today. The Norman Abbey trail attests to Normandy's historical origins, the foundation of multiple abbeys that took place during the Middle Ages. Certain have preserved their original function and accommodate a monastic community : this is the case in the Saint- Wandrille and Bec-Hellouin abbeys, both a living history of Normandy. Others are imposing ruins (Jumièges) or have simply become parish churches (Saint-Martin-de- Boscherville). Whether public or private property, most abbeys now have another, frequently cultural, use that has permitted their safeguard. The cliffs at Etretat The Norman coast The coast of Haute-Normandie represents a Mecca for tourism, spreading over 140 km. It harbours numerous historical sea resorts, such as Dieppe, Fécamp and of course Etretat. One let's oneself become rapidly charmed by the wild purity of the majestic chalk cliffs that have inspired, and still inspire, so many artists, contributing to the reputation of the H a u t e - N o r m a n d i e region (Claude Monet, Guy de Maupassant, and not forgetting Gustave Flaubert). In front of the cliff known as the "aiguille creuse" in Etretat, one can follow in the footsteps of Arsène Lupin, whose adventures were borne of Maurice Leblanc's pen, a writer from the region. Gastronomy The numerous regional culinary specialities have made Haute-Normandie an essential gastronomic destination. Whether one is considering Normandy style duck, Norman escalope, blanquette of veal, Dieppois sole or even Neufchâtel cheese, the Haute-Normandie region has a great variety of dishes to be savoured. The Manche department contributes its seafood, scallops and herrings. The countryside is rich in quality dairy produce, cheeses and meat. The region also has numerous foie gras producers, mainly based in the Eure area. The manufacture of famous drinks, certified by the "Appellation d'origine contrôlée" (French Label of Origin, or AOC) established the region's reputation: Normandy Calvados and Pommeau are produced in the Bray country and in the western area of the Eure. In addition, the entirety of the Haute-Normandie region is part of the "eau-de-vie de cidre de Normandie" (Normandy cider brandy) zone, known as calvados. Upper Norman Celebrities Sportspeople Jacques Anquetil, Alain Blondel, David Douillet, Tony Parker, Emmanuel Petit, Tarik Abdul Wahad Artists Bourvil, Vincent Delerm, Franck Dubosc, Annie Duperey, Marcel Dupré, Valérie Lemercier, Maxime Leroux, Bruno Putzulu, Olivier Saladin, Philippe Torreton Painters Nicolas Poussin, Théodore Géricault, Gaston Duchamp (dit Jacques Villon), Marcel Duchamp Old varieties of apples Writers Jean de La Varende, Pierre Corneille, Gustave Flaubert, Guy de Maupassant, Maurice Leblanc, Hector Malot, Raymond Queneau, Philippe Delerm 18

19 The workings of the regional institution Region Hall, in Rouen The Region was born from the State's intention to decentralise its powers to institutions closer to the realities in the field. Established by the decentralisation laws of March , known as the Defferre laws, the Regions is, as for the Department and the Commune (Municipality), a local autonomous authority, which has a specific budget and a clearly defined scope of activities. The Region, a user's guide The Region is managed by the Conseil régional (regional council), an assembly of 55 regional Councillors elected for 6 years by direct universal suffrage. In Haute-Normandie, regional Councillors total 55: 38 for the Seine-Maritime Department, 17 for the Eure Department. Since 1998, the assembly is presided by the Socialist Alain Le Vern. The Regional Council decides upon the policies to conduct in the regional territory : it meets at least once a quarter (plenary session) to define, following debate, the principal directions of the regional policy. The assembly votes the budget each year. To manage the significant amount of decisions to be taken, the Regional Council delegates some of its powers to the Standing Committee : this committee includes 17 members ; it meets once a month to implement the regional policy and deal with files on a regular basis. More Information... The president of the Regional Council lays out the direction, defines priorities and ensures the execution of the decisions voted by the assembly ; he is assisted in his missions by 11 vice-presidents, each attributed a specific domain of activity. The Regional services (with over 350 officers) are responsible for the preparation of files, the monitoring and execution of the Regional Council's decisions. The Regional economical and social council (CESR) gives its opinion on the major directions of the regional policy (e.g. the budget) and carries out studies on its own initiative or on being requested to do so by the president. What is the difference between the Region and the Regional Council? The term Region designates the territorial authority as a whole, i.e. the deliberating assembly (Regional Council), the president and the administration (Regional services). Public funds The region's revenue mainly comes from its specific fiscal revenue (the regional portion of council taxes : property tax, land tax, business tax) and State subsidies that compensate for activity transfer (second level education, public transport). Focus Creation in 4 acts 1964 : birth of the regional administration managed by prefects : creation of regional public establishments : with the Defferre laws, the Regions become a fully-fledged local authority : first election of regional Councillors by universal suffrage. 19

20 The workings of the regional institution Composition of the Haute-Normandie Regional Council The division of powers according to the decentralisation laws FN = National Front UPN = United for Normandy party UDF et indépendants = Union for French Democracy and independents PRG = Radical Left Party Les Verts = The Green Party PCF = French Communist Party PS = Socialist Party According to article 59 of the 1982 law, "the regional institution has the power to promote the economic, social, health, cultural and scientific development of its territory and to ensure the preservation of its identity, in accordance with the all Departments and Communes and their autonomy and attributions". These attributions have been detailed and broadened by successive legislative movements, such as the law of August relating to local entitlements and responsibilities. The Regions powers Education (since 1986) Social and health measures (since 2004) Canals and ports (since 1984) Town planning, environment and heritage (since ) Continuous and initialvocational training (since 1983) Economic planning, development (since 1983) Culture (since 2004) Regional rail transport (since January 2002) The budget The budget of the Haute-Normandie region for 2005 amounts to 609 million euro (excluding budgetary transactions at the end of the financial year, balanced in expenses and revenue) and is divided in the following manner : > Creation, construction ands maintenance of second level schools. > Recruitment and management of non-teaching personnel (technicians, workers, service staff for the Education Nationale), planned for > Definition and implementation of the training policy for social workers. > Creation and funding of training organisations in the health and paramedical sector. > Participation in public health campaigns. > River port and navigable waterway development. > Natural regional park. > Definition of a regional policy for vocational training (young people, adults). > Implementation of continuous and initial training. > Elaboration of the regional plan. > Co-ordination of local authority economic measures. > Management of the general inventory of cultural heritage. > Organisation of travellers rail travel. > Improvement and modernisation of train and bus lines. > Elaboration of a regional infrastructures and transport plan. < Details of Expenditure The Region's Fiscal Revenue Details on General Services functions > 20

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