City of Kamloops Notre Dame Corridor Access Plan

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1 FINAL REPORT This report is prepared for the sole use of ICBC. No representations of any kind are made by Urban Systems Ltd. or its employees to any party with whom Urban Systems Ltd. does not have a contract Commerce Parkway Richmond BC V6V 3A1 Telephone: Fax:

2 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND CONDITIONS LAND USE Existing Situation McGill Corridor/Southgate Project Concept Plan Notre Dame Development Permit Guidelines Long-term Growth ROADWAY NETWORK Network & Access Characteristics Intersection & Access Conditions SUMMARY OF COLLISION PATTERNS WHY CONSIDER ACCESS MANAGEMENT? ACCESS PLAN PRINCIPLES GUIDELINES THE PLAN EVALUATION IMPLEMENTATION Page (i)

3 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1.1 Location Map... 2 Figure 2.1 Existing Zoning and Uses... 4 Figure 2.2 Preferred Land Use Concept...5 Figure 2.3 Planned Local Area Development... 7 Figure 2.4 Notre Dame Corridor Laning Arrangement... 8 Figure 2.5 Existing Access Type and Property Use... 9 Figure 2.6 Driveway Spacing Figure 2.7 Existing Network Volumes PM Peak Hour Figure 2.8 Future Traffic Volumes PM Peak Hour Figure 2.9 Current Levels of Service Figure 2.10 Future Levels of Service Figure 2.11 Access Volumes Figure 3.1 Recommended Plan LIST OF TABLES Table 2.1 Level of Service Criteria for Signalized and Unsignalized Intersections Table 2.2 Left Turn Analysis Table 2.3 Type of Accidents Table 2.4 Access Management Guidelines Table 3.1 Notre Dame Drive Option Summary Table 3.2 Notre Dame Drive Option Summary Hillside Drive to Dalhousie Drive Table 3.3 Notre Dame Drive Option Summary Dalhousie Drive to Columbia Street Page (ii)

4 1.0 INTRODUCTION The is currently in the process of developing a Comprehensive Corridor Access Management Strategy that examines relationships between access characteristics along the arterial road system and local area goals for mobility and safety as well as land use change. As part of this review, several corridors were considered high priority locations for developing a comprehensive corridor access management plan based on safety and mobility needs as well as opportunity for change. Specifically, the Notre Dame Drive corridor was identified among the highest priorities based on the following factors: Density & type of accesses access densities along Notre Dame Drive are generally inconsistent with what would be desired for a minor arterial in the. There are also a large number of full access points located along the corridor which is also inconsistent with the guidelines that are currently being established. Existing and long-term mobility while existing mobility does not appear to be a problem at major intersections, future growth in the area of both through and local traffic combined with current access arrangements will impact mobility on the corridor. Historical collision patterns while the collision history along Notre Dame does not indicate that there is a significant safety problem today, the increase in through traffic volumes along with driveway traffic will raise the need to address safety based on experience elsewhere. Planned land use changes as the southwest sector of the City is one of the fastest growing areas in terms of commercial and residential development as well as continued expansion at the University College of the Cariboo (UCC), it is expected that there will be significant infill development and redevelopment in the area. Plans for increased development have been expressed in the McGill Corridor/Southgate Project Concept Plan, while changes to the overall appearance of Notre Dame Drive have been addressed in the Notre Dame Development Permit Guidelines. These planned land use changes indicate that the opportunities for combining land use and transportation goals for the corridor are significant. Figure 1.1 shows the Notre Dame study area in relation to the rest of the City. Page 1

5 Figure 1.1 Location Map The Corridor Access Management Plan for Notre Dame Drive is separated into the following sections: 1. Introduction addresses why Notre Dame Drive was selected for an access management plan; 2. Background Conditions outlines the land use, network, corridor characteristics as well as providing a summary of collision patterns; 3. Access Options outlines two option scenarios that the City could undertake to manage access along Notre Dame Drive; 4. Summary and Recommendation summarizes the need for access management along Notre Dame Drive and provides a detailed assessment of the preferred option. Page 2

6 2.0 BACKGROUND CONDITIONS 2.1 Land Use Land use is an important consideration for access management. An examination of existing land use as well as future changes is critical to determining the need for an access management policy. This study should extend not only to the corridor itself but to the surrounding area. The Notre Dame corridor is a major commercial arterial in the and though properties fronting the road are almost fully developed, significant infill land use development and redevelopment is anticipated both on the corridor and the surrounding area in the future. Notre Dame Drive has such importance to the City s commercial fabric that the has established Development Permit Guidelines for the corridor Existing Situation As mentioned previously, properties with frontage on Notre Dame Drive are almost fully developed. The corridor is part of the Southgate Industrial Park and much of the land fronting onto Notre Dame Drive is zoned as part of the Industrial Park designation. A large portion of land is designated Public as part of Hillside Cemetery while remaining land is zoned for arterial commercial use. The broader area is a further mix of commercial, light industrial, office, and public and institutional use. The major land use for the area is University College of the Cariboo. Other significant traffic generators for the area include Wal-Mart along with the smaller businesses located on the property, Home Depot, and Superstore. Figure 2.1 illustrates the zoning and the business located on each of the parcels on Notre Dame Drive. Page 3

7 Figure 2.1 Existing Zoning and Uses McGill Corridor/Southgate Project Concept Plan In December 2001, a report was prepared that outlined future plans for the McGill Road area and the Southgate Industrial Park. The aim of this study was to prepare a plan that would lead to greater integration of the important components of UCC and Southgate Industrial Park. The plan outlined areas where future residential, commercial, office, and light industrial development were to occur as growth at UCC occurred. The final outcome was the development of a preferred land use concept for the study area. This is shown in Figure 2.2. Page 4

8 Figure 2.2 Preferred Land Use Concept As indicated, the plan called for Notre Dame Drive to develop as retail corridor, with the only exception being the cemetery. While this is fairly similar to the existing situation, there are areas on the Notre Dame corridor that are not consistent with the preferred concept plan. This provides an opportunity for changes to be made that are more desirable than the existing situation. These land use changes may or may not require rezoning Notre Dame Development Permit Guidelines Following the completion of the McGill Corridor/Southgate Project Concept Plan, the City of Kamloops established Development Permit Guidelines for the Notre Dame corridor. These stipulate how development should occur along the corridor and addresses such issues as site planning, building design, signage and landscaping. A section of the guidelines pertain to access form. Some of the policies in this section that pertain to access include: Access points are to be shared with adjacent development to minimize the number of driveways on Notre Dame Drive; Page 5

9 The driveway spacing shall be a minimum of 70 m measured between the centre of adjacent driveways; The driveway throat width shall be a minimum of 9 m to a maximum of 12 m; Driveway locations shall be determined by the Engineering Department in accordance with the Notre Dame Drive Access Management Plan; All entry drives from Notre Dame Drive shall be flanked on both sides by a landscaped area that is a minimum 2 m wide and extending 4 m into the property; Raised curbs shall define entry drives; Parking areas at the read of buildings shall be designed with circulation aisles that connect to circulation aisles on adjacent properties. Circulation airless shall accommodate 2-way traffic with a minimum width of 7.3 m to provide access to multiple properties; Circulation aisles connecting adjoining properties shall be protected through reciprocal agreements. These policies promote the use of access management techniques that support Notre Dame Drive s function as an arterial road while at the same time respecting and promoting the commercial nature of the corridor. Under current conditions, the goals of the overall development permit guidelines, including guidelines pertaining to access, are not reflective of what actually occurring. It is expected that as redevelopment occurs and/or as land use changes on a property, the City will promote greater adherence to the guidelines Long-term Growth The has estimated the long-term build-out based on planned development in the area surrounding Notre Dame Drive. These growth projections are illustrated in Figure 2.3 and briefly described below. Page 6

10 Dalhousie Dr ICBC Figure 2.3 Planned Local Area Development Re sid e nc e 300 Units City Yard 215,000 ft 2 McGill Rd We stca n Truc king Office 180,000 ft 2 Westgate Rd Ret. 30,100ft 2 Res. 136 Units Columbia St W Rec. 80,000 ft 2 Fields 120,000 ft 2 Home Depot 100,000 ft 2 Re ta il 43,100 ft 2 Ret. 18,800 ft Res. 85 Units Hotel 194,000 ft 2 2 Summit Dr 2 Ret. 53,800 ft Res. 81 Units Pub 3,000 ft 2 Re t. 215,000 ft 2 Re t. 55,000 ft 2 Re t. 65,000 ft 2 Notre Dame Dr HWY 1 Hillside Dr (1) UCC Growth In 2003, UCC developed a campus master plan which updated its plan from This plan defines growth over the next 20 years and stages development to an enrolment level of 16,000 students, which is an increase of approximately 100% of current enrolment levels. For the purposes of this study, it was assumed that the student and staff population on campus would double in the long term for the future scenarios. (2) Along the McGill Road corridor itself, there are eight planned new developments including four mixeduse (retail/residential) complexes, a hotel, a pub, a single retail building and an office building. In total, the developments will provide over 186,000 square feet of retail space, approximately 470 residential units, 180,000-square foot office building, and a large hotel. (3) In the area surrounding the McGill Road corridor, there are seven planned new developments, as illustrated in Figure 2.3. These include 435,000 square feet of retail space, a 300-unit residence, a large City works yard, and a 200,000-square foot recreational complex and fieldhouse on the UCC campus. These local area forecasts will be combined with the overall growth patterns planned for the City based on the 120,000 population figures developed within TravelSmart. Page 7

11 2.2 Roadway Network Network & Access Characteristics Notre Dame Drive is a 4 lane arterial that runs predominantly east-west. It is roughly parallel to McGill Road and is intersected by Hillside Drive and Columbia Street, the two north-south arterials in the area. Along the route, there are three signalized intersections at Hillside Drive, Dalhousie Drive and Columbia Street. Laval Crescent also intersects Notre Dame Drive at two locations and is stop controlled at each of these intersections. Figure 2.4 illustrates the corridor laning arrangement and signalization. Figure 2.4 Notre Dame Corridor Laning Arrangement Currently, Notre Dame Drive has 31 access locations. The majority of these accesses are full movement accesses meaning that there are no restrictions on turn movements into individual driveways. In some cases, access to driveways is restricted to a certain extent. Figure 2.5 illustrates the access types and each of the access locations. Page 8

12 Alternate Access Source: 1999 Air Photo Figure 2.5 Existing Access Type and Property Use

13 As illustrated, many of the properties along Notre Dame Drive, particularly between Dalhousie Drive and the east entrance to Laval Crescent have two full access locations. In certain areas, spacing between accesses is small and is in the range of 3 m. This is typical of the strip mall developments at the east end of Notre Dame Drive where adjacent properties will each have an access located near the property line separating the two properties. The average distance between accesses was measured to be approximately 45 m when not considering the distance between Hillside Cemetery and the distance between the last access in each direction and Hillside Drive. Figure 2.6 illustrates the distances between accesses Intersection & Access Conditions In the Southgate/UCC area, Columbia Street West carries the largest volumes of traffic with approximately 2,200 vehicles travelling on this road during the PM Peak hour. It is the primary connection between the downtown area and the Trans-Canada Highway west as well as to residential areas to the south of the highway. Notre Dame Drive carries approximately 1,200 vehicles during the peak hour with there being approximately 20% more eastbound traffic. This serves traffic that is leaving Southgate Industrial Park. McGill Road carries varying levels of traffic throughout the corridor. At the west end of McGill, traffic volumes are approximately 1,200 vehicles during the peak hour but further east, closer to the major intersections with Summit Drive and Columbia Street, traffic volumes increase to 1,550 vehicles. The intersections of Notre Dame and McGill with Columbia Street each have high left turn volumes, indicative of motorists going towards the downtown core. The main intersections on Notre Dame Drive, including the two Laval Crescent intersections and the Dalhousie Drive intersection, all carry significant volumes of traffic during the peak hour. These streets function as local roads providing access to individual properties and could provide greater support to Notre Dame arterial roadway. For the purposes of this review, the afternoon peak hour is used to assess network travel patterns and intersection performance. The PM peak hour is used as the study period because it generates the heaviest traffic volumes and therefore is representative of worst-case conditions. Figure 2.7 illustrates the existing afternoon peak hour intersection volumes. Page 10

14 m m m 17 8m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m 8.68 m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m m

15 Figure 2.7 Existing Network Volumes PM Peak Hour The planned development for the Southgate / McGill area as illustrated earlier in Figure 2.3 will result in significantly higher traffic along most major roadways. Figure 2.8 illustrates the future traffic volumes anticipated for the area based on existing growth and the planned developments. Page 12

16 Figure 2.8 Future Traffic Volumes PM Peak Hour It is expected that with planned developments and existing growth in traffic volumes, traffic will grow by 30% on Notre Dame Drive. Level of Service (LOS) is essentially an indicator of the delay experienced by the average motorist at a particular location, or on a specific movement in the case of an intersection. LOS is represented by performance measures ranging from LOS A through LOS F (as shown in Table 2.1). LOS A implies that the corridor or intersection (or movement) is operating with minimal delays, while LOS F indicates that a facility is operating in a failing condition, characterised by excessive delays (over 80 seconds per vehicle) and congestion. LOS E indicates that the intersection or roadway is operating slightly above capacity, but that it can still function with moderate delays. For planning purposes, LOS D or E is generally regarded as an acceptable level of congestion, particularly for peak periods of travel, before improvements will be considered. Page 13

17 Within or beyond this range of delays, the cost of improvement must be carefully weighed against the benefits before recommending any roadway or intersection modification. Table 2.1 Level of Service Criteria for Signalized and Unsignalized Intersections Level of Service Average Delay per Vehicle (sec/vehicle) Signalized Unsignalized A B > 10 and 20 > 10 and 15 C > 20 and 35 > 15 and 25 D > 35 and 55 > 25 and 35 E > 55 and 80 > 35 and 50 F > 80 > 50 The identified in the TravelSmart program that the minimum desirable level of service for a signalized intersection was LOS C. This requirement was established in conjunction with the TravelSmart goal of reasonable mobility and limited delays to the as it continues to grow toward 120,000 residents. Reasonable mobility is therefore defined as the ability to move people safely and conveniently through the community without extensive delays or congestion. A Level of Service assessment was completed for the network to determine how the signalized intersections throughout the network operate under current conditions and how the network will operate in the future taking into account existing traffic and the impacts of proposed developments. The results of these analyses are illustrated in Figures 2.9 and Page 14

18 Figure 2.9 Current Levels of Service Figure 2.10 Future Levels of Service Page 15

19 Under current conditions, all intersections are operating within a reasonable range of service, with no intersection operating at worse than LOS C. In the future, level of service will become an issue at the intersections of McGill with Dalhousie, Summit and Columbia, as well as at the intersection of Columbia and Summit. The signalized intersections on Notre Dame all perform at reasonable levels of service. The fact that levels of service are lower both now and in the future on McGill Road than on Notre Dame Drive is due in large part to the large volumes of localized traffic that McGill Road carries now and into the future. The nature of land use in the area around McGill Road will mean that there will always be significant local amounts of traffic on the road. In reality, some of the through traffic forecasted for McGill Road in the future may use other roadways, such as Notre Dame Drive due to the fact that McGill Road is anticipated to serve the role of a commercial arterial and that Notre Dame Drive is expected to provide greater mobility. Therefore, it is imperative that Notre Dame Drive be preserved and enhanced as a minor arterial in order to serve as an attractive alternative to non-local traffic in the area. One issue that arises on Notre Dame Drive both under existing and future conditions is the levels of service experienced at the Laval Crescent intersections. Both of these intersections are unsignalized and under existing conditions, northbound movements at the west access to Laval Crescent operates at LOS D, while westbound and eastbound movements operate at LOS C at the eastern access to Laval Crescent. In the future, northbound movements at the west access to Laval operate at LOS F and westbound and eastbound movements at the east access to Laval operate at LOS F. Traffic counts were also taken at some of the more notable access locations. The busiest access on the corridor was the Wal-Mart access with approximately 170 vehicles entering the site during the afternoon peak. However, this is a restricted access with only right-in movements being permitted and includes a long driveway that allows for easy entry and limits traffic queuing on the roadway. The busiest access location where full movements are allowed is located at the strip mall furthest west on Notre Dame Drive. This property contains two buildings that house businesses of a commercial and office nature. This property can only be accessed from Notre Dame Drive and has two access points with the western most access being the busier of the two. During the peak hour, 71 vehicles utilize this access point. Figure 2.11 summarizes access volumes along the Notre Dame Corridor. Page 16

20 Figure 2.11 Access Volumes Page 17

21 Similar to the major intersections, the delays entering and leaving the site can also be measured using a level of service analysis. Rather than examining each driveway individually however, a range of left-turn volumes leaving a site onto Notre Dame were examined for existing and forecast traffic conditions. Table 2.2 summarizes the levels of service for driveways with 5, 10, 25 and 50 left-turning vehicles exiting the site during the peak hour. Number of Left Turns from Access Table 2.2 Left Turn Analysis Existing LOS 520 Westbound Vehicles 580 Eastbound Vehicles Future LOS (50% Growth) 810 Westbound Vehicles 890 Eastbound Vehicles 5 C E 10 C E 25 C E 50 C F As indicated in the table above, levels of service are within reasonable limits under existing conditions even when left turn volumes from the access location reach 50 vehicles. However, if traffic growth occurs as anticipated on Notre Dame Drive, levels of service from the access will fail once left turn volumes reach 50 vehicles per hour. While a LOS E, which is achieved at left turn volumes below 40 vehicles per hour, indicates that there is still capacity remaining, there will still be significant impacts on traffic mobility. The situation both under current conditions, but in particular, under future conditions, will be compounded by the fact that there are in some instances very small distances between adjacent accesses. Therefore motorists will have to be aware of not only the through traffic on Notre Dame Drive, but also activity occurring at adjacent accesses. As mobility from driveways begins to deteriorate, it can be expected that safety will become a greater issue as motorists may begin to make riskier left-turns. However, as noted in the figures above, no full access under current conditions has left turn volumes greater than 15 vehicles per hour. 2.3 Summary of Collision Patterns Two sets of mid-block accident data were compiled as part of this analysis. The first set of accident data was extracted from ICBC s Planet GIS Claims database which provides accident information by road segment. The second set of accident data was extracted from the Traffic Accident System (TAS), which is information compiled by the RCMP and summarizes accidents by type of accident. Information for each of these datasets is based on recorded incidents to each Page 18

22 of the organizations and since claims made to ICBC are more frequent than to RCMP, TAS is viewed as underreporting incidents. According to the Planet GIS Claims database, there were 8 accidents along the Notre Dame corridor during the three year period from 2000 to 2002 between Hillside Drive and Columbia Street. Accident information from the Traffic Accident System indicated that the predominant type of collisions during this period was rear-end collisions. These can often be the result of higher access densities as motorists slow down in through lanes to obtain access to a property. Table 2.3 offers a comparison of the incidences of the various types of accidents. Type of Collision Table 2.3 Type of Accidents Number of Occurrences Rear-end 8 Left-turn 3 Backing 4 Intersection 2 Head-on 1 Total 18 Source: Traffic Accident Summary Why Consider Access Management? Notre Dame is designated as an arterial roadway in the City s Official Community Plan designed to carry large volumes of traffic to and through the Southgate Industrial Park area. With further growth and development in the overall area, Notre Dame and other roadways will see an increase in locally generated and through traffic. Rather than allow land use changes to occur ad hoc along the corridor however, the City has identified the opportunity to develop a long term access plan for the Notre Dame corridor. This plan would be designed to support a range of goals for the overall Southgate area and corridor itself. In particular, an access management plan will serve to promote: Mobility along Notre Dame consistent with the goals to serve through travel that is characteristic of a minor arterial road and to increase the capacity of Notre Dame Drive. Page 19

23 Safety along the corridor by reducing the spacing and density of accesses to individual properties through driveway consolidation and improving access to support roadways in order to support the growing proportion of through traffic. Land Use goals throughout the Southgate Industrial Park and the development permit guidelines for Notre Dame which clearly identifies the need for access and circulation to the adjacent properties. Alternative modes along the corridor that consist of a sidewalk system along both sides of the roadway in addition to a marked wide curb lane for cyclists in both directions. In addition to supporting the overall goals of the area, an access management plan for Notre Dame may be shaped by the access design guidelines for a roadway that functions today and in the long term as a minor arterial. If Notre Dame were a new roadway, the following guidelines, outlined in Table 2.4, would be used to guide the planning of accesses along a corridor and may be used for comparative purposes with the Notre Dame corridor and to guide the development of the access management plan. Table 2.4 Access Management Guidelines Characteristics Guideline Notre Dame Types of Access Permitted Limited Access (right & left-in and right-out) Full Access Available (all movements at accesses) Maximum Access Density (full access) 5 to 10 per km 22 per km Minimum Spacing 70 metres 38 metre average Comparing the access guidelines for a minor arterial road with the current conditions of Notre Dame, it is anticipated that an access management plan that is sensitive to land use plans for the area and the development permit guidelines will serve to: Proactively address potential safety issues. The mid-block collision rate, while within an acceptable range along the corridor, could be lowered with a reduction in the access density. Managing the type and density of access along arterial roadways has demonstrated to enhance safety. In general, the traffic moving into and out of driveways move more slowly than through traffic. This speed difference often produces conflicts that may lead to roadside and rear-end collisions between vehicles. Research indicates that a doubling in access density can increase the collision rate anywhere from Page 20

24 30% to 50%. Considering the access density of Notre Dame is more than double the maximum desired guidelines for an arterial road, it is anticipated that some proactive strategies could be taken to reduce access density in order to improve safety along the corridor. Maintain desired levels of mobility. The frequency and types of access along an arterial roadway can influence the capacity and long-term mobility along the corridor. In the long-term, Notre Dame is anticipated to serve a significantly larger proportion of through traffic than McGill Road, which is intended to function much like a commercial arterial which supports a large portion of local travel. Although the intersections levels of service are anticipated to be suitable for the projected traffic volumes, access conditions along the corridor will influence delays along the corridor. In fact, experience in other communities suggests that capacity can be increased by 25 45% with access control of left and right turns, lateral friction, and speed of access and egress. Further travel time and delay can be reduced by 40-60% as a result of fewer stops and smoother traffic flow (Access Management Location and Design, 1998). Support for alternative modes. Lower access densities can create a more comfortable environment for pedestrians and cyclists along an arterial, leaving them less vulnerable to traffic coming from access locations. Overall, access management meets the goals of the Safer City initiative which is to proactively address safety issues instead of reacting to problems as they occur. While there appear to be few safety and mobility problems on Notre Dame Drive under existing conditions, this could and likely would change in the future with existing growth and planned development. By addressing these issues in a proactive manner, the City can ensure that they will not have to invest significantly more dollars to react to issues. Page 21

25 3.0 ACCESS PLAN 3.1 Principles As mentioned previously, an access management plan should address various issues such as safety and mobility while supporting land use goals. Safety is addressed through the reduction in the number of conflict points, particularly full movement access locations, along the corridor where potential mid-block collisions could occur. Mobility is improved by limiting the number of points at which traffic can slow down to make turns, which is of particular concern to Notre Dame Drive due to the lack of dedicated turn lanes which means that traffic making these turns must use a through lane. An access management plan complements and supports the land use proposed for a corridor by helping to maintain the hierarchy of roads designed for an area and ensuring that properties have the appropriate type of access. 3.2 Guidelines Notre Dame Drive has been classified as a minor arterial road under the Network Classification guidelines. Arterials of this nature are designed to carry larger volumes of through traffic and distribute this traffic to collector and local roads. On a new road, access would generally be restricted to right-in/right-out movements to major properties and there would be greater distances between accesses. Properties with significant traffic generation characteristics would have a signalized access. Since the Notre Dame corridor is almost fully developed, it will be difficult to comply with the guidelines for an arterial road. Access densities are significantly higher than what is recommended and there are a large number of full movement accesses. However, there are opportunities for changing the type of accesses onto Notre Dame Drive particularly as land use changes. 3.3 The Plan An access management plan has been recommended for Notre Dame Drive and is illustrated in Figure 3.1. This plan outlines the preferred access arrangements for each of the properties located along Notre Dame Drive and balances the need to enhance mobility and safety along the corridor with the need to provide access to properties. For the section of Notre Dame Drive between Dalhousie Drive and Columbia Street, an additional option has been proposed that would have more benefits to mobility and safety but would also be more challenging to implement. Page 22

26 Figure Recommended Plan X Optional Treatments X X X X * Signalized Intersection w/ Left Turn Lanes Alternate Access No left-turn outs allowed Source: 1999 Air Photo X Close Access

27 For the most part, the plan does not involve many physical changes to the corridor itself, with the exception of the signalization of the west intersection of Laval Crescent and the addition of left turn lanes at the west intersection of Laval Crescent and Dalhousie Drive. These changes should fit within the existing road right-of-way. While there will be few physical changes to the corridor itself, due to the nature of the recommendations, there will be changes to the design of many of the accesses. In the case of right-in/right-out type accesses, the access will be designed with channelized islands to eliminate the possibility of left turn movements. This will also require in some instances, a change in the design of the driveway to ensure safe movement on the property. Access consolidations will require either the construction of a new access that straddles the property line or the construction of a barrier that blocks one access, while leaving one open which will become the access for both properties. Once again, driveways may need to be redesigned to facilitate safe movement between properties. The major component of the access management plan for the section west of Dalhousie Drive to Hillside Drive will be the inclusion of a signalized intersection at Laval Crescent. Other components of the plan for this area include limiting access to right-in/right-out at three of the properties and one access consolidation. As a result, one access will be removed completely at one location and in another location, two accesses will be consolidated into one. For the section of Notre Dame Drive east of Dalhousie, the major emphasis will be on reducing the number of accesses to the strip malls on the south side of the street. Under existing conditions, these four properties each have two access points. Therefore, full movement will only be allowed at the west and east end of the strip malls with only partial access in and out of these developments in between. In addition to the access consolidation and restriction to the strip malls on the south side of the street, other access restrictions and consolidations have been recommended. Alternative access arrangements have also been proposed for this area if the City wishes to pursue a policy that would result in greater safety and mobility benefits. This alternative generally reduces access further from the recommended plan and is considered suitable for implementation if there is a major change in land use. 3.4 Evaluation In order to evaluate the recommended plan for access management, an examination of the plan in relation to existing conditions as well as the recommended guidelines was undertaken. This included comparing the type of permitted accesses, the full movement access density, and the spacing of accesses. Further, an analysis of the impacts that the recommended plan would have Page 24

28 on the goals established for a minor arterial in general and the Notre Dame corridor specifically was undertaken. The recommended plan improves upon the existing conditions and actually reduces the density of full movement accesses to a range that is considered suitable for a minor arterial. However, overall access spacing will continue to be greater than recommended guidelines, though it will less of an issue due to the significant reduction in full accesses. Table 3.1 summarizes changes proposed for the corridor as a whole, while Table 3.2 summarizes the changes proposed from Hillside Drive to Dalhousie Drive, and Table 3.3 summarizes the changes proposed from Dalhousie Drive to Columbia Street. Page 25

29 Table 3.1 Notre Dame Drive Option Summary Comparison of Features Characteristics Guideline Today Access Management Plan Plan w/ Alternate Access Options Dalhousie to Columbia Types of Access Permitted Limited Access (right & left-in and right-out) Full Access Available (all movements at accesses) Full combined with RI/RO Full combined with RI/RO Access Density (full access) <5 to 10 per km 22 per km 6.25 per km 3.3 per km Spacing (all accesses) >70 metres 38 metre average 52 metre average 57 metre average Comparison of Impacts on Goals Accesses # Full Access # Shared Full Access # 3-Way (no left-outs allowed) # RI/RO # Shared RI/RO # RI Only # RO Only # of Eliminated Accesses Improve Safety Moderate (approximate 12% collision reduction) 1 Moderate (approximate 17% collision reduction) 1 Enhance Mobility/Capacity Potential for 6 km/h increase in travel speed 2 Potential for 7 km/h increase in travel speed 2 Land Use Moderate implements some of the Notre Dame Drive Development Permit Guidelines pertaining to access Moderate implements some of the Notre Dame Drive Development Permit Guidelines pertaining to access Enhance Alternative Modes Moderate safety and comfort improvement would reduce conflicts with a reduction in full movement accesses Moderate safety and comfort improvement would reduce conflicts with a reduction in full movement accesses 1. Source: Levinson, H., Access Spacing & Accidents, Transportation Research Circular, Urban Street Symposium, June, Source: Levinson, H., Access Management What it is and What it does, 67 th Annual Meeting, Institute of Transportation Engineers, Page 26

30 Table 3.2 Notre Dame Drive Option Summary Hillside Drive to Dalhousie Drive Comparison of Features Characteristics Guideline Today Recommended Plan Types of Access Permitted Access Density (full access) Limited Access (right & left-in and right-out) <5 to 10 per km Full Access Available (all movements at accesses) Full combined with RI/RO 16 per km 6 per km Spacing (all accesses) >70 metres 49 metre average 61 metre average Accesses # Full Access # Shared Full Access # 3-Way (no left-outs allowed) # RI/RO # Shared RI/RO # RI Only # RO Only # of Eliminated Accesses Improve Safety Enhance Mobility/Capacity Land Use Comparison of Impacts on Goals Moderate (approximate 11% collision reduction)* Potential for 2 km/h increase in travel speed 2 Moderate implements some of the Notre Dame Drive Development Permit Guidelines pertaining to access Enhance Alternative Modes Moderate would provide for more comfortable environment for cycling and pedestrians 1. Source: Levinson, H., Access Spacing & Accidents, Transportation Research Circular, Urban Street Symposium, June, Source: Levinson, H., Access Management What it is and What it does, 67 th Annual Meeting, Institute of Transportation Engineers, Page 27

31 Table 3.3 Notre Dame Drive Option Summary Dalhousie Drive to Columbia Street Comparison of Features Characteristics Guideline Today Recommended Plan Plan w/ Alternate Access Options Dalhousie to Columbia Types of Access Permitted Limited Access (right & left-in and right-out) Full Access Available (all movements at accesses) Full combined with Right-In/Right-Out Full combined with Right- In/Right-Out Access Density (full access) <5 to 10 per km 24 per km 6 per km 1.4 per km Spacing (all accesses) >70 metres 34 metre average 47 metre average 65 metre average Comparison of Impacts on Goals Accesses # Full Access # Shared Full Access # 3-Way (no left-outs allowed) # RI/RO # Shared RI/RO # RI Only # RO Only # of Eliminated Accesses Improve Safety Enhance Mobility/Capacity Land Use Moderate (approximate 13% collision reduction) 1 Potential for 5 km/h increase in travel speed 2 Moderate implements some of the Notre Dame Drive Development Permit Guidelines pertaining to access Moderate (approximate 21% collision reduction) 1 Potential for 6 km/h increase in travel speed 2 Moderate implements some of the Notre Dame Drive Development Permit Guidelines pertaining to access Enhance Alternative Modes Moderate would provide for more comfortable environment for cycling and pedestrians Moderate would provide for more comfortable environment for cycling and pedestrians 1. Source: Levinson, H., Access Spacing & Accidents, Transportation Research Circular, Urban Street Symposium, June, Source: Levinson, H., Access Management What it is and What it does, 67 th Annual Meeting, Institute of Transportation Engineers, Page 28

32 3.5 Implementation Implementation of the plan will be passive for the most part, relying on a change in land use in most instances. In this sense, compliance with the plan is expected to evolve over time and it must be noted that no specific timelines have been recommended for implementation of the plan. This plan has been designed to complement the Development Permit Guidelines established for the Notre Dame corridor and represents desired conditions for access along Notre Dame Drive. Similar to the method of implementation for the Development Permit Guidelines, the City should take advantage of any opportunities for implementation but not force compliance. In most cases, a change in land use will precipitate implementation of selected components of the plan. However, in other cases, the City may need to negotiate new access arrangements with property owners in order to obtain compliance with the plan. In these cases, reciprocal agreements may need to be negotiated and in some cases, incentives may be required to encourage property owners to adhere to the plan. In other examples, the City may need to implement components of the plan due to the physical changes in the corridor. This is the case in particular for the proposed installation of left turn lanes at Dalhousie Drive and Laval Crescent. This work will require changes to the accesses in the immediate area of the intersection and may not be necessarily contingent on land use change. In summary, implementation of the plan will rely mainly on triggers that will occur at various moments of time. Page 29

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