The creation of a Web Based Learning System to teach Science

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1 The creation of a Web Based Learning System to teach Science Matthew Pollard Computing and Management Studies Project Report 40 Credits The candidate confirms that the work submitted is their own and the appropriate credit has been given where reference has been made to the work of others. I understand that failure to attribute material which is obtained from another source may be considered as plagiarism. (Signature of student) I

2 Summary The objective of this final year project was to design a web based learning system to teach Science. This system was called scinet. Research was carried out into learning theory and how Experiential learning represents the ideal learning environment for this system. Existing systems and the role that technology plays in current learning environments was then researched. An approach for designing web based learning environment is presented taking into account the technology for learning. The development of the system then began, questionnaires were used to gather user requirements and interviews with teachers to gather their requirements on what a systems should offer both the students and themselves. Combining this feedback with the research carried out into learning environments and the features of existing systems, requirements were identified for the system. A prototype was then created and evaluated. This project has achieved the following: Research and evaluation into Web based learning, Learning theory, focusing on Experiential learning, Gathered requirements using research, users and evaluation of existing systems. Developed a framework for a prototype Developed a prototype Evaluated the prototype with user feedback and against the research. II

3 Acknowledgements I would like to thank my project supervisor, Julika Matravers for her support and never ending patience with me throughout the project. I would also like to thank everybody who took time to add something to this project, from filling out a questionnaire to taking part in a feedback session to proof reading the project. Thanks to King Henry VIII School and Coventry Council for their valuable time. Finally I would like to thank my mother, for everything. III

4 1 Introduction Aim Objectives Minimum Requirements Further enhancements Deliverables Schedule Outline of project Introduction to Computer Based Learning The use of computers in education Background of Web based learning Problem Statement Constructivism Why use the Internet to learn? The Learning Process How We Learn Learning Approaches Experiential Learning Knowledge Forms Collaborative Learning Communal Constructivism Technology Computers The Development of the System From theory to practice People Issues Heuristic Evaluation Existing Systems Systems Evaluation Criteria Methodology choice Hard versus Soft Methodologies Participative Design Approaches DSDM Involving users in Prototype Development Student Feedback Teacher Feedback Discussion of results Functional and Non-functional Requirements Functional Requirements Desirable requirements Non functional Requirements Chapter 4 Design Design of System Development tools Navigational Design IV

5 4.4 Content Design Syllabus Representation Physical Design Chapter 5 Implementation Implementation of the prototype Chapter 6 Evaluation Minimum Requirements Future Scope and further requirements Deliverables Evaluation The Report Background Research The Development of the System Design Implementation The System User feedback Heuristic Evaluation Learning Styles Evaluation Conclusion Further work References Appendix A Appendix B Appendix C Appendix D Appendix E Appendix F Appendix G V

6 1 Introduction 1.1 Aim The aim of the project is to develop a Web based learning system to teach Science that adapts to the different learning styles of the users. 1.2 Objectives Background Reading concerning computer based learning and learning theory Identify appropriate approaches to learning for Key Stage 4 syllabus. Identify requirements of the users to effectively learn using a KS4 Web based learning system Create a framework that accommodates the different learning styles of users. Create a prototype of a Web based learning system, supporting interactive learning styles such as Theory reading, Group discussions and Exercises. Evaluate the prototype using original requirements outlined in design, using Heuristic Evaluation 1.3 Minimum Requirements 1. Presentation of a chapter on learning theory and background on Web based learning 2. Analysis of 3 existing learning systems. 3. Development of a framework to support the design of a Web based learning system that accommodates the different learning styles of users. 4. Creation of a prototype that satisfies 3 different styles of learning based on the framework under 3. 1

7 1.4 Further enhancements Creating a teacher support tool. Through features such as the ability to add content to the system, and actively take part in the students learning. Taking the system from prototype stage to completion, through iterative improvement of the system. Iterative improvement can be classed as covering more learning styles, increasing the subject areas included in the system, or the improvement of the user interface. 1.5 Deliverables The deliverables for this project will be: 1. A project report 2. A Prototype of the system 1.6 Schedule Date Objective 01/10/2003 Submit Preference Form 30/9/03-5/10/03 Aims and Minimum requirements identified 5/10/03-19/10/03 Background Reading on Learning Theory 19/10/03-25/10/03 Background Reading on Web based Learning 25/10/03 30/10/03 Research Questionnaire and interview techniques 30/10/03 10/12/03 Research System Design Methodologies 10/11/03-12/12/-03 Collate information gathered for report 12/12/03 Complete Mid-Project report 13/11/03 Complete Mid-Project report(electronic) 13/11/03-19/12/03 Research existing systems Conduct telephone interviews. 20/12/03 Send out questionnaire for students with cut off date of 09/01/04 10/01/04-14/01/04 Analyse questionnaire responses 15/01/04 Relate gathered data to chosen subject 31/01/04 28/02/04 Design framework for a system 01/03/04 01/04/04 Create prototype 2

8 19/03/2003 Progress Meeting 01/04/04 14/04/04 Evaluate prototype 15/04/ Complete report 28/04/2004 Submit report (CSO) 30/04/2004 Submit report (postscript) Revisions made Work productivity on my project fluctuated throughout the year, predominantly due to other coursework s or trips home. Developing the requirements for the system took longer than anticipated, as attaining interviews with teachers proved troublesome, and put my schedule back 4 days. This was made up over the remainder of the project. 1.7 Outline of project The following is a brief outline of the content in each of the chapters of this report. Chapter 1 Introduction This chapter sets out the objectives and minimum requirements for the project. Chapter 2 Introduction to Computer Based Learning This section will set out the background of the project scope; identify how we learn, and the different learning styles. Chapter 3 Development of the Prototype This chapter covers the creation of a framework for a computer based learning system, it will consider design issues surrounding Web based Learning, such as Usability and how to measure the effectiveness of a system in a qualitative not quantitative way. Existing systems will be identified and feedback from users gathered. From the findings of this chapter, functional and non-functional requirements of the system will be identified Chapter 4 Design of system This section covers the justification of the tools used and the actual design of the system. Chapter 5 Implementation This section covers the implementation of the prototype Chapter 6 Evaluation This section evaluates the project against the objectives and minimum requirements specified in Chapter 1. Each part of the project is then evaluated. 3

9 2 Introduction to Computer Based Learning 2.1 The use of computers in education Computers have been present in academic institutions for over 40 years and at the very beginning their use was restricted to dedicated users such as skilled teachers or students (Lawler, 1997). As technology advanced, and prices dropped, computers became more prevalent both in schools and homes. This increase in availability has resulted in a generation who are skilled in use of computers from a young age, and so the use of computers as an effective teaching tool has become more viable (to the students, maybe not to the teachers!). The realisation of this tool has resulted in the development of systems and techniques in this field. 2.2 Background of Web based learning This section will explain the history of Web based learning and why it is increasing in popularity year by year. Educational content on the Internet is rapidly increasing, with institutions placing increasing amounts of course material online to supplement, sometimes replace classroom instruction. Excluding entertainment uses, the typical usage of the Web is changing from technical to educational. Professionals from computer fields comprised 31.4% of all web users in 1995, while individual users for educational purposes totalled 23.7%. In just one year computer occupation users dropped 29.6% while educational users jumped to 27.8% of the webs overall users (Robin & McNeil, 1997). Now we have a little background knowledge about Web based learning, the next section will look at the problems it currently faces. It is vital to understand the problem, without this understanding a suitable solution could not be created. 2.3 Problem Statement As mentioned in 2.2, there is increasing use of the Internet as a means of delivering educational content. An abundance of information in this multimedia environment allows users to approach the information in different ways. Users may search the material in a goal-orientated manner to find what they need, they may then browse the material in an informal way until something of interest commands greater attention. The latter is analogous with an informal learning environment (Duchastel, 1989) where one s attention skims a wide range of information. However, a corpus of information in a multimedia environment is not necessarily an ideal learning environment, as it is by its very nature non-pedagogical and provides minimal structural support (Duchastel, 1992). General browsing is therefore not necessarily an effective learning method, especially for novices who do not have a well developed schema (personal construct of 4

10 related information) (Mayes et al. 1990). The World Wide Web is a relatively new way of teaching, and the early adopters were individuals skilled in programming and HTML, and not necessarily knowledgeable about educational concepts (Murray 1996) Further complicating the issue of effective computer based learning, those who are experts in learning theories often lack the technical skills to implement a system. Finding a balance between the technical demands of implementation of a system and the translation of learning theory onto that system is something that has not been accomplished. For example, Bork (1996) reports that many web based systems offer poor learning opportunities, as they are merely translation of books and lectures into an electronic format. Schank (1998) concurs that the present system of organisation and distribution of educational material is not as beneficial as it could be, and the modules need to be based on more learning concepts, and not remain similar to turning pages in a book. He notes that the reason learning systems have not achieved the full potential, is because information is not learning and rather than just presenting the data, systems need to teach (Schank 1993). Bill Tait identified in 1997 two methods of learning using the Web/World Wide Web. The first is a form of distance learning in which a tutor places courseware on a Web server where it can be accessed by remote students. Tait identified the disadvantages of such a system as being expensive if one is to ensure enough software to meet the demands of a complete syllabus. He identified the alternative, independent study in which learners use the Internet to find materials that are relevant. Again this has disadvantages most notably because the suitability of the material cannot be verified. His solution is a combination of the two modes into Web based learning in which a learner is provided with access to courseware stored on a server, and then proceeds to use a constructivist teaching model. 2.4 Constructivism Constructivism is a philosophy of learning founded on the premise that, by reflecting on our experiences, we construct our own understanding of the world we live in. Each of us generates our own "rules" and "mental models," which we use to make sense of our experiences (Tobin, 1993). Learning, therefore, is simply the process of adjusting our mental models to accommodate new experiences. Constructivism represents that the purpose of learning is for an individual to construct his or her own meaning, not just memorise the "right" answers and regurgitate someone else's meaning. Since education is inherently interdisciplinary, the only valuable way to measure learning is to make the assessment part of the learning 5

11 process, ensuring it provides students with information on the quality of their learning. Some of the more serious problems with computer based learning have been identified in this section; the next section will address why the Internet is an attractive proposition to learners and explain the underlying principles behind learning, both traditionally and using technology. 2.5 Why use the Internet to learn? The dramatic shift in traditional pedagogical methods associated with teaching has arisen due to the Internet providing academics with an opportunity to improve their teaching. It has done this by allowing teachers to teach in different ways to the standard lesson, and to reach more students, more effectively, potentially with international reach. The use of the Internet allows for the maximisation of learning, which Somekh (1996) defines as: 'There are...two ways in which 'maximization' [of learning] can be measured: either in terms of the increase in the amount of learning, or in terms of the increase in the quality of learning.' In addition to this, the Internet (most notably the World Wide Web) has other advantages to aid learning such as: It is attractive to students Easy to use Suitable for accessing resources of different media Suited to remote (by location or time) learning It provides collaboration between students and teachers online So the possibility for delivering rich interactive content has been made possible by the Internet and computers. 2.6 The Learning Process In this section the Learning process will be analysed in detail. By understanding how humans learn a Learning environment can be created so that when using the system, the learning style of the user is catered for and so the user has a more effective learning experience. 6

12 2.6.1 How We Learn By researching learning, we know how the human brain works and so a system can be created that satisfies the ways in which we learn. A learning environment can be defined as The domain where learning takes place and how it impacts upon learning (LTSN, 2003). To optimise learning, the learning environment must take advantage of how we learn. The following is a summary of the learning process of human beings. The summary has been adapted from other contributions of learning in the context of autonomous intelligent robotic systems (Simon, H.A, 1984). Learning can be viewed as the continuous, permanent (involving memory) incorporation of observations, experiences, situations, examples, rules, concepts and techniques for improving performance in the execution of tasks. At the beginning of the learning process, the knowledge and performance of a learner can be rather low depending upon the initial knowledge. However, as learners get more experience, it is expected that their performance improves. With sufficient experience, it is expected that the performance of a learner becomes satisfactory in a specific knowledge domain. Creation and retention of experience in learners can be accomplished through a combination of: The human sensory system which can be a combination of various media such as visual and aural stimulation Initial knowledge or transferred knowledge; (An example of transferred knowledge is the process of reading to learn new things.) Building new experiences through an assessment of past experiences. All learning approaches to be discussed next have basically the same objective: that of learning the rules to execute a given mission given a set of sensations, examples, advice or solutions to similar problems. With computer based learning in mind, generating rules typically involves obtaining sensations through human senses, identifying a set of situations and generating the appropriate actions based on capabilities of the system. 7

13 2.6.2 Learning Approaches The following section summarises the main learning approaches used by learners. Users approach learning in different ways (Riding, 1996). The system that will be created in this project will accommodate different user s needs, by creating a flexible system. Advice Taking This is also known as learning from instruction or learning by being told. The learner is required to transform the knowledge of the entity giving advice into an appropriate form to be of effective use and will incrementally augment their knowledge. Learning from taking advice basically involves translating the advice into a set of learning rules. This method parallels most traditional education methods as provided by schools and universities. Rote Learning Rote learning is synonymous with fact memorisation and does not involve reasoning, discovery, understanding or problem solving. Learning by Analogy This involves the solution to a new problem by adapting a known solution to a similar problem. The learner generates a set of rules for solving the new problem. Learning From Examples or Evidence Given a set of examples and counterexamples of learning actions, the learner induces actions that will hopefully include all of the positive examples and none of the counterexamples. Thus this system generates a set of learning rules given a set of human generated examples. The examples available can include only positive examples or both positive and negative examples. Learning by Exploration or Observation Nature provides the best example of this paradigm for learning through the generation of some actions and consequent survival of beings. Learning by observation does not include a teacher and consists of a number of processes such as: creating classifications of given observations; discovering relationships and laws governing a process; forming a theory to explain a given phenomenon. (Famili, A 1990). 8

14 A learning system that is built based on this technique is not provided with any sets of instances or examples of a concept. In the learning approach based on exploration or observation, a learner proceeds in an autonomous fashion for generating its learning rules and appropriate examples. This is the learning approach emphasised in experiential learning and in this project. Because of the different learning styles of students, the system created in this project will create a learning environment that caters for these different styles. The next section will introduce Kolb s Experiential Learning theory, and how it is capable of satisfying the different learning styles of users by focusing on the appropriate environment. 2.7 Experiential Learning According to Kolb s experiential learning theory (Kolb, D.A 1984), learning is the process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience. This section will examine the theory of experiential learning. It will then argue further that it is the most suitable learning environment for a Web based learning system One of the most fundamental requirements that facilitate learning is an appropriate environment where learners can have experiences (Kolb, D.A 1984). Experiential learning emphasizes the role that appropriate environments and experiences play in the learning process. In experiential learning the learner is directly in touch different abstracts of the subject being studied. The learning process is not identical for all human beings, and people enter learning situations with a preferred learning style. Associated with this learning style there is a theory about how people learn, or more specifically, about how certain individuals will learn best. Learning environments that operate according to a learning theory that is dissimilar to a person s preferred style of learning are likely to be rejected or resisted by that person (Kolb, D.A 1984). Thus an understanding of learning environments is important for educational materials based on multimedia and the Internet. There are two structural dimensions or degrees of freedom that form the basis for any process of experiential learning. They are prehension and transformation. Kolb (Kolb, D.A 1984) stated that learning is best facilitated in an environment where there is dialectic tension and conflict between immediate, concrete experience (i.e., reality) and analytic detachment (i.e., abstraction) and this constitutes the first dimension called prehension. In fact, contributions from psychoanalysts provide evidence that the left hemisphere of the human brain is concerned with abstract symbolic representation while the right hemisphere is isomorphic with reality. This second dimension 9

15 involves the actions of the learner which transforms experience into knowledge and ranges from a totally physically active to a totally passive (i.e., reflective) state and constitutes the transformation dimension. The prehension dimension ranges from concrete experience to abstract conceptualization whereas the transformation dimension ranges from active experimentation to reflective observation resulting in the diagram of Figure 1. Affectively Complex Concrete Experience Accomodative Knowledge Diverse Knowledge Active Experimentation Reflective Observation Behaviourally Complex Convergent Knowledge Assimilative Knowledge Perceptually Complex Abstract Conceptualisation Symbolically Complex Figure 1. Structural Dimensions Forming the Process of Experiential Learning and the Resulting Basic Knowledge This explains why some learners learn by being active (i.e. visual and physical interaction) and trying things out to see what happens. These learners believe in the motto: try it to see if it works. The polarity between concrete experience and abstract conceptualization explains why some learners, young and adult, sometimes favor learning methods which combine theory and practice. This experience then turns into knowledge in the brain. 10

16 2.7.1 Knowledge Forms As shown in Figure 1, the two opposite learning dimensions do not affect each other and define four learning modes and four knowledge types. The four knowledge forms are called accommodative, divergent, assimilative and convergent and the four learning modes are called concrete experience, reflective observation, abstract conceptualization and active experimentation. Individual learning styles can fall in any of the four quadrants defined by the learning modes resulting in four learning styles called accommodation, divergence, assimilation, and convergence. As already noted in 2.7, to effect learning an appropriate environment is required. Learning environments which support the four learning modes depicted in Figure 1 are called, respectively, perceptually complex, affectively complex, behaviorally complex and symbolically complex. The following is a summary of these environments (Kolb, D.A 1984). The primary goal in a perceptually complex learning environment is to understand something: to be able to identify relationships between concepts, to be able to define problems for investigation, to be able to collect relevant information, to be able to research a question and similar activities. To facilitate this, learners are encouraged to view the topic or subject matter from different perspectives (e.g., their own experience, expert opinion and literature) and in different ways (listen, observe, write, discuss, act out, think, touch and smell). If a task is being done or a problem is being solved, the emphasis is more on how it gets done (i.e., the process) rather than on the solution. An affectively complex learning environment emphasizes experiencing what it is like to be a professional in the field of study. Learners are engaged in activities that simulate or mirror what they would do as graduates, or they are encouraged to reflect upon an experience to generate these insights and feelings about themselves. The information discussed and generated is more often current and immediate. It often comes from expressions of feelings, values, and opinions by the learner in discussions with peers or the teacher. In a behaviorally complex learning environment the emphasis is on the active application of knowledge or skills to a practical problem. For example, the problem need not have a right or best answer, nor does it need to be something the learner can relate to, value or feel some intrinsic satisfaction from having solved. This would normally be a real-life problem, case or simulation that the learner could expect to face as a professional. In solving the problem, the focus is on doing. 11

17 In a symbolically complex learning environment a learner is involved in trying to solve a problem for which there is a right answer or a best solution. The source of information, topic, or problem being dealt with is abstract, in that it is removed from the present and presented via multimedia. In handling such information, the learner is restricted and guided by external rules of the media type and delivery through, as mentioned earlier the information interface and communication interface. Restrictions include symbols, computer technology, jargon, graphical interface, and protocols. This section has shown that environments support learning modes, and that the four different types of environment greatly affect how the user learns and interacts with the subject area. So with four types of environment, some subjects are more suited to being taught using these environments. The next section identifies the strengths of environments in different subject areas. Academic subjects and their learning environments Differing academic subjects are more suited to certain types of learning environments. This section sets out these environments for four broad subject areas. A scientific subject such as biology or physics requires an environment that is primarily symbolically and perceptually complex. An engineering subject such as mechanical or civil engineering requires an environment that is symbolically and behaviorally complex. The humanities requires an environment that is primarily affectively and perceptually complex. A management or economic subjects requires an environment that is affectively and behaviorally complex (Kolb, 1984) The appropriate environment for learning a specific subject is not discrete but rather semi-permeable depending upon the learning style of the student. So the focus of this project will be on the symbolically and perceptually complex environment, but as stated, these do not have to be strictly followed Collaborative Learning A vital part of learning is the interaction with other people. In order to create an appropriate environment, following the Experiential Learning theory outlined earlier in the project, Collaborative Learning would be a necessary addition to the system. Collaborative Learning can be defined as An instructional approach in which students of varying abilities and interests work together in small groups to solve a 12

18 problem, complete a project, or achieve a common goal (Dillenbourg, 1995). This section explains Collaborative Learning and its strengths and weaknesses. Johnson, Johnson & Smith (1991) have summarised the main principles of collaborative learning: Knowledge is constructed, discovered, and transformed by students. Lecturers create the conditions within which students can construct meaning from the material studied by processing it through existing cognitive structures and then retaining it in long-term memory where it remains open to further processing and possible reconstruction. Students actively construct their knowledge. Students do not passively accept knowledge from the teacher or curriculum. Students activate their existing cognitive structures or construct new ones to subsume the new input. Education is a personal transaction among students and between the lecturer and students as they work together. Teaching is assumed to be a complex application of theory and research that requires considerable teacher training and continuous refinement of skills and procedures. Collaborative learning is where people come together in groups, it suggests a way of dealing with people that respects, encourages and consolidates individual group members' learning styles and contributions (Dillenbourg, 1999). The underlying premise of collaborative learning is based upon consensus building through cooperation by group members, in contrast to competition in which individuals best other group members. Through interaction, and the answering of questions, the four learning styles identified in section are engaged by the learner at some point in the process of collaborative learning. Both the student giving the answer and the student who asked the question, learn from the experience. The student who gives the solution has to go through the knowledge constructed in their mind, and re enforce the thought processes used to answer the question. The student who receives the answer obviously gains from the answer given by one of his/her peers. However not so obvious is the means of delivery and the benefits it brings. The answer will be delivered in a different way to the delivery of the teacher, maybe more on the student s level. This inadvertent two way learning, means both parties benefit, and help each other achieve the goals of the course. This is known as Communal Constructivism. 13

19 2.7.3 Communal Constructivism This is an approach to learning in which students not only construct their own knowledge (Constructivism) as a result of interacting with the environment (Social Constructivism), but are also interactively engaging in the process of constructing knowledge for their learning community (Holmes et al, 2001) The process of learners constructing knowledge for themselves and the learning community is facilitated by the ease with which learners adapt to the learning environment provided by computers and can produce high quality information and publish them electronically, using the technology. Over time a knowledge base will grow, and students can access this to see if other students in the past have had similar problems. This grows to be a very useful tool for learners and also for teachers to see what part of their course needs to be addressed. To facilitate the learning described above, there are two types of communication between sender and recipient. Asynchronous can be classified as users communicating from remote locations at different times. So lists, newsgroups and message boards can be read at anytime in any place. The main problem with this is that communicating emotion through this form is a lot harder than synchronous communication, and the possibility of miscommunication creeps in. There is the danger recipients may be liable to ignore important messages in the same manner as those of less importance. The time to, respond given by asynchronous communication, allows for a thought out answer, giving the recipient a better standard if reply that they would receive through Synchronous communication. Synchronous communication allows for effective communication, via chat rooms or video conferencing, and users may approach teachers differently through this medium than face to face in a classroom. This anonymity permits the user to act in ways that they wouldn t normally face to face, such as easily straying off the topic, or not answering a question as accurately as would be done in a classroom situation. This opens up a risk that some communication would not be beneficial to the learning of the user, so this is a possible disadvantage. On the whole, it may be asserted that for a learning system to offer learn anywhere, anytime, it must be Internet based. Collaborative learning has been identified as vital to the learning process in this section; in the following section the technology behind Web based learning will be discussed. Without the discussion of the technology available, the best possible framework will not be created for the learner s. 14

20 2.8 Technology The theory just covered can not be fully realised in the system, unless the Learning environment is designed and implemented in a way that complements both the theory and the technology. They are codependent. The advances in technology made in the last 10 years have facilitated commencement of the creation of truly effective learning environments that could change the way information is imparted for a long time. With the appropriate tools, it is possible to design web based learning environments that take advantage of new methods and approaches for teaching and learning. Below is a discussion of the most influential technological developments that affect the quality of learning systems Computers This is clearly the most influential development on the delivery of any electronic learning environment. Advances in video and image processing, graphics, hardware and audio technology have resulted in a low cost, practical multi purpose tool. With processing power improving for the foreseeable future, media rich environments will only improve, with increased interactivity. For example the creation of a virtual school, where virtual students attend from around the world, all rendered in 3D, and students attend lessons in the virtual world but from the comfort of home or the classroom. See 2.1 for how computers have been used in education. What is Multimedia? Multimedia is the presence of different types of media, such as text, pictures and sound in a concept that makes sense. Interactivity is allowing the user to interact with the multimedia, having control over what they see and being able to manipulate the environment, in this case the multimedia environment. This is how the learner will receive the subject being taught, interactive multimedia. By offering this interactivity, different approaches to learning can be taken, so users with different learning approaches (see section 2.6.2) can use the system effectively. This is something cannot be offered so easily with traditional classroom teaching methods such as the teacher/students interaction during lessons. There are two predominant types of computer interaction, information interfaces and communication interfaces. Information interfaces are monologue presentation, very similar to traditional lectures, and are consequently the most common type of learning activity. The content is communicated in an ordered fashion, working towards an ultimate goal or solution. The student in this scenario will learn through apprehension of a series of statements. However these are not as engaging to the user and are thus not as 15

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