1 EDD Curriculum Teaching and Technology by Joyce Matthews Marcus Matthews France Alcena Assignment 1: Online Technology for Student Engagement: Kahoot Instructor: Dr. Shirley Walrod Nova Southeastern University February 1, 2015 Resubmitted on February 15, 2015
2 Abstract One popular online learning technology utilized for student engagement is Kahoot. This program provides opportunities for immediate feedback via assessments, reviews, reinforces, and encourages learning through discussions. Such learning occurs in a game-show scenario creating a virtual play environment involving several students, and an instructor. This discussion focuses on Kahoot, an online customizable learning tool, which allows teachers to create quizzes in the format of a game-show. Kahoot is a relevant application for learning. Several details are given to explain its usage, and discuss how this tool impacts students learning, and data collection. This program allows teachers to plan meaningful instruction that will meet the needs of learners.
3 Background and Overview Neo (2005) studied the impact of web-based constructivist learning; based on the use of creative multimedia that aided student learning. A web-based multimedia mediated project was developed using online applications where students were taught how to use specific tools to solve web-related problems. The mode of learning discussed was a student-centered constructivist learning perspective in which the students were active learners working within a group environment, and constructed knowledge within their learning process. Students assessment of the learning process was obtained through surveys. Students were able to work collaboratively, construct solutions, and determine their learning outcomes. They developed positive attitudes towards the learning environment, and approach to learning. A similar learning approach is seen in some modern technologically advanced learning applications that are available as a participative program on the Internet: that is Kahoot. Kahoot is among the most popular online learning platforms, and has played a vital role in transforming simple quiz programs to a game-show. Kahoot is an application that uses multimedia, and knowledge management: the teacher can create quizzes, and other customized content to present these to students for participation. As Neo (2005) stated, students use their critical and creative thinking skills, and develop problem-solving skills by becoming active participants in the learning process. Some of the learning skills that students can develop are communication, teamwork, collaboration, general knowledge, and presentation. In Kahoot, students can develop these skills of communication, presentation, and collaboration. However, this being a scored game-show, students are more competitive than collaborative. Using ICT (Information and Communication Technology) in the classroom teaching environment helps
4 teachers, and learners to focus on teaching and learning strategies, using technology as a tool to knowledge management. This essay will further investigate the integration of Kahoot in virtual classrooms. This application is available on mobile and computing devices such as tablets, smart phones, and laptops. Students can access the application from anywhere at any time, as long as they have Internet access. Sen and Al-Hawamdeh (2001) suggested that technology has rapidly advanced in the last few decades, and a new trend in educational technology is virtual classrooms. Virtual classrooms create an online learning, and teaching environment. This setting facilitates the collaboration, and integration of discussions, quizzes, chats, lecture notes, student participation, subscription services, web link sharing, distribution lists, desktop video conferencing, and lecture-based online classes. Kahoot is one of many applications that support virtual learning, either via student engagement, participation, or achievement Giesbers, Rienties, Segers, & Tempelaar, et al. (2009) suggested that information technology increasingly facilitates collaboration in education. This collaboration can be achieved through online student engagement, and participative programs such as the Kahoot application. Web video conferencing has become immensely popular in online virtual classrooms. Students can collaborate with audiovisual communication tools that increase the social, and emotional expression of learners. It is usually believed that when students have the opportunity for live web conferencing, they will have greater learning satisfaction, although this is not always the case (Geisbers et al., 2009). Students, however, do have a satisfactory learning experience with Kahoot.
5 Creating an Online Learning Experience To create an online learning experience in Kahoot, teachers sign up for a free account on the site, create their first quizzes, conduct discussions, and invite their students to participate. Kahoot requires all users to save their quizzes, and data. Once all information has been saved, several Q&A s (Questions and Answers) with correct and incorrect responses are added, and teachers are asked to play (Kahoot, 2014). This process is done with the aid of students. The students are given a PIN code, and they use this PIN to participate in the Kahoot game that was created. Learners do not need a Kahoot account they can play a game using only a Pin. Several students, from an entire class, can participate in these web-based online learning scenarios, and play various games. The games are scored in the end, and teachers can also collect students feedback. The assessment scores can be used to measure learners performance, and attitudes toward the tests or Q&A sessions. Kahoot is a constructivist learning experience as both teachers, and students can create a game- like situation, and launch this application according to their creative ideas. Such a request encourages students to build their problem-solving, and collaborative skills and also develops their creative, and critical thinking skills. Hannon and D Netto (2007) discussed how learners from different cultural, and linguistic backgrounds can encounter online learning environments. Their paper assessed the extent to which cultural, social, and individual factors could have an impact on a learners engagement with online learning. Hannon and D Netto used Conole's (2004) "framework for e-learning," synchronous, or asynchronous, to show how students engage with the organizational, technological, and pedagogical aspects of online learning (cited in Hannon & D Netto, 2007). Their study indicated that differences in the student experience would affect their engagement
6 with online learning, and these would have implications for the quality of online education. The findings of the study suggested that the quality of education for all students could be improved with a culturally, and socially inclusive online learning environment. The Impact of Kahoot on Student Learning Creating interactive engaging lessons is every educator s goal when planning instruction. Once students are motivated, they become engaged; for this reason, their attention increases (Glover et al., 2005). Although Kahoot is an assessment tool, it keeps learners motivated. They receive immediate feedback as they are being evaluated. Students are more enthused to learn when feedback is immediate. Randall and Zundel (2012) agreed that feedback improves learning because it gives students the opportunity to learn from their mistakes. Once a student answers a question, the application tells them right away if they are correct, incorrect, or took too long to respond. This method encourages them to try harder to answer the next question. In addition, Kahoot gives educators quick data collection to plan for data- driven and differentiated instruction. Stanford, Crowe, and Flice (2010) argued that differentiated instruction is a challenge for most educators, and suggested that one of the means to overcome this issue is through the use of technology in the delivery of instruction. Kahoot is one of the means that could be used in the classroom, at different levels, to overcome this challenge. The Use of Kahoot in Elementary School Kahoot has been integrated in elementary school curricula in many ways. Elementary leaners are innovatively and interactively quizzed in all subject areas. In Mathematics, teachers have used the tool to ask questions that include but not limited to equation problems such as multiplication, addition, subtraction, and division by finding products, sums, differences, and quotients. They can also compute, compare, and find equivalent fractions. Kahoot is also used to
7 assess vocabulary knowledge in all content areas. Educators have varied possibilities to design questions that include multiple choice and fill in the blank. The program motivates children s participation because they think they are playing a game, allowing them to compete against each other. Kahoot provides students with immediate feedback and tell them exactly which position they are as oppose to the others players. They are enthused to try their best to do well because they are looking at their scores on the screen. Low performing learners have a tendency to give up; as a result, it is strongly encouraged to assign numbers, letters, or symbols to each child to avoid disclosing their identity. Elementary educators have been taking advantage of kahoot and using it as an alternative and quick way to assess student learning and gather data to drive instruction. The Use of Kahoot at the High School Level The researcher at a high school used Kahoot as a vocabulary assessment. Students were told in advance to study the vocabulary list of words that were given a week prior. They were also told the test would be take place in a computer lab. The researcher explained to the students that the assessment would be given in the form of a game show and that the results for each student would be given a letter grade. Some of the students became quite anxious while others became intrigued. Kahoot is designed to assess students in a content area like vocabulary. On the day of the assessment the researcher did a practice test to provide students with the opportunity to become familiar with the Kahoot program. Once the students did the practice test they were very comfortable with the program, and no longer felt intimidated. They saw it as a competitive game show and were ready to launch the program. The program was a great success because the learners were actively focused, engaged and felt a sense of accomplishment as the results were posted. Kahoot is a program that motivates students at various levels, and the data is generated
8 instantly. This program is an excellent tool for teachers to use for differentiated instruction. It also allows teachers the opportunity to assess the strengths and weaknesses of students based on the results of tests given in content areas. Kahoot for Itinerant and Face-to-Face Settings This schedule is one of the first challenges that the researcher faced when teaching this population. These students for some specific documented reason were identified as unable to report to a general education classroom. This was documented by a family member, administrator, or by a doctor s report. Students are met twice weekly in one hour sessions. During the lessons the researcher has to integrate approximately three subjects together in this one hour period. Kahoot has been very helpful in that the researcher has used vocabulary tests that cover multiple subjects in a fun and exciting format. The user can change the backgrounds, songs, and colors to individually hold students attention. The researcher used math word problems along with times tables to challenge the speed of some of students. The researcher provided a smart phone and an IPad. In situations where students had BYOD, Bring your own device options, they were allowed to use their devices to improve the hands-on-appeal. In some instances where students suffered physical limitations the researcher would enter the answer for them. They were also curious about how effective they were as compared to some other students and since the student names are coded the researcher could review and discuss other student performance and future projections of what they can expect in up- coming assignments. Advantages and Recommendations for Kahoot In addition to quick data, and immediate feedback, Kahoot offers many advantages. The application is web-based, and does not require any downloading. It is user-friendly, and can be used at no cost. Kahoot is a customizable program that integrates various visuals like videos, music, sound, and photography. Just like any other program, Kahoot has some limitations. It requires users to have access to Wi-Fi. If the server is down or too slow, it creates some issues
9 for learners to log on. Kahoot is restricted to multiple choice questions; however, the new standards require students to provide open responses as well. As a result, teachers must not rely on this program as their only source for data collection. Kahoot Participative Learning Kahoot could be integrated with a virtual classroom situation, and would help enhance learning. As stated earlier, Kahoot is a web-based learning program, and elementary, middle, and high school students can play the game easily. Kahoot can also be used in an integrated manner to help students participate in quizzes, discussions, and reviews. The applications allow a broad range of knowledge management, and virtual learning features. Nixon and Helms (1997) suggested that virtual learning, and distance education is of considerable interest to trainers, and educators. The researchers discussed distance learning provisions, and how learning strategies are part of the school. Online learning, and virtual classrooms help students to learn through interactive, and multimedia presentations, and students learn by themselves, rather than being taught (Nixon and Helms, 1997). The participative process encourages problem solving, critical thinking, and experiential group exercises, and learners can engage in a learning situation in an efficient manner. Kahoot is not limited by space, time, or geographic location; as a result, if used effectively, this assessment tool can add more excitement to distance education. Conclusion This discussion highlighted the use of Kahoot in promoting online learning. This application, which aids virtual learning, has been described, and the advantages of these applications have been discussed. Signing up for Kahoot is easy. This tool helps create customizable content. When classrooms are complemented with the right applications, learners can access them via their mobile, and computing devices. These devices may include cell
10 phones, and tablets that enhance learning, and make it a more fun, and enjoyable activity (Giesbers et al., 2009). Kahoot is one of many online applications that can contribute to student achievement in any learning environment. Kahoot can be an effective learning tool if all students can participate in Kahoot irrespective of their differences in background or learning.
11 References Giesbers, B., Rienties, B., Gijselaers, W. H., Segers, M., & Tempelaar, D. T. (2009). Social presence, Web videoconferencing and learning in virtual teams. Industry of Higher Education, 23(4), Glover, D., Miller, D., Averis, D., & Door, V. (2005). Leadership implications of using interactive whiteboards. Management in Education, 18(5), Hannon, J., & D'Netto, B. (2007). Cultural diversity online: Student engagement with learning technology. The International Journal of Educational Management, 21(5), Kahoot. (2014). Retrieved January 7, 2015, from Neo, M. (2005). Web-enhaced learning: Engaging students in constructiist learning. Campus- Wide Information System, 22(1), Nixon, C., & Helms, M. M. (1997). Developing the "virtual" classroom: A business school example. Education + Training, 39(6), Randall, L., & Zundel, P. (2012). Students' perceptions of the effectiveness of assessment feedback as a learning tool in an introductory problem-solving course. Canadian Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 3(1), 19. Sen, L. C., & Al-Hawamdeh, S. (2001). New mode of course delivery for virtual classroom. Aslib Proceedings: New Information Perspectives, 53(6), Stanford, P., Crowe, M. W., & Flice, H. (2010). Differentiating with technology. Teaching Exceptional Children Plus, 6(4), 9.