1 Online Professional Development for Primary School EFL Teachers Dr Kia Karavas, University of Athens Teaching English outside the box: New approaches and innovations Pierce, The American College in Greece 22/2/2014
2 The PEAP project The project: which has come to be known with the Greek acronym PEAP, was launched in 2010 and was developed within the context of a European funded project entitled New Foreign Language Education Policy in Schools: English for young learners (see Dendrinos, 2013) is carried out by the University of Athens, at the Research Centre for Language Teaching, Testing and Assessment (RCeL) of the Department of English Language and Literature, aims at introducing a totally new component in the Greek educational system, i.e. English as a foreign language in the first and second grades of Greek public all day primary schools, which until 2010 was taught as a foreign language from the third grade of primary school onwards
3 The PEAP project The project was launched initially in 800 all day primary schools throughout Greece in September 2010, (960 in 2012) and involves a) the development of a curricular framework for the first and second grade of primary schools, b) the a posteriori development of syllabi for each grade and c) the design and development of new teaching materials and learning experiences for 1 st and 2 nd grade learners.
4 Innovation and PEAP The PEAP programme can be characterised as a pedagogical primary innovation (see Markee, 1997). Such innovations involve changes in teachers classroom practices, lesson content and/or teacher student roles and relationships as well as changes in teacher beliefs and principles underlying the new materials and approaches. These types of innovations are the most difficult to implement because change has to happen at all levels (materials, teaching skills and teacher beliefs) if the innovation is to achieve its objectives and become effectively implemented.
5 Developing an effective teacher training programme Challenges 60% of project teachers had no experience in teaching learners of the specific age group 90% had not received systematic training in EYL methodology 1/3 of the sample were novice teachers with 1 to 5 years teaching experience and had received no focused training in EYL methodology. In 89% classes, a significant number of students were from different ethnic backgrounds and were learning English as a third language. As a result of school mergers, the teaching body in project schools changed by 40% from the first to the second year of project implementation. School Advisor evaluation process lasted for 8 months (rendering the School Advisor body inactive during this time) and resulted in some new appointments of well qualified individuals but with little experience in young learner methodology A fair number of our project schools are located in remote areas and islands in Greece which made the provision of face to face seminars to these teachers extremely costly in terms of time, money and human resources
6 Specifications of the training programme Flexible in its form and content Contextualised and appropriate in response to the needs of classroom teachers and the constraints of their contexts. Systematic and continuous
7 The PEAP blended learning training programme Face to face seminars delivered by experienced School Advisors using materials adapted from the online course One day conferences focusing on Teaching EFL to young learners delivered by the project team and organized by the School Advisor An Online distance education course called : e course for primary school EFL teachers Face to face seminars delivered by the project team and organized by the School Advisors using videotaped extracts from PEAP classrooms adapted from the online course Tele training seminars delivered by the project team and organized by the School Advisors using videotaped extracts from PEAP classrooms adapted from the online course
8 Entering a brave new online world While in 2002, 34.5% of American colleges and universities offered fully online degree programs, in 2012 the percentage almost doubled (62.4%). More than 44% of all higher education students were taking some or all of their courses online in 2009 the number will rise to 81% in England (2012) states that there are more than 40 university based TESOL Masters level programmes taught online and by distance and more than 400 private institutions offering certificates in TESOL online.
9 Benefits of e learning Flexibility to reach a wide range of audiences who are separated geographically at the fraction of the cost of campus based training (Shankar and Shankar, 2010) Online learning offers anytime, anyplace learning and its potential rests on its ability to deliver multichannel instruction (encompassing print, audio and visual based content) and to provide multiple formats for real time communication and collaboration with peers across the globe (Burns, 2011). a) teachers can access in service training without leaving their classrooms; b) teachers can improve their computer literacy; c) teachers are better able to interact with their trainers and other teachers online; and d) once a database of online courses has been developed, teachers can access those courses that meet their individual needs. Greatest advantages of online learning lies in the possibility afforded for situated learning since teachers can investigate new ideas and approaches and their application in context within a supportive online community. Many studies show that online education produces learning outcomes equal or greater to those of conventional face to face education if it employs appropriate techniques and skills in the design and implementation of its mediamediated learning programs
10 E learning is not effective when.. The internet is used simply to deliver print documents via Traditional materials have been simply transferred to on online environment Programmes take advantage of hypermedia technology in their design but lack a solid pedagogical foundation
11 E learning is effective when.. It has a sound pedagogical foundation and employs appropriate techniques and skills in the design and implementation of its mediamediated learning programs Technology is used to purposefully and strategically engage learners in activities and interaction, to build a sense of community among learners separated in space and time, to support and cater for differences in learning styles and strategies It is based on the curriculum, the needs of the target audience, the needs of adult learners, the organizational context, its culture and its inherent constraints.
12 The e course for primary school EFL teachers Is accessible to all project teachers Is written in English Aims to familiarize teachers with the basic principles of the EYL project curriculum and with the process and techniques required for the development of children s social literacies through the foreign language Consists of 6 self contained modules focusing on various topics which have been identified on the basis of our teacher profile survey and on the basis of the curricular materials
14 Content of the e course The first module called Introduction to teaching young learners provides the general theoretical background and basic principles for teaching young learners. It focuses on research findings and principles relating to children s cognitive, linguistic, affective and social development as well as issues relating to classroom management. The second category includes 5 modules which relate to various teaching practices and techniques appropriate for this age group. The modules focus on materials and tasks that form the core of the curriculum, that is using stories, songs &chants, arts & crafts, games, technology in the young learner classroom etc.
15 Pedagogical principles underlying the e course Training must clearly address learner s needs. Training must respect and build on the life experiences and previous knowledge of learners. The richest resource for learning resides in adults themselves; The connection between training and the application of what is learnt must be clear. Adults are life centered (task centered, problem centered) in their orientation to learning. Most human learning is carried out observationally. (Bandura 1977).
16 Specifications of the e course Each module should focus on a specific theme/topic and its content should be complete, relevant, accurate, culturally sensitive. Materials and examples used should be drawn from teachers classroom contexts in order to stimulate teachers interest and motivation. Content should be organized in such a way so that new knowledge is built upon prior knowledge and increases in complexity allowing for deeper understanding.
17 Structure and navigation All modules share the same structure and have the same navigation routes. Detailed information on navigation is provided.
18 Clearly expressed Learning outcomes Each module begins with a detailed presentation of its overall aims and learning outcomes for the module a central principle of adult learning programmes (Morland and Bivens, 2004).
19 Input reading texts Many modules begin with an input reading text which teachers are required to study. This pre-reading text sets the context of the module and highlights many of the principles that will be discussed throughout the module. It serves like a pre-reading activity stimulating background knowledge
20 Content Is complete, relevant, accurate, culturally sensitive. The content and units of each module are presented on the left sidebar and on screen which can be accessed by clicking on either. Each module contains theoretical background information relating to the module theme and organised in increasing complexity. Information is presented in informal non academic language since research has shown that a personal tone to written or oral online training materials activates more mental processes and stimulates student interest (Clark and Mayer, 2011).
21 Content The content of each module is broken down into instructional articles (Morland and Bivens, 2004). These are short, concise documents conveying relevant critical information to support concepts and procedures. They function like subchapters in a book each instructional article is essential to an overall understanding of the subject, but they are written to stand largely on their own, to be read and understood independently. This allows for flexible navigation since some learners may study some articles in detail and may skip or skim others.
22 Multimodality Information on screen is multimodal combining the written word with visual, audio and kineasthetic elements (e.g. pictures, sketches, diagrams, animation, extracts from videotaped PEAP project classes) thus facilitating and enhancing understanding (Moreno and Mayer, 2002). Teachers can choose to read or listen to the printed text on the screen depending on their learning style (Clark, 2002).
23 Observation activities New information is also accompanied by relevant extracts from videotaped project English classes and interviews with project school teachers facilitating the link between theory and practice. Videorecorded extracts are used to demonstrate the concept or principles being presented (this stimulates observational learning and helps teachers see how theory is applied to practice).
24 Observation activities Observation activities are also used as input for various reflection activities. These activities serve to actively involve teachers in the learning process and develop their critical reflection skills (Janicki and Liegle, 2001).
25 Self assessment tasks Systematically through the module there are self assessment quizzes accompanied by detailed feedback, based on previously presented information. Not only are correct answers provided but incorrect answers are explained as well.
26 Further reading Each module ends with an annotated bibliography for further reading and suggested sites with related to the module topic material
27 Systematic evaluation After completing each module, teachers are requested to fill in an evaluation form commenting on the content and usability characteristics of the module.
28 Using the online materials for blended learning The materials of the e course are characterized by their interfunctionality, durability and flexibility Materials can be reused in face to face seminars, can be incorporated in other online e learning platforms, or be used as input for collaborative work and discussion in online Communities of Practice. All module content, including instructional articles with content information, extracts of videotaped PEAP project classrooms, selfassessment quizzes and feedback, reflection activities and feedback, input readings have been uploaded on a separate space on the PEAP portal, accessible only to School Advisors of English to use in whatever way they find suitable for the face to face training seminars they organize.
M.A. TESOL Capstone Project Overview: The M.A. TESOL Capstone Project (CP) provides students with an opportunity to demonstrate their in-depth knowledge and practical expertise in a specific area of the
COMMUNICATION COMMUNITIES CULTURES COMPARISONS CONNECTIONS STANDARDS FOR FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNING Preparing for the 21st Century Language and communication are at the heart of the human experience. The
Programme Specification: BA Teaching English as a Foreign Language 1. Programme title Teaching English as a Foreign Language 2. Awarding institution Middlesex University 3. Teaching institution Middlesex
CAMBRIDGE CERTIFICATE IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING TO ADULTS CELTA COURSES 2016 Information pack 1. Introduction to Cambridge CELTA and course description... 3 2. Overview of main course content... 3 Input
JOINT MASTER OF ARTS IN LEADERSHIP AND EDUCATION CHANGE COURSE DESCRIPTIONS A. CORE COURSES MALC 801 Perspectives in Educational Leadership Educational leadership is a complex concept, both in theory and
Programme Specification MA EDUCATION MA Education: Childhood and Youth Studies MA Education: Higher Education MA Education: Leadership and Management MA Education: TESOL PGCert Artist Teacher PGCert Challenging
HCC ONLINE COURSE REVIEW RUBRIC Adapted from Maryland Online FIPSE Project and Lake Superior College I. COURSE OVERVIEW AND INTRODUCTION General Review Standard: The overall design of the course, navigational
Endorsement English as a Second Language P-12 16 KAR 2:010. Kentucky teaching certificates. Graduate Catalog: http://www.gradschool.eku.edu/gradcatalog/ September 2008 EKU Graduate Program Review Documents:
Desktop/ Files Returned by Experts August 2008 / English cover, content & introduction Grades 1-4 cv2 Table of Contents Rationale... Topic flow charts for Grades 1-4... Minimum Learning Competencies for
elearning Instructional Design Guidelines Ministry of Labour Queen s Printer for Ontario ISBN 978-1-4606-4885-8 (PDF) ISBN 978-1-4606-4884-1 (HTML) December 2014 1 Disclaimer This elearning Instructional
Chapter 3 - Alternative Assessments Evaluating with Alternative Assessments In the ERIC Digest article "Alternative Assessment and Second Language Study: What and Why?" Charles R. Hancock states "In the
Teacher Training Courses CRICOS Provider Number 02623G 2 About Us International House Sydney is one of Australia s most highly regarded Teacher Training centres. Established in 2001, International House
Bringing the World to the Classroom and the Classroom to Life BRINGING THE WORLD TO THE CLASSROOM AND THE CLASSROOM TO LIFE Our World is a six-level primary series in British English, bringing ageappropriate
Quality of Academic Program Goals The primary goals of the M.A. TESOL Program are to impart in our students: (1) knowledge of language, i.e., knowledge of the major elements of language as a system consisting
FNSPIM403 Educate clients on personal injury management Release: 1 FNSPIM403 Educate clients on personal injury management Modification History Release Release 1 Comments This version first released with
Master of Science in Early Childhood Education Singapore, 2005 2006 Offered by RTRC Asia in Collaboration with Wheelock College s Center for International Education, Leadership, and Innovation Background
Master of Arts Program in Teaching English as a Foreign Language Academic Program Master of Arts Program in Teaching English as a Foreign Language Degree Offered Objectives Master of Arts (Teaching English
Courses Description ELI 600 Second Language Acquisition 3 This course introduces the students to the major theories and issues in second language acquisition, as well as the theories and assumptions that
Master of Arts in Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (MA TESOL) Overview Teaching English to non-native English speakers requires skills beyond just knowing the language. Teachers must have
PROGRAMME SPECIFICATION MSc Developmental and Educational Psychology Awarding body: University College London Teaching Institutions: UCL Institute of Education Name of final award: Master of Science (MSc)
Building tomorrow s leaders today lessons from the National College for School Leadership If you re looking for innovative ways to engage your would-be leaders through gaming and video role play, the National
Introduction: Blended learning is defined as to combine Face-to-Face instruction with computer-mediated instruction Graham 2006. Mixing technology and content does not necessarily yield effective learning.
Doctor of Education (EdD) in TESOL AVAILABLE IN EXETER AND DUBAI The Programme The degree of Doctor of Education (EdD) in TESOL aims to provide experienced professionals within the field of language teaching
IMPLEMENTATION GUIDE for MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY ONLINE for MASTERING HEALTHCARE TERMINOLOGY, Third Edition Module 7: Male Reproductive System OVERVIEW Module 7 in Medical Terminology Online accompanies Chapter
56 Dexter Chapter III etips--educational Technology Integration and Implementation Principles Sara Dexter University of Minnesota, USA WHY A SET OF PRINCIPLES TO GUIDE TEACHERS ABOUT INTEGRATING AND IMPLEMENTING
MO 634 Foundations of the Montessori Method This course offers an overview of human development through adulthood, with an in-depth focus on childhood development from birth to age six. Specific topics
DRIVING FORWARD PROFESSIONAL STANDARDS FOR TEACHERS The Standards for Registration: mandatory requirements for Registration with the General Teaching Council for Scotland December 2012 Contents Page The
TEACHING AND LEARNING FRAMEWORK Introduction 1. This Teaching and Learning Framework sets out expectations underpinning all undergraduate and postgraduate course delivery at UCS. The nature of delivery
Programming and Coding Draft Specification for Junior Cycle Short Course October 2013 Contents Introduction to junior cycle... 3 Rationale... 3 Aim... 4 Links... 4 Course Overview... 7 Expectations for
Title of Report: Masters in Teaching English to Young Learners at the University of York Case Report Author: Annie Hughes Organization: University of York 1 - York, U.K. Date of Publication: February 2013
1 January 2015 Modern Foreign Languages MFL) Policy BALLADEN CPS LINDEN LEA, RAWTENSTALL, ROSSENDALE, LANCASHIRE, BB4 6DX Contents... 0 Rationale for Teaching Languages at KS2... 2 As the UK is becoming
Degree Programmes TESOL with TESOL with Trinity Diploma by TESOL with TESOL with Trinity Diploma by Programme Requirements (Full-time local mode): (Collaborative mode): TESOL with 100 credits from ET5100
1 Differentiation for Gifted and Talented Students 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS I. Philosophy 1 II. Vision Statement 5 III. Program Goals 5 IV. Student Objectives 5 V. Curriculum 7 VI. Program Options 9 VII. Identification
I.B. SPECIFIC TEACHING FIELDS Standards for Certification in Early Childhood Education [26.110-26.270] STANDARD 1 Curriculum The competent early childhood teacher understands and demonstrates the central
LEEDS BECKETT UNIVERSITY Course Specification PG Cert English Language Teaching and Professional Practice 2015-16 (PCELT) Our courses undergo a process of review periodically, in addition to annual review
Assessment Techniques and Tools for Documentation 47 Assessing the Kindergarten Student s Learning Assessment and evaluation are fundamental components of teaching and learning. Assessment is the process
APPENDIX A Teaching Performance Expectations A. MAKING SUBJECT MATTER COMPREHENSIBLE TO STUDENTS TPE 1: Specific Pedagogical Skills for Subject Matter Instruction Background Information: TPE 1. TPE 1 is
PROGRAMME SPECIFICATION MA Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) Awarding Institution: Institute of Education, University of London Teaching Institutions: Institute of Education, University
COGNITIVE & K Critical and Creative Thinking: Students combine and apply artistic and reasoning skills to imagine, create, realize and refine artworks in conventional and innovative ways. The student will
Modern foreign languages Programme of study for key stage 3 and attainment targets (This is an extract from The National Curriculum 2007) Crown copyright 2007 Qualifications and Curriculum Authority 2007
NCTE ICT in the Classroom Presentation software - focus on literacy & numeracy (Primary) Ref: 12-11 Introduction The purpose of this document is to provide an overview of the benefits of using presentation
The Design Study of High-Quality Resource Shared Classes in China: A Case Study of the Abnormal Psychology Course Juan WANG College of Educational Science, JiangSu Normal University, Jiangsu, Xuzhou, China
English Language Quality Standards Programme Teacher Training Courses Invest in your teachers so that your students get the best in the classroom The British Council has developed a range of online moderated
Case studies Case Study 1 Intercultural collaborative learning: creating and marketing an EFL online application Kosmas Vlachos, Hellenic Open University, Greece Aušra Netikšien, Vilnius College of Higher
American University, Washington College of Law, International Legal Studies Program Academic Legal Writing and Culture LAW-795W-001 Fall 2014: Wednesdays 11:00 a.m.-12:50 p.m., Room TBA Instructor: Donna
7-29-2013 Composition Studies Graduate Certificate Program Online Certificate Program in English Indiana University East Department of English Composition Studies Graduate Certificate Program Online Graduate
Each curriculum includes over 3000 hours of development over the course of two years. In addition to this development time, units are pilot tested across Massachusetts and Field tested across the United
Core requirements for teachers of English: knowledge and performance Dov Spolsky, Nava Horovitz, Debbie Lifschitz, Elana Milstein, Judy Steiner, Penny Ur A. Rationale The English : Principles and standards
Teacher Training and Development Survey (EU-SPEAK 2 Project) EU-Speak 2 This project is funded with support from the European Commission (Lifeling Learning Programme, ref EACEA 539478-LLP-1-UK-Grundtvig)
ECE Online Courses Course Number BOK Course Title Course Description Access to Children 18CI1001 TI Educational Technology This course encompasses effectively analyzing, designing, Must videotape a developing,
M a s c a l l s S c h o o l D e p a r t m e n t o f A r t & D e s i g n S B O K S 3 S c h e m e o f W o r k Title Everyday Inventions Year 9 Level Week Classwork (Learning Objectives, possible teaching
Careers education and career-informed degree programmes in higher education This is a working paper from the Centre for Career Management Skills, written by Julia Horn, with feedback and ideas from Helen
ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES The roles and responsibilities expected of teachers at each classification level are specified in the Victorian Government Schools Agreement 2004: Leading teacher Leading teachers
Teachers' Perspectives about the Effect of Tawjihi English Exam on English Instruction at the Second Secondary Stage in Jordan Dr. Mohammad Abd Alhafeez Ali Ta'amneh Assistant Professor of Teaching English
Instructional Design Strategies for Teaching Technological s Online Jiangping Chen 1, Ryan Knudson 1, 1 Department of Library and Information Sciences, University North Texas, 1155 Union Circle #311068,
REGULATIONS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN TEACHING ENGLISH TO SPEAKERS OF OTHER LANGUAGES (MA[TESOL]) (See also General Regulations) Any publication based on work approved for a higher degree should
Academic regulations for THE MASTER'S DEGREE IN ENGLISH THE FACULTY OF HUMANITIES THE UNIVERSITY OF AARHUS 2007 1 Framework conditions Title Prepared by Effective date Prescribed points Master s degree
2015 2016 fashion pre-masters programme fashion pre-masters programme 02 1. Award Programme: Mode of delivery: 2. Entry Route: Progression to: Fashion Pre-Masters Full time Fashion Pre-Masters Master in
Modern Foreign Languages (MFL) Policy 2013 Revised by: Head, staff & governors: Date: Dec 2013 Next Review: December 2016 or sooner if regulations / circumstances change 1 Rationale for Teaching Languages
BSc (Hons) in and Instructional Technologies (Top-Up) LC300 1. Objectives - With Specialization in Science Education - With Specialization in Technology Education - With Specialization in Language Education
Ribby with Wrea Endowed C.E. Primary School Modern Foreign Languages Policy Gill Metherell Updated: January 2011 Review Date: January 2012 Introduction Our teaching of a Modern Foreign Language (MFL) is
KINETON GREEN PRIMARY SCHOOL MATHEMATICS POLICY FEBRUARY 2015 Review Date: February 2018 Contents 1 Introduction... 2 2 The Aims of Mathematics... 2 3 Entitlement... 3 4 Implementation... 3 5 Organisation
Honours Degree (top-up) Business Abbreviated Programme Specification Containing Both Core + Supplementary Information 1 Awarding Institution / body: Lancaster University 2a Teaching institution: University
Teacher Development Workshop Intermediate Phase Life Skills CONTENTS PAGE CONTENTS PAGE... 2 ACTIVITY A:... 3 LIFE SKILLS INTRODUCTION TO CAPS... 5 ACTIVITY B: LIFE SKILLS TEXTBOOKS... 5 ACTIVITY C: LIFE
Transition to teaching survey Part A: Your licensure and job status 1. Did you apply for a teaching license during or after completing your licensure program? Yes No If yes, go to next question. If no,
Bachelor of Early Childhood Education Programme - Open University Malaysia Framework Widad Othman & Teh Lai Ling Abstract This paper gives an overview of the design and development of Bachelor of Early
American TESOL Institute and Via Lingua TESOL/TEFL Program Arequipa (Peru) Course Dates: Jan 7-30, 2013 Feb 4-28, 2013 Mar 4-29, 2013 April 1-26, 2013 May 2-28, 2013 June 3-28, 2012 July 1-26, 2013 Aug
Anadolu University (TR) Anadolu University- Empire State College, State University of New (SUNY- ESC) York e- MBA Program The website of the programme is located at http://emba.anadolu.edu.tr/index_eng.php.
Using the e5 Instructional model (engage, explore, explain, elaborate, evaluate) in Traffic Safety Education Conrad Remenyi, Senior Project Officer, Department of Education & Early Childhood Development,
Curriculum Multimedia Design and Communication programme Local part Curriculum Multimedia Designer Academy Profession Programme (AP) in Multimedia Design and Communication National Curriculum issued by
Dept of Teaching, Learning, and Teacher Education Fall 2015 Graduate Classes **For permission codes to enroll in TEAC 889, 895, 899, 995, 996, 997, or 999 email Shari Daehling, Grad Coordinator firstname.lastname@example.org
Faculty Senate Ad Hoc Committee on Quality in Online Learning. The Faculty Senate Ad Hoc Committee on the Future Direction of Quality Education is charged with: Defining quality in online/distance education
Cork Education and Training Board Programme Module for Career Planning leading to Level 4 FETAC May 2012/June 2012 1 Introduction This programme module may be delivered as a standalone module leading to
Professional learning paper: Significant Aspects of Learning Assessing progress and achievement in the Expressive Arts The work in progress on Significant Aspects of Learning was reviewed in June and July
Re-Imaging Learning Environments Proceedings of the European Distance and E-Learning Network 2016 Annual Conference Budapest, 14-17 June, 2016 THE TU DELFT ONLINE LEARNING EXPERIENCE: FROM THEORY TO PRACTICE
ECU Quality Assurance Guidelines for Online Delivery PURPOSE The purpose of these guidelines is to encompass and improve ECU s existing minimum standards for online units, and to extend ECU s quality assurance
Online Learning Fall 2015 - Summer 2016 Discover UDL. Discover What s Possible. 1 castpl.org CAST PROFESSIONAL LEARNING CAST Professional Learning offers many opportunities for educators, teachers, administrators,
Gifted and Talented Pupil Policy Rationale Lindfield Primary School aims to help every child reach their full potential in all areas. We recognise that all children are entitled to an education which is
Art, Design Policy 2014 Art, Design & displays Policy Rationale At Sinai School, we are concerned with the education of the whole child and the development of Art and Craft skills will enable the achievement
Instructional Design& Technology Master of Science Degree Program Whether it s in a corporate training facility or high school classroom, the instructor s role is one of the most important in our society.
Course Specification for Postgraduate Certificate in Further and Higher Music Education 1. Programme title Postgraduate Certificate in Further and Higher Music Education 2. Awarding institution Middlesex
Suggested Guidelines for the Development and Peer Review of Online Distance Learning Courses A Supplement to Distance Learning: A Policy Handbook for Schools/Divisions/Districts SUGGESTED GUIDELINES FOR