# On the Potential of Network Coding for Cooperative Awareness in Vehicular Networks

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "On the Potential of Network Coding for Cooperative Awareness in Vehicular Networks"

## Transcription

3 Equation (3) is also valid for a multi-hop beaconing strategy combined with network coding (MH+NC, Fig. c). When using network coding, the beacons forwarded by each vehicle are a combination (XOR operation) of two previously received beacons. In the example shown in Fig. c, vehicle B transmits beacon A C, which is the XOR operation of beacon A and beacon C. Vehicle C can retrieve beacon A from beacon A C because it knows beacon C. In this case, the number of packets transmitted per second per vehicle would be 2 times the beacon transmission frequency in a scenario with uniformly distributed vehicles. This is the case because two beacons to be forwarded would be combined with network coding before transmission. III. EVALUATION A. Simulation settings The simulations conducted (using the network simulator ns-2.35) consider a straight highway with 6 lanes where vehicles are uniformly distributed. Two traffic densities have been simulated: and 2 vehicles/km/lane. Each vehicle transmits T f beacons per second using IEEE 82.p at 6Mbps. The transmission power is fixed to 23dBm. The application requirements CR, PIR and influence the transmission parameters needed and the channel load generated. To avoid limiting this study to a particular application, different combinations of CR, PIR and have been analyzed. Taliwal et al. showed in [] that the Nakagami-m distribution suitably describes the radio propagation conditions in vehicular networks on highways in the absence of interferences. Following [2], this study utilizes the Nakagami-m propagation model with m=3 and a quadratic path-loss according to the Friis model. Table I summarizes the main communication and simulation parameters. TABLE I. COMMUNICATION AND SIMULATION PARAMETERS Parameter Number of lanes 6 Road length [km] 8 Traffic density [veh/km/lane] and 2 Transmission power [dbm] 23 Packet transmission frequency [Hz] -2 Value B. Results Fig. 2 depicts the CBR experienced by the vehicles in the center of the scenario as a function of the beacon transmission frequency. The vertical lines highlight the beacon transmission frequencies needed to achieve CBR=. Relevant congestion control protocols propose to operate close to CBR= [9], and this operating point (or target CBR) has been then considered as a reference in this study. As it can be observed from Fig. 2, each beaconing strategy should utilize a different beacon transmission frequency to operate at a given CBR. For example, MH+NC reaches a CBR equal to with half the beacon transmission frequency compared to the SH strategy. This is the case because with MH+NC, all beacons are network-coded and forwarded by vehicles at CR/2, which results in that each vehicle transmits 2 T f beacons per second. The target CBR influences the PDR and the Packet Collision Ratio (PCR). Fig. 3 plots the PDR and the PCR for a SH strategy as a function of the distance to the transmitter. The beacon transmission frequency was configured to generate two different CBR levels (Fig. 3a and Fig. 3b). The same results were obtained for the two traffic densities as vehicles adapt their transmission frequency to operate at the target CBR. In this case, if the CBR is fixed but the traffic density is doubled, vehicles will halve their packet transmission frequency to operate at the same CBR, and therefore will experience the same PDR and PCR. CBR Transmission frequency [Hz] Transmission frequency [Hz] (a) veh/km/lane (b) 2 veh/km/lane Fig. 2. CBR (Channel Busy Ratio) experienced with each beaconing strategy for two different traffic densities. The vertical lines highlight the beacon transmission frequency needed to achieve CBR=. PDR CBR.2 PCR Payload size [Bytes] 25 Data rate [Mbps] 6 Carrier frequency [GHz] 5.9 SINR min for packet reception [db] 8 Probability Probability Noise floor [dbm] -99 Packet Inter Reception Time (PIR).25s,.5s and s Simulation time [s] and runs 3 and Distance [m] Distance [m] (a) CBR= (b) CBR= Fig. 3. PDR (Packet Delivery Ratio) and PCR (Packet Collision Ratio) for SH and two different CBR levels..2 45

4 Fig. 4 depicts the probability of correctly receiving each beacon at various CR for the different beaconing strategies and two CBR levels. As it can be observed, the probability of correctly receiving a beacon at CR increases with MH and MH+NH compared to SH for a fixed CBR. This is the case because each beacon can be directly received from the initial transmitter, or received from a forwarder located at CR/2. These results illustrate the potential of multi-hop beaconing and network coding to improve the communications reliability and therefore the cooperative awareness. However, they only represent the performance on a per-packet basis, and the number of packets that can be transmitted per second with MH and MH+NH strategies decreases compared with SH for a fixed CBR (Fig. 2). To fairly evaluate the performance that can be achieved with the different beaconing strategies, the PIR parameter needs to be introduced. SH MH and MH+NC required per packet for MH and MH+NC has to be very high in order to guarantee that at least one beacon is correctly received every PIR=.25s. For example, the beacon transmission frequencies (T f ) for each strategy has to be set equal to 9.3Hz (SH), 4.65Hz (MH+NC) and 3.Hz (MH) to operate under a CBR equal to for a traffic density of 2 veh/km/lane. In this case, SH has a higher probability to correctly receive at least one beacon every.25s than MH+NC (Fig. 7b)..2.2 PDR (single and multi-hop).2 PDR (single and multi-hop) (a) veh/km/lane (b) 2 veh/km/lane Fig. 5. Probability of correctly receiving at least one beacon every PIR=s at various CR for the different beaconing strategies and two traffic densities. Operating point: CBR= (a) CBR= (b) CBR= Fig. 4. Probability of correctly receiving each beacon at various CR for the different beaconing strategies and two different CBR levels. The same curves are obtained irrespective of the traffic density as long as the CBR is fixed. Fig. 5 shows the probability of correctly receiving at least one beacon every PIR=s at different CRs when operating at CBR=. The depicted results show that MH+NC increases the reliability levels compared to SH. This results in a higher awareness since vehicles can reliably communicate with vehicles at larger distances. It is important noting that these results are obtained despite the fact that MH+NC results in lower packet transmission frequency levels when operating at a fixed CBR level (Fig. 2). As expected, the lower traffic density increases the packet transmission frequency when operating at a fixed CBR level and therefore the awareness (Fig. 5a) compared to scenarios with higher traffic densities (Fig. 5b). Similar conclusions can be obtained with more strict application requirements. Fig. 6 presents the results obtained when the application requires that at least one beacon is received every PIR=.5s at CR. For low traffic densities (Fig. 6a), the same trends are observed as for PIR=s. However, for higher traffic densities (Fig. 6b), the packet transmission frequency of each vehicle is reduced to operate at CBR= and the MH strategy generally produces the lowest reliability levels. This different trend can also be observed when increasing the application requirements. For example, with PIR=.25s, SH can outperform MH and MH+NC in high traffic density scenarios (Fig. 7b). This is the case because when the traffic density increases, MH and MH+NC have to considerably decrease their beacon transmission frequency to maintain a fixed CBR level. This results in that the reliability (a) veh/km/lane (b) 2 veh/km/lane Fig. 6. Probability of correctly receiving at least one beacon every PIR=.5s at various CR for the different beaconing strategies and two traffic densities. Operating point: CBR= (a) veh/km/lane (b) 2 veh/km/lane Fig. 7. Probability of correctly receiving at least one beacon every PIR=.25s at various CR for the different beaconing strategies and two traffic densities. Operating point: CBR=

5 Changing the target CBR level modifies the packet collision probability, and therefore the packet transmission frequency needed by each beaconing strategy to achieve the target CBR. If the target CBR is reduced to e.g. CBR=, the packet collision probability and the beacon transmission frequency of the different strategies are reduced. Table II compares the average beacon transmission frequency established by each strategy to operate at a CBR equal to or. A reduction in the beacon transmission frequency results in that higher perpacket reception probabilities are needed to maintain the capacity of a vehicle to communicate with other vehicles at larger CRs. Fig. 8b shows again that SH can outperform multihop beaconing strategies when considering a target CBR equal to and high traffic densities. This is the case despite the relaxation of the application requirements (Fig. 8 corresponds to a PIR equal to s). On the other hand, Fig. 8a shows that MH+NC can slightly outperform SH with lower traffic densities. TABLE II. BEACON TRANSMISSION FREQUENCIES FOR 2 VEH/KM/LANE.2 Beaconing strategy CBR SH MH 3..3 MH+NC (a) veh/km/lane (b) 2 veh/km/lane Fig. 8. Probability of correctly receiving at least one beacon every PIR=s at different CR for the different beaconing strategies and two different traffic densities. Operating point: CBR=..2 IV. CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSION The results presented in this paper show that network coding and multi-hop beaconing can improve cooperative awareness in vehicular networks under certain traffic and application conditions. In particular, the combined use of network coding and multi-hop beaconing can guarantee higher communications reliability levels at large distances compared to single-hop beaconing strategies. The performance of the different strategies has been compared under certain channel load levels (defined by the target CBR), and the vehicles were assumed to adapt their beacon transmission frequencies to guarantee operating under the target CBR. The obtained results showed that the combined use of network coding and multihop beaconing can improve, under certain conditions, the capacity of vehicles to communicate with other vehicles at large distances (i.e. the cooperative awareness). However, this was not the case with strict application requirements (i.e. when PIR is significantly reduced) or when the target CBR was reduced but the traffic density increased. Further work would be needed to design adaptive beaconing protocols that are able to dynamically adapt the transmission parameters and the beaconing strategy to the operating conditions and application requirements. These protocols could be particularly relevant for the control channel as it easily get congested under high traffic density conditions [3]. These protocols could hence be relevant for the future evolution of the DCC architecture being discussed at ETSI, especially as connected automated vehicles will require the exchange of richer information. However, one of the main challenges for the design of such protocols would be their real-time operation since multiple context factors should be taken into account, including variable application requirements as a function of the vehicular and traffic context. The combined use of multi-hop beaconing and network coding could also be beneficial to address the challenges resulting from large obstacles (e.g. buildings or trucks, Fig. 9). Large obstacles produce high propagation losses for the high vehicular frequency range [4][5]. These losses are challenging to combat considering that vehicular standards establish maximum transmission power levels. In this case, multi-hop beaconing could help reach a target communication range with the required reliability levels demanded by the application. This is especially the case when single-hop transmissions are blocked by large obstacles, but multi-hop transmissions are produced under LOS (Line-of-Sight) (a) Building as obstacle between A and C (b) Truck as obstacle between A and C Fig. 9. Scenarios that are especially suitable for multi-hop beaconing and network coding. 47

### Safety Message Power Transmission Control for Vehicular Ad hoc Networks

Journal of Computer Science 6 (10): 1027-1032, 2010 ISSN 1549-3636 2010 Science Publications Safety Message Power Transmission Control for Vehicular Ad hoc Networks 1 Ghassan Samara, 1 Sureswaran Ramadas

### Performance Evaluation of the IEEE 802.11p WAVE Communication Standard

Performance Evaluation of the IEEE 8.p WAVE Communication Standard Stephan Eichler (s.eichler@tum.de), Institute of Communication Networks, Technische Universität München Abstract In order to provide Dedicated

### Initial Survey of VANET papers

Initial Survey of VANET papers Nathan Balon A review of papers on vehicular ad hoc networks, identifying the emphasis of each paper: 1. What problem is addressed? 2. What solution is proposed? 3. How do

### A Message Propagation Model for Hybrid Vehicular Communication Protocols

A Message Propagation Model for Hybrid Vehicular Communication Protocols Anna Maria Vegni 1, and Thomas D.C. Little 2 1 Department of Applied Electronics University of Roma Tre, Rome, Italy 2 Department

### Performance Evaluation of VANETs with Multiple Car Crashes in Different Traffic Conditions

Performance Evaluation of VANETs with Multiple Car Crashes in Different Traffic Conditions Georgios Charalampopoulos 1,2 and Tasos Dagiuklas 1 1. Dept. of Computer Science, Hellenic Open University, Greece,

### PERFORMANCE STUDY AND SIMULATION OF AN ANYCAST PROTOCOL FOR WIRELESS MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

PERFORMANCE STUDY AND SIMULATION OF AN ANYCAST PROTOCOL FOR WIRELESS MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS Reza Azizi Engineering Department, Bojnourd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bojnourd, Iran reza.azizi@bojnourdiau.ac.ir

### ReViV: Selective Rebroadcast Mechanism for Video

ReViV: Selective Rebroadcast Mechanism for Video Streaming over VANET Abbas Bradai and Toufik Ahmed CNRS-LaBRI University of Bordeaux 351, Cours de la libération Talence, 33405 {bradai, tad} @labri.fr

### IEEE 1609.4 DSRC Multi-Channel Operations and Its Implications on Vehicle Safety Communications. Qi Chen, Daniel Jiang, Luca Delgrossi

28-1-2-1 IEEE 1609.4 DSRC Multi-Channel Operations and Its Implications on Vehicle Safety Communications Qi Chen, Daniel Jiang, Luca Delgrossi Mercedes-Benz Research & Development North America, Inc. {qi.chen,

### CHAPTER 8 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE ENHANCEMENTS

137 CHAPTER 8 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE ENHANCEMENTS 8.1 CONCLUSION In this thesis, efficient schemes have been designed and analyzed to control congestion and distribute the load in the routing process of

### Road-Based Routing Protocol for Vanet Using Sumo and Move

International Journal of Computer Sciences and Engineering Open Access Research Paper Volume-4, Issue-2 E-ISSN: 2347-2693 Road-Based Routing Protocol for Vanet Using Sumo and Move Devipriya. D 1 and Muruganandam.A

### IEEE 802.11 Ad Hoc Networks: Performance Measurements

IEEE 8. Ad Hoc Networks: Performance Measurements G. Anastasi Dept. of Information Engineering University of Pisa Via Diotisalvi - 56 Pisa, Italy Email: g.anastasi@iet.unipi.it E. Borgia, M. Conti, E.

### CROSS LAYER BASED MULTIPATH ROUTING FOR LOAD BALANCING

CHAPTER 6 CROSS LAYER BASED MULTIPATH ROUTING FOR LOAD BALANCING 6.1 INTRODUCTION The technical challenges in WMNs are load balancing, optimal routing, fairness, network auto-configuration and mobility

### A Proposal to Analyse the Advantage of Disseminating Data on Beacons in VANETs

A Proposal to Analyse the Advantage of Disseminating Data on Beacons in VANETs C. Blommendaal University of Twente P.O. Box 217, 7500AE Enschede The Netherlands c.blommendaal@student.utwente.nl ABSTRACT

### Towards Efficient Routing in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

Towards Efficient Routing in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks Moez Jerbi*, Sidi-Mohammed Senouci* and Yacine Ghamri-Doudane** *France Telecom R&D, Core Network Laboratories, Lannion, France **Networks and Multimedia

### A Performance Comparison of Stability, Load-Balancing and Power-Aware Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

A Performance Comparison of Stability, Load-Balancing and Power-Aware Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Natarajan Meghanathan 1 and Leslie C. Milton 2 1 Jackson State University, 1400 John Lynch

### Adaptive DCF of MAC for VoIP services using IEEE 802.11 networks

Adaptive DCF of MAC for VoIP services using IEEE 802.11 networks 1 Mr. Praveen S Patil, 2 Mr. Rabinarayan Panda, 3 Mr. Sunil Kumar R D 1,2,3 Asst. Professor, Department of MCA, The Oxford College of Engineering,

### Intelligent Transportation System for Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks

Intelligent Transportation System for Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks T. Sujitha 1, S. Punitha Devi 2 1,2 Department of CSE, P.A College of Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu Abstract - Vehicular

### Performance Analysis of Mobility Pattern for Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network Using Various Routing Protocols

International Journal of Computer Sciences and Engineering Open Access Research Paper Volume-4, Issue-2 E-ISSN: 2347-2693 Performance Analysis of Mobility Pattern for Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network Using Various

Improved Bootstrapping Approach in Multichannel Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks The 4th Workshop of COST Action IC0902 October 9-11, 2013 Oleksandr (Alex) Artemenko, Paulo M. R. dos Santos Page 1 Motivation

### INTERNET FOR VANET NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS -FLEETNET-

ABSTRACT INTERNET FOR VANET NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS -FLEETNET- Bahidja Boukenadil¹ ¹Department Of Telecommunication, Tlemcen University, Tlemcen,Algeria Now in the world, the exchange of information between

### Performance Evaluation of The Split Transmission in Multihop Wireless Networks

Performance Evaluation of The Split Transmission in Multihop Wireless Networks Wanqing Tu and Vic Grout Centre for Applied Internet Research, School of Computing and Communications Technology, Glyndwr

### Internet Access Protocol Providing QoS in Vehicular Networks with Infrastructure Support

Proceedings of the IEEE ITSC 2006 2006 IEEE Intelligent Transportation Systems Conference Toronto, Canada, September 17-20, 2006 WA6.3 Internet Access Protocol Providing QoS in Vehicular Networks with

### Log-Likelihood Ratio-based Relay Selection Algorithm in Wireless Network

Recent Advances in Electrical Engineering and Electronic Devices Log-Likelihood Ratio-based Relay Selection Algorithm in Wireless Network Ahmed El-Mahdy and Ahmed Walid Faculty of Information Engineering

### Robust protocols for the Industrial Internet of Things

Robust protocols for the Industrial Internet of Things Elvis Vogli Politecnico di Bari,Telematics Lab - Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica e dell Informazione Via Edoardo Orabona 4, 70125 Bari, Italy

### RT-QoS for Wireless ad-hoc Networks of Embedded Systems

RT-QoS for Wireless ad-hoc Networks of Embedded Systems Marco accamo University of Illinois Urbana-hampaign 1 Outline Wireless RT-QoS: important MA attributes and faced challenges Some new ideas and results

Global Journal of Computer Science and Technology: E Network, Web & Security Volume 14 Issue 3 Version 1.0 Year 2014 Type: Double Blind Peer Reviewed International Research Journal Publisher: Global Journals

### An Extended AODV Protocol to Support Mobility in Hybrid Networks

An Extended AODV Protocol to Support Mobility in Hybrid Networks Sèmiyou A. Adédjouma* Polytechnic School of Abomey-Calavi (EPAC) University of Abomey-Calavi (UAC) Cotonou, Benin *semiyou.adedjouma {at}

### 1 M.Tech, 2 HOD. Computer Engineering Department, Govt. Engineering College, Ajmer, Rajasthan, India

Volume 5, Issue 5, May 2015 ISSN: 2277 128X International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering Research Paper Available online at: www.ijarcsse.com Dynamic Performance

### Effective Link Operation Duration: a New Routing Metric for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Effective Link Operation Duration: a New Routing Metric for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Xiaoqin Chen, Haley M. Jones, A.D.S. Jayalath Department of Information Engineering, CECS Department of Engineering, CECS

### Energy Efficiency Metrics for Low-Power Near Ground Level Wireless Sensors

Energy Efficiency Metrics for Low-Power Near Ground Level Wireless Sensors Jalawi Alshudukhi 1, Shumao Ou 1, Peter Ball 1, Liqiang Zhao 2, Guogang Zhao 2 1. Department of Computing and Communication Technologies,

### An Efficient QoS Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks *

An Efficient QoS Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks * Inwhee Joe College of Information and Communications Hanyang University Seoul, Korea iwj oeshanyang.ac.kr Abstract. To satisfy the user requirements

### Student, Haryana Engineering College, Haryana, India 2 H.O.D (CSE), Haryana Engineering College, Haryana, India

Volume 5, Issue 6, June 2015 ISSN: 2277 128X International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering Research Paper Available online at: www.ijarcsse.com A New Protocol

### Christian Bettstetter. Mobility Modeling, Connectivity, and Adaptive Clustering in Ad Hoc Networks

Christian Bettstetter Mobility Modeling, Connectivity, and Adaptive Clustering in Ad Hoc Networks Contents 1 Introduction 1 2 Ad Hoc Networking: Principles, Applications, and Research Issues 5 2.1 Fundamental

### Survey on Load balancing protocols in MANET S (mobile ad-hoc networks)

Survey on Load balancing protocols in MANET S (mobile ad-hoc networks) Ramandeep Kaur 1, Gagandeep Singh 2, Sahil Vashist 3 1 M.tech Research Scholar, Department of Computer Science & Engineering, Chandigarh

### Figure 1. The Example of ZigBee AODV Algorithm

TELKOMNIKA Indonesian Journal of Electrical Engineering Vol.12, No.2, February 2014, pp. 1528 ~ 1535 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11591/telkomnika.v12i2.3576 1528 Improving ZigBee AODV Mesh Routing Algorithm

### Energy Optimal Routing Protocol for a Wireless Data Network

Energy Optimal Routing Protocol for a Wireless Data Network Easwar Vivek Colloborator(s): Venkatesh Ramaiyan, Srikrishna Bhashyam Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras.

### Load Balanced Optical-Network-Unit (ONU) Placement Algorithm in Wireless-Optical Broadband Access Networks

Load Balanced Optical-Network-Unit (ONU Placement Algorithm in Wireless-Optical Broadband Access Networks Bing Li, Yejun Liu, and Lei Guo Abstract With the broadband services increasing, such as video

### IRMA: Integrated Routing and MAC Scheduling in Multihop Wireless Mesh Networks

IRMA: Integrated Routing and MAC Scheduling in Multihop Wireless Mesh Networks Zhibin Wu, Sachin Ganu and Dipankar Raychaudhuri WINLAB, Rutgers University 2006-11-16 IAB Research Review, Fall 2006 1 Contents

### Performance Evaluation of AODV, OLSR Routing Protocol in VOIP Over Ad Hoc

(International Journal of Computer Science & Management Studies) Vol. 17, Issue 01 Performance Evaluation of AODV, OLSR Routing Protocol in VOIP Over Ad Hoc Dr. Khalid Hamid Bilal Khartoum, Sudan dr.khalidbilal@hotmail.com

### A survey on Spectrum Management in Cognitive Radio Networks

A survey on Spectrum Management in Cognitive Radio Networks Ian F. Akyildiz, Won-Yeol Lee, Mehmet C. Vuran, Shantidev Mohanty Georgia Institute of Technology Communications Magazine, vol 46, April 2008,

### Medium Access Control (MAC) Protocols for Ad hoc Wireless Networks - I

Medium Access Control (MAC) Protocols for Ad hoc Wireless Networks - I CS: 647 Advanced Topics in Wireless Networks Drs. Baruch Awerbuch & Amitabh Mishra Department of Computer Science Johns Hopkins University

### VOL. 2, NO. 3, March 2012 ISSN ARPN Journal of Systems and Software AJSS Journal. All rights reserved

Performance Comparison and Improvement of Broadcasting Protocols in Mobile Ad-hoc Network 1 Md. Saifur Rahman, 2 Md. Bellal Hossain, 3 Md. Javed Hossain, 4 Mrinal Kanti Baowaly 1,2,3,4 Department of Computer

### ADHOC RELAY NETWORK PLANNING FOR IMPROVING CELLULAR DATA COVERAGE

ADHOC RELAY NETWORK PLANNING FOR IMPROVING CELLULAR DATA COVERAGE Hung-yu Wei, Samrat Ganguly, Rauf Izmailov NEC Labs America, Princeton, USA 08852, {hungyu,samrat,rauf}@nec-labs.com Abstract Non-uniform

### Bluetooth voice and data performance in 802.11 DS WLAN environment

1 (1) Bluetooth voice and data performance in 802.11 DS WLAN environment Abstract In this document, the impact of a 20dBm 802.11 Direct-Sequence WLAN system on a 0dBm Bluetooth link is studied. A typical

### VoIP-Kapazität im Relay erweiterten IEEE 802.16 System

VoIP-Kapazität im Relay erweiterten IEEE 802.16 System 21. ComNets-Workshop Mobil- und Telekommunikation Dipl.-Ing. Karsten Klagges ComNets Research Group RWTH Aachen University 16. März 2012 Karsten Klagges

### A Power Efficient QoS Provisioning Architecture for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

A Power Efficient QoS Provisioning Architecture for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks Didem Gozupek 1,Symeon Papavassiliou 2, Nirwan Ansari 1, and Jie Yang 1 1 Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

### A Non-beaconing ZigBee Network Implementation and Performance Study

A Non-beaconing ZigBee Network Implementation and Performance Study Magnus Armholt Email: magnus.armholt@tut.fi Sakari Junnila Email: sakari.junnila@tut.fi Irek Defee Email: irek.defee@tut.fi Abstract

### SIMULATION STUDY OF BLACKHOLE ATTACK IN THE MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Vol. 4, No. 2 (2009) 243-250 School of Engineering, Taylor s University College SIMULATION STUDY OF BLACKHOLE ATTACK IN THE MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS SHEENU SHARMA

### A Slow-sTart Exponential and Linear Algorithm for Energy Saving in Wireless Networks

1 A Slow-sTart Exponential and Linear Algorithm for Energy Saving in Wireless Networks Yang Song, Bogdan Ciubotaru, Member, IEEE, and Gabriel-Miro Muntean, Member, IEEE Abstract Limited battery capacity

### SECURE DATA TRANSMISSION USING INDISCRIMINATE DATA PATHS FOR STAGNANT DESTINATION IN MANET

SECURE DATA TRANSMISSION USING INDISCRIMINATE DATA PATHS FOR STAGNANT DESTINATION IN MANET MR. ARVIND P. PANDE 1, PROF. UTTAM A. PATIL 2, PROF. B.S PATIL 3 Dept. Of Electronics Textile and Engineering

### Securing MANET Using Diffie Hellman Digital Signature Scheme

Securing MANET Using Diffie Hellman Digital Signature Scheme Karamvir Singh 1, Harmanjot Singh 2 1 Research Scholar, ECE Department, Punjabi University, Patiala, Punjab, India 1 Karanvirk09@gmail.com 2

### A Novel Approach for Load Balancing In Heterogeneous Cellular Network

A Novel Approach for Load Balancing In Heterogeneous Cellular Network Bittu Ann Mathew1, Sumy Joseph2 PG Scholar, Dept of Computer Science, Amal Jyothi College of Engineering, Kanjirappally, Kerala, India1

### Dynamic Antenna Mode Selection for Link Maintenances in Mobile Ad Hoc Network

Dynamic Antenna Mode Selection for Link Maintenances in Mobile Ad Hoc Network P. Shiva Kumar \$, Rinki Sharma *, G.Varaprasad # \$ Department of Information Technology Acharya Institute of Management and

### Transport layer issues in ad hoc wireless networks Dmitrij Lagutin, dlagutin@cc.hut.fi

Transport layer issues in ad hoc wireless networks Dmitrij Lagutin, dlagutin@cc.hut.fi 1. Introduction Ad hoc wireless networks pose a big challenge for transport layer protocol and transport layer protocols

### A Wireless Mesh Network NS-3 Simulation Model: Implementation and Performance Comparison With a Real Test-Bed

A Wireless Mesh Network NS-3 Simulation Model: Implementation and Performance Comparison With a Real Test-Bed Dmitrii Dugaev, Eduard Siemens Anhalt University of Applied Sciences - Faculty of Electrical,

### Comparison of RIP, EIGRP, OSPF, IGRP Routing Protocols in Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) By Using OPNET Simulator Tool - A Practical Approach

Comparison of RIP, EIGRP, OSPF, IGRP Routing Protocols in Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) By Using OPNET Simulator Tool - A Practical Approach U. Dillibabau 1, Akshay 2, M. Lorate Shiny 3 UG Scholars,

### Study of Different Types of Attacks on Multicast in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Study of Different Types of Attacks on Multicast in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Hoang Lan Nguyen and Uyen Trang Nguyen Department of Computer Science and Engineering, York University 47 Keele Street, Toronto,

### SmartDiagnostics Application Note Wireless Interference

SmartDiagnostics Application Note Wireless Interference Publication Date: May 27, 2015 KCF Technologies, Inc. Background The SmartDiagnostics wireless network is an easy to install, end-to-end machine

### The Monitoring of Ad Hoc Networks Based on Routing

The Monitoring of Ad Hoc Networks Based on Routing Sana Ghannay, Sonia Mettali Gammar, Farouk Kamoun CRISTAL Laboratory ENSI, University of Manouba 21 Manouba - Tunisia {chnnysn,sonia.gammar}@ensi.rnu.tn,

### A TCP-like Adaptive Contention Window Scheme for WLAN

A TCP-like Adaptive Contention Window Scheme for WLAN Qixiang Pang, Soung Chang Liew, Jack Y. B. Lee, Department of Information Engineering The Chinese University of Hong Kong Hong Kong S.-H. Gary Chan

### Network Coding With Wireless Applications

Department of Electrical Engineering Information Systems Laboratory Stanford University Motivation Outline Network coding is a theory for communicating information across networks more efficiently. Although

### ROUTE MECHANISMS FOR WIRELESS ADHOC NETWORKS: -CLASSIFICATIONS AND COMPARISON ANALYSIS

International Journal of Science, Environment and Technology, Vol. 1, No 2, 2012, 72-79 ROUTE MECHANISMS FOR WIRELESS ADHOC NETWORKS: -CLASSIFICATIONS AND COMPARISON ANALYSIS Ramesh Kait 1, R. K. Chauhan

### Detecting Multiple Selfish Attack Nodes Using Replica Allocation in Cognitive Radio Ad-Hoc Networks

Detecting Multiple Selfish Attack Nodes Using Replica Allocation in Cognitive Radio Ad-Hoc Networks Kiruthiga S PG student, Coimbatore Institute of Engineering and Technology Anna University, Chennai,

### Energy Effective Routing Protocol for Maximizing Network Lifetime of WSN

Energy Effective Routing Protocol for Maximizing Network Lifetime of WSN Rachana Ballal 1, S.Girish 2 4 th sem M.tech, Dept.of CS&E, Sahyadri College of Engineering and Management, Adyar, Mangalore, India

### Balancing Network Traffic Load in Geographic Hash Table (GHT)

Balancing Network Traffic Load in Geographic Hash Table (GHT) R. Asha, V.Manju, Meka Sindhu & T. Subha Department of Information Technology, Sri Sai Ram Engineering College, Chennai. E-mail : ashaniteesh@gmail.com,

### other. A B AP wired network

1 Routing and Channel Assignment in Multi-Channel Multi-Hop Wireless Networks with Single-NIC Devices Jungmin So + Nitin H. Vaidya Department of Computer Science +, Department of Electrical and Computer

### A Routing Metric for Load-Balancing in Wireless Mesh Networks

A Routing Metric for Load-Balancing in Wireless Mesh Networks Liang Ma and Mieso K. Denko Department of Computing and Information Science University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada, N1G 2W1 email: {lma02;mdenko}@uoguelph.ca

### Implementation and Evaluation of Certificate Revocation List Distribution for Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks

Implementation and Evaluation of Certificate Revocation List Distribution for Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks Petra Ardelean advisor: Panos Papadimitratos January 2009 Abstract Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs)

### Dynamic Reconfiguration & Efficient Resource Allocation for Indoor Broadband Wireless Networks

Dynamic Reconfiguration & Efficient Resource Allocation for Indoor Broadband Wireless Networks Tim Farnham, Brian Foxon* Home Communications Department HP Laboratories Bristol HPL-98-123 June, 1998 broadband,

### Attenuation (amplitude of the wave loses strength thereby the signal power) Refraction Reflection Shadowing Scattering Diffraction

Wireless Physical Layer Q1. Is it possible to transmit a digital signal, e.g., coded as square wave as used inside a computer, using radio transmission without any loss? Why? It is not possible to transmit

### Automotive Communication via Mobile Broadband Networks

Automotive Communication via Mobile Broadband Networks Dr. Joachim Sachs Ericsson Corporate Research, Aachen Contributors: René Rembarz, Mai-Anh Phan, Sabine Sories Where are we in telecommunications?

### Influence of Load Balancing on Quality of Real Time Data Transmission*

SERBIAN JOURNAL OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Vol. 6, No. 3, December 2009, 515-524 UDK: 004.738.2 Influence of Load Balancing on Quality of Real Time Data Transmission* Nataša Maksić 1,a, Petar Knežević 2,

### Performance analysis and simulation in wireless mesh networks

Performance analysis and simulation in wireless mesh networks Roberto Cusani, Tiziano Inzerilli, Giacomo Di Stasio University of Rome Sapienza INFOCOM Dept. Via Eudossiana 8, 84 Rome, Italy Abstract Wireless

### SELECTIVE ACTIVE SCANNING FOR FAST HANDOFF IN WLAN USING SENSOR NETWORKS

SELECTIVE ACTIVE SCANNING FOR FAST HANDOFF IN WLAN USING SENSOR NETWORKS Sonia Waharte, Kevin Ritzenthaler and Raouf Boutaba University of Waterloo, School of Computer Science 00, University Avenue West,

### Efficient Load Balancing Routing in Wireless Mesh Networks

ISSN (e): 2250 3005 Vol, 04 Issue, 12 December 2014 International Journal of Computational Engineering Research (IJCER) Efficient Load Balancing Routing in Wireless Mesh Networks S.Irfan Lecturer, Dept

### Peer-to-Peer File Sharing in VANETs Using TC-MAC

Peer-to-Peer File Sharing in VANETs Using TC-MAC Mohammad S. Almalag, Stephan Olariu, Michele C. Weigle Department of Computer Science Old Dominion University Norfol, VA 23529 USA Email: {malmalag, olariu,

### A NOVEL RESOURCE EFFICIENT DMMS APPROACH

A NOVEL RESOURCE EFFICIENT DMMS APPROACH FOR NETWORK MONITORING AND CONTROLLING FUNCTIONS Golam R. Khan 1, Sharmistha Khan 2, Dhadesugoor R. Vaman 3, and Suxia Cui 4 Department of Electrical and Computer

### Inter-Cell Interference Coordination (ICIC) Technology

Inter-Cell Interference Coordination (ICIC) Technology Dai Kimura Hiroyuki Seki Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a promising standard for next-generation cellular systems targeted to have a peak downlink bit

### Improving the Performance of TCP Using Window Adjustment Procedure and Bandwidth Estimation

Improving the Performance of TCP Using Window Adjustment Procedure and Bandwidth Estimation R.Navaneethakrishnan Assistant Professor (SG) Bharathiyar College of Engineering and Technology, Karaikal, India.

### Optimization of AODV routing protocol in mobile ad-hoc network by introducing features of the protocol LBAR

Optimization of AODV routing protocol in mobile ad-hoc network by introducing features of the protocol LBAR GUIDOUM AMINA University of SIDI BEL ABBES Department of Electronics Communication Networks,

### Applying Active Queue Management to Link Layer Buffers for Real-time Traffic over Third Generation Wireless Networks

Applying Active Queue Management to Link Layer Buffers for Real-time Traffic over Third Generation Wireless Networks Jian Chen and Victor C.M. Leung Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering The

### This document is downloaded from DR-NTU, Nanyang Technological University Library, Singapore.

This document is downloaded from DR-NTU, Nanyang Technological University Library, Singapore. Title High performance wireless wearable technologies for sports training and tele-health Author(s) Mediana

### Journal of Environmental Science, Computer Science and Engineering & Technology

JECET; December2014-February 2015; Sec. B; Vol.4.No.1, 13-18. E-ISSN: 2278 179X Research Article Journal of Environmental Science, Computer Science and Engineering & Technology An International Peer Review

### Improving End-to-End Delay through Load Balancing with Multipath Routing in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks using Directional Antenna

Improving End-to-End Delay through Load Balancing with Multipath Routing in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks using Directional Antenna Siuli Roy 1, Dola Saha 1, Somprakash Bandyopadhyay 1, Tetsuro Ueda 2, Shinsuke

### Performance Monitoring and Control in Contention- Based Wireless Sensor Networks

Performance Monitoring and Control in Contention- Based Wireless Sensor Networks Thomas Lindh #1, Ibrahim Orhan #2 # School of Technology and Health, KTH Royal Institute of Technology Marinens vag 30,

### Inter-Vehicle Communication Protocol for Cooperatively Capturing and Sharing Intersection Video

Inter-Vehicle Communication Protocol for Cooperatively Capturing and Sharing Intersection Video Kazuya Kotani, Weihua Sun, Tomoya Kitani, Naoki Shibata, Keiichi Yasumoto, and Minoru Ito Graduate School

### PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF AODV, DSR AND ZRP ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN MANET USING DIRECTIONAL ANTENNA

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-issn: -00 Volume: 0 Issue: 0 Oct-01 www.irjet.net p-issn: -00 PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF AODV, DSR AND ZRP ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN MANET

### Priority-Based Congestion Control Algorithm for Cross-Traffic Assistance on LTE Networks

Priority-Based Congestion Control Algorithm for Cross-Traffic Assistance on LTE Networks Lung-Chih Tung, You Lu, Mario Gerla Department of Computer Science University of California, Los Angeles Los Angeles,

### Keywords MANET, omni directional antenna, directional antennas, QoS, Reactive routing protocols, AODV

Volume 5, Issue 6, June 2015 ISSN: 2277 128X International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering Research Paper Available online at: www.ijarcsse.com Improvement of

### Cluster-based Multi-path Routing Algorithm for Multi-hop Wireless Network

International Journal of Future Generation Communication and Networking 67 Cluster-based Multi-path Routing Algorithm for Multi-hop Wireless Network Jie Zhang, Choong Kyo Jeong, Goo Yeon Lee, Hwa Jong

### CNR Requirements for DVB-T2 Fixed Reception Based on Field Trial Results

CNR Requirements for DVB-T2 Fixed Reception Based on Field Trial Results Iñaki Eizmendi, Gorka Berjon-Eriz, Manuel Vélez, Gorka Prieto, Amaia Arrinda This letter presents the C/N requirements for DVB-T2

### Research Projects in the Mobile Computing and Networking (MCN) Lab

Research Projects in the Mobile Computing and Networking (MCN) Lab Guohong Cao Department of Computer Science and Engineering The Pennsylvania State University http://www.cse.psu.edu/~gcao Mobile Computing

### II RELATED PROTOCOLS. Dynamic Source Routing (DSR)

ENERGY AWEAR LOAD BALANCING IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORK Prof. Uma Nagaraj Computer Engineering Maharashtra Academy of Engg. Alandi (D) Pune, India Shwetal Patil (Student) Computer Engineering Maharashtra

### WBAN Beaconing for Efficient Resource Sharing. in Wireless Wearable Computer Networks

Contemporary Engineering Sciences, Vol. 7, 2014, no. 15, 755-760 HIKARI Ltd, www.m-hikari.com http://dx.doi.org/10.12988/ces.2014.4686 WBAN Beaconing for Efficient Resource Sharing in Wireless Wearable

### Estimation of Interference in Wi-Fi Networks

Estimation of Interference in Wi-Fi Networks Prajakta D. Patil 1, M. M. Wankhade 2 Student, E & TC, Sinhgad College of Engineering, Pune, India 1 Professor, E & TC, Sinhgad College of Engineering, Pune,

### Optimized Load Balancing Mechanism Using Carry Forward Distance

Optimized Load Balancing Mechanism Using Carry Forward Distance Ramandeep Kaur 1, Gagandeep Singh 2, Sahil 3 1 M. Tech Research Scholar, Chandigarh Engineering College, Punjab, India 2 Assistant Professor,

### Performance Evaluation of VoIP Services using Different CODECs over a UMTS Network

Performance Evaluation of VoIP Services using Different CODECs over a UMTS Network Jianguo Cao School of Electrical and Computer Engineering RMIT University Melbourne, VIC 3000 Australia Email: j.cao@student.rmit.edu.au