# Dynamic Load Balance Algorithm (DLBA) for IEEE Wireless LAN

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4 48 Tamkang Journal of Science and Engineering, vol. 2, No. 1 (1999) to connect. To solve this problem, all stations whose RSSI values are less than the new average RSSI AR are forced to change into another set with a better transmission condition. Obviously, the handoff process will decrease network performance. To minimize the overhead, each station needs a holding counter HC. Each time a new station joins, other stations in this set will listen the probe request and compare its RSSI value with the new average RSSI. If its RSSI value is lower than average RSSI, its HC is incremented by one. Once its HC equals to a threshold MH, it may leave the current set and become a new station to perform joining process as described above. Meanwhile, its HC is reset to zero. It is obvious that this progress is a recursive process for many stations. Since the handoff process happens only when station s HC reaches MH, this progress will be terminated consequently. As a result, all stations will be rearranged into a relative better condition in WLAN. Obviously, a smaller MH is given, a higher level thrashing will occur and a better load balance will obtain. Figure 4. Two examples of a station selects AP to join according to D(y) in the proposed. Beyond expectation, if a new station only considers the difference between R(y) and AR, it may choose a worse AP. Fig. 5 illustrates two interesting cases of D a (y) < D b (y) in which the station selects the AP a may better than AP b. For example, in Fig. 5(a), if S y selects AP a to join, not only the average RSSI in set S a is improved but also some stations with worse RSSI values in set S a have a chance to change into a better condition. To do this, the proposed should take the AR value into consideration. A simple proportional weighted function P(y) is defined as follows: AR x ' 1+, if D x(y) 0. ( y) = Rmax P x ' AR x 1, if D x(y) < 0. Rmax The weight of station S y connects to AP x is now defined as W x (y) = D x (y) P x (y). When a station wants to join a WLAN, it calculates all weights of APs to find the best AP that has the maximum weight. Therefore, if

5 Shiann-Tsong Sheu and Chih-Chiang Wu: Dynamic Load Balance Algorithm () for IEEE Wireless LAN 49 D a (y)<d b (y), station S y still has a chance to select AP a only when W a (y)>w b (y). That is, D a (y) P a (y) > D b (y) P b (y). Thus, we have Da ( y) > Pb ( y), Db( y) Pa ( y) Replacing these two variables, we derive Ra ( y) ARa ' > Rmax + ARb'. Rb( y) ARb' Rmax + ARa ' The detailed flowchart of an AP is shown in Fig. 6. The flowchart of a new S to choose an AP is shown in Fig. 7. No AP x Receive a Probe Request from S y Yes Calculate AR x (y)' and R x (y) Send Probe Response for S y with AR x (y)' and R x (y) Figure 6. The flowchart of the AP. New Station S y Set Channel = 1 Channel > Maxchannel yes no Send Probe Request on Channel Calculate weights and select the best AP to join no no Receive a Probe Response from AP x yes Old Station Timeout Record AR x (y)' and R x (y) yes Channel ++ Figure 5. Two examples of a station selects AP to join according to W(y) in the proposed. Figure 7. The flowchart of the new station.

7 Shiann-Tsong Sheu and Chih-Chiang Wu: Dynamic Load Balance Algorithm () for IEEE Wireless LAN ARW DLAB ARW RAT Number of APs (N ) Number of stations (M ) (a) (a) VAR VSN Number of APs (N ) (b) Number of stations (M ) (b) VSN VAR Figure Number of APs (N ) (c) The VSN, ARW, VAR derived by three different strategies and the traditional approach under different numbers of APs Number of stations (M ) (c) Figure 9. The VSN, ARW, VAR derived by three different strategies and the traditional approach under different numbers of Ss.

8 52 Tamkang Journal of Science and Engineering, vol. 2, No. 1 (1999) 5. Conclusion In this paper, we defined the dynamic load balance problem in the infrastructure WLAN. A simple dynamic load balancing algorithm () was also proposed to fairly distribute Ss into all APs to derive the maximal total network throughput. Simulations shows that the proposed have the following benefits (1) All Ss are near uniform distributed to all AP. The load of AP is more balanced than traditional approach and the performance is much better than tradition approach. (2) The derived average RSSI value between AP and S is very close to that in. (3) The performance of is almost independent of the network size in WLAN. (4) The proposed algorithm is very simple and the required calculating time is very small. References [1]. Chhaya, H. S. and Gupta, S., Performance modeling of asynchronous data transfer methods of IEEE MAC protocol, Wireless Networks, 3, pp , (1997). [2]. Dolan, A. and Aldous, J., Networks and Algorithms- An Introductory Approach, John Wiley & Sons, (1993). [3]. IEEE Std Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications, June (1997). [4]. Stallings, W., Local & Metropolitan Area Networks, Prentice Hall, (1996). Manuscript Received: Jan. 26, 1999 Revision Received: Feb. 25, 1999 and Accepted: Mar. 05, 1999

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