Optimization of AODV routing protocol in mobile ad-hoc network by introducing features of the protocol LBAR

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1 Optimization of AODV routing protocol in mobile ad-hoc network by introducing features of the protocol LBAR GUIDOUM AMINA University of SIDI BEL ABBES Department of Electronics Communication Networks, Architectures ALGERIA guidoum Pr BOUKELIF Aoued University of SIDI BEL ABBES Department of Electronics Communication Networks, Architectures ALGERIA Abstract: A mobile ad hoc network is a collection of mobile units; the multi-hop communications in the network are possible through routing protocols, most of these protocols do not take into account the distribution of the load of traffic.in this paper we present a new scheme of distribution of the traffic load for the AODV protocol is implemented at the route discovery process that modifies the RREQ and RREP and adds another cost that is based on the number of packets queued all nodes participating in the establishment of the road. The route selection will be based on the minimum cost and the shortest path to destination. The simulation results show that the proposed approach reduces the time end to end delay, and the overhead and delivery ratio. Key Words: ad hoc, AODV, load balancing, RREQ, cost. 1 Introduction The routing strategy is used in order to discover paths between nodes. There are two main types of routing protocols: protocols based on link state, and others based on the distance vector. Both methods require periodic updating of routing information that must be shared by different nodes.the routing algorithms based on these two methods use the same network technology which is the technique of the shortest paths. The characteristics of nodes (mobility, limited resources, etc...) make the routing in this type of network complex. The AODV protocol (Ad hoc On- Demand Distance Vector Routing Protocol) is a reactive routing protocol designed by Charles E. Perkins and Elizabeth M. Royer. [1] It can be considered as a combination of two protocols DSDV [2] and DSR [3] because it holds its DSR discovery mechanisms and maintenance of routes Route Discovery and Route Maintenance ; and DSDV, its routing hops hop by hop, its sequence numbers and the broadcast of updates routing tables. It is based on the principle of distance vector routing. Given its characteristics, this protocol has become widely known and has been a lot of research. It is quite suitable for mobile ad hoc networks to share his support for the mobility of nodes in the network. This protocol allows mobile nodes to obtain routes quickly for new destinations without maintaining routes for which there is no active communication. Thus, the establishment of a route is made only when needed. If a source node wants to send data packets to a destination node, it must establish and maintain and the chosen path is the shortest path with a minimum number of hops as the optimal path without any consideration of the traffic that leads to degradation performance of the network. The load balancing techniques focus on how to find a path with less traffic load; and the data packets can be routed with a small delay. And to improve the quality of service and optimal routing is essential to take into account the distribution of the traffic load in the routing mechanism. In this paper we propose a scheme to optimize the AODV protocol which is based on the distribution of traffic load by changing the discovery process and to consider the load of the node and the introduction of a new cost that reflects the size of the queue; the path selection will be based on the minimum cost and this cost is the sum of all costs of the nodes participating in the path from the source to the destination and also according to the number of hops; in this way the overloaded nodes and the least congested path will be chosen. This article is organized as follows. Section2 summarizes the previous work. In section3 implementation. In section4, we study performance evaluation and simulation. 2 PREVIOUS WORK The family of reactive protocols does not allow a balanced distribution of traffic load on various routes such as AODV, DSR. The technique of load balancing ISBN:

2 in ad hoc networks is divided into 3 types, the first on delay where the distribution is achieved by avoiding nodes with a large delay (delay), and the second technique based on traffic the distribution of traffic is carried on the different nodes of the network and the third technique is hybrid a combination of the above techniques. Protocols LOAD BALANCING focuses on how to find a path with less traffic load review of load balanced routing protocol [7], the mechanisms of load balancing are based on different metrics: Active path: refers to the number of path supported by a node. Traffic size: This refers to the traffic load present at a node and its associated neighbors (measured in bytes). Packets in interface queue: This refers to the total number of packets buffered at both the incoming wireless interfaces. Channel Access probability: This refers to the like lihood of successful access to the wireless media. It is Also related to the degree of channel contention with neighboring nodes. [8]. Node delay: This refers to the delays incurred for packet queuing, processing, and successful transmission. Nodal activity: number of active paths passing through the node [4, 8.6]. Load balanced routing in mobile ad hoc networks [10] defined a new metric for routing known as traffic density to represent the degree of contention in the layer control access to the medium. Work Load-Based Adaptive Load-Balancing technology [11] that uses the load of the node that will be compared to a threshold to determine whether a node is overloaded or not at the end to avoid; the value of this threshold dynamically changes depending on the charge status of the node and its workload within a specified period. DLAR [9]: in this protocol is the destination sends the information of the load attached to the RREP packet to the source; after receipt of the packet by the source, the route less overloaded will be chosen as the active path. In load balanced ad hoc wireless routing Audrey Zhou [4] defined a new metric for routing the degree of nodal activity for the selection of the least congested routes; its algorithm includes route discovery, route maintenance, connectivity management and the cost. 3 The implementation: 3.1 AODV For the establishment and maintenance of a route AODV protocol uses three types of messages: RREQ (Route request message), RREP (Route Reply Message) and RERR (Route Error Message). These packages provide the control traffic routing. When a source node and a destination node does not have a route between them, the source node initiates RREQ to discover the route; the intermediate node or the destination node uses the RREP to respond to the request route discovery; the RERR is used in the case where there has a broken [1] route. The RREQ message contains source address, sequence number, broadcast id, destination address, sequence number, number of hops. Mechanism of AODV protocol consists of 3 phases, the route discovery and maintenance of road connectivity management [1]. For the first phase, a node broadcasts a route request (RREQ), where he would need to know a route to a certain destination and such route is not available. This can happen if the destination is not known in advance, or if the existing path to the destination has expired its life or if it becomes faulty (the metric associated with it is infinite). After broadcast of RREQ, the source waits for the route reply packet (RREP). If it is not received within a certain period (called RREP WAIT TIME), the source can rebroadcast a new RREQ request. When a transit node (intermediate) sends the request to a neighbor, it also stores the identifier of the node from which the first copy of the request is received. This information is used to construct the reverse path, which will be crossed by RREP in unicast manner (this means AODV only supports symmetric links). Since the route reply packet will be sent to the source, nodes belonging to the return path will change their routing tables following the path contained in the response packet (expiration time, sequence number and next hop). For the second phase To maintain consistent routes, periodic transmission of the message HELLO (which is a RREP with TTL 1) is performed. If three messages HELLO are not consecutively received from a neighboring node, the link in question is considered to be faulty. Failures links are generally due to the mobility of the ad hoc network. Connectivity management: When a node receives a broadcast packet, it updates its local connectivity information to ensure that they include the neighbor. If no packet is sent to the active neighbors in the last hello interval, a node will send a hello (unsolicited RREP) containing: ISBN:

3 3.2 Optimization The load balancing is a model of quality of service, where a routing protocol is enhanced to meet the requirements of user applications sensitive to a parameter such as delay, bandwidth and jitter. In our work, we are taken to improve quality of service while minimizing delays to satisfy users, who are interested in packet transmission delay, The AODV protocol does not take into account the distribution of the load, we will add a function that will calculate the cost based on the metric load node and modify the process of route discovery and route selection will according to the minimum cost and the number of hops and we have the rout least congested and shorter. Route discovery process: the node broadcasts the RREQ packet when it does not have a route to transmit data to another node. The structure of RREQ is modified carrying the load of nodes crossed during the discovery path and this value of load is the new cost. Each RREQ packet reception by the node, it calculates the number of packets in its queue and compares it with the cost if its value is greater than the packet is discarded; in this way the considered overloaded node will be avoided else adds value to the cost and rebroadcasts the RREQ until it reaches the destination. The destination chose the path that has the minimum cost and also less number of hops. The algorithm works as follows: 1-we transmit length of interface queue from MAC to AODV. 2-Receive RREQ (package) If (getlengt ()> cost) Free package Else (update cost) Cost = cost + getlengt () Insert idbroadcast ( Update therouting table ) If the destination node Cost = sum cost 3-Select min cost and min hop cont. Send reply with new cost. Update routing table. 4.1 Simulation Environnent All simulations are made using NS [14] which is a powerful tool for the simulation based around the TCL programming language, mobility model waypoint mobility model. The protocoleieee is used. Type of file management or tail drop Tail (FIFO) The maximum number of packets in the buffer is 50 packets. We used applications that are sources of CBR traffic type that transmits packets at regular intervals. The source transmits packets of size 512 bytes at a rate of 4 packages per second. The simulation of the two protocols under NS2 generates log files containing the whole course of the simulation (number of packets sent, received, number of failed links). On this statistics we could analyze the results of the simulation and we could assess changes before and after the modification of the AODV protocol; we look at the following metrics: Delivery ratio: This rate is calculated by dividing the number of packets received by the packets sent by the sources of applications. End to end delay: is the average time needed to deliver data packets from the source to the destination successfully including latencies in queues storage time in buffer. Normalized Routing: The overhead is calculated by dividing the number of data packets received by the control packets. For each scenario we varied the main parameter that can influence the behavior and the simulation results is that the pause time for each node representing the immobility time before moving again. End to end delay: The results of each scenario for this metric based on Pause- Time are shown in the following graph: 4 Simulation In this section the performance of the improved version of the protocol is evaluated and compared with the basic version of the protocol. The simulation environment is described and simulation results are presented and discussed. ISBN:

4 The modified AODV is more efficient than AODV. It carries a lower delay than the AODV in scenarios 3 and 4 we have less load on the nodes in the network and the waiting time at each node has decreased. When there is less mobility AODV is better than AODV modified because the number of communicating nodes is limited, there have less control packets; delay decrease.time of latencies is lower in AODV modified compared AODV. Delivery ratio: The results of each scenario for this metric based on Pause- Time are shown in the following graph: The delivery ratio is influenced by the deletion of packets if the queue fills up and reaches the maximum number of packets; in our simulation the maximum number of packets in the queue is 50 packets. In the first scenario we have 10 nodes communicate less control packets; then the rate reached 100 % at pause time 600 sec. For scenarios 2,3 and 4 AODV- modified is better than AODV because we used the cost of load balancing. High mobility means more packet loss, which leads to a small pdf at the pause time 300 and 600. Overhead : We note from the results of the simulation that as ISBN:

5 the number of nodes communicating in scenarios increase, the network is less congested; but in the scenario1 AODV modified don t shows its effectiveness against AODV. Concernant mobility, in high mobility ( ) we have a load increase. In terms of overload AODV modified is more efficient than AODV. the performance of AODV protocol. References: [1] C.Perkins and E.Royer, AD hoc on-demand distance vector routing. [2] DSR: The Dynamic Source Routing Protocol for Multi-Hop Wireless Ad Hoc Networks David B. Johnson David A. Maltz Josh Broch. [3] Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV) Protocol.Guoyou He. [4] load balanced wireless adhoc routing.audrey Zhou and houssam hassanin. [5] LBAODV a new load balancing multipath routing algorithm for mobile ad hoc network. [6] load aware destination controlled routing for manets houssm hassanein, andrey zhouieee wrkshop on mobile computing sustems and application (WV-CSA 99). [7] the review of load balanced routing protocol. Shashank Bharadwaj1, Vipin Kumar2, Ankit Verma3. International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology- July to Aug Issue [8] survey of load balancing routing in manets. Mrs.ASHWINI.B.PATIL.IJETTCS ISSN [9] SUNG-lu and Mario, dynamic load aware routing helsinki.ieee ICC FINLAND. 5 Conclusion We introduced a new load balancing mechanism that has been applied to AODV and has been evaluated through various simulation scenarios. The simulation results show that our protocol has a better end to end delay and a higher rate of delivery than AODV. In terms of load, it is more efficient in large ad hoc networks. As perspective, we propose to combine our approach with that limit the number of active paths to improve [10] Load balanced routing in mobile ad hoc networks Vikrant Saigala, Ajit K. Nayakb,*, Sateesh K. Pradhanc, R. Mall. [11] Aworkload based adaptative load balancing technique for mobile ad hoc networks.young J.lee and George F.Riley.IEEE Communication Society/WCNC. [12] Amita Rani and Mayank Dave, Performance Evaluation of Modified AODV for Load Balancing in Journal of Computer Science 3 (11): , [13] C. Perkins, E. Belding-Royer, Quality of Service for Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing (work in progress), Oct 2003, draftperkins-manet-aodvqos-02.txt. ISBN:

6 [14] [15] LBAODV: A New Load Balancing Multipath Routing Algorithm for Mobile Ad hoc Networks. Proceedings of IEEE th National Conference on Telecommunication Technologies and IEEE nd Malaysia Conference on Photonics, August 2008, Putrajaya, Malaysia. [16] N. Tebbane, S.Tebbane, A. Mehaoua, Simulation et Mesure des performances du protocole de routage AODV, JTEA 2004, Hamam et, Tunisia [17] Y. Shang, Exponential random geometric graph process models for mobile wireless networks, Proceedings of the International Conference on Cyber-Enabled Distributed Computing and Knowledge Discovery, Zhangjiajie, 2009, [18] Y. Shang, A note on the 2-connectivity in onedimensional ad hoc networks, Science China Information Sciences, 2011, vol. 54, no. 1, ISBN:

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