Beyond Immediate Impact: Study Abroad for Global. Engagement (SAGE)

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1 Beyond Immediate Impact: Study Abroad for Global Engagement (SAGE) Report Submitted to the Title VI: International Research and Studies Program U.S. Department of Education by R. Michael Paige and Gerald W. Fry, Principal Investigators Dr. Elizabeth Stallman, Dr. Jae-Eun Jon, Ms. Jasmina Josić, Research Associates Department of Organizational Leadership, Policy, and Development College of Education and Human Development University of Minnesota August 30, 2010

2 A. Abstract This research project Beyond Immediate Impact: Study Abroad for Global Engagement (SAGE) was designed to examine the relationship between study abroad during an individual s college years and subsequent global engagement. Global engagement was conceptualized as a post-study abroad set of multidimensional behaviors organized into five distinct categories: civic engagement, philanthropy, knowledge production, social entrepreneurship, and voluntary simplicity (an environmentally conscious lifestyle). The central research questions of the study were: 1. To what degree and in what ways do former study abroad students become globally engaged in the years following their study abroad experiences? 2. To what degree do former study abroad students attribute their global engagement to their having studied abroad? 3. What are the relationships between the specific aspects of study abroad (student demographics, duration, destination, and depth of program (what we have identified as the basic 4Ds of study abroad) and global engagement outcomes? To answer these research questions, the SAGE research team designed a retrospective tracer study of program alumni who had been abroad between 1960 and 2007, a near 50 year time span. The project generated survey data from 6,378 former study-abroad and 5,924 nonstudy abroad participants representing U.S. 20 colleges and universities, and, for study abroad students, two additional education-abroad providers. SAGE was funded by a four-year grant from the US Department of Education, Title VI: International Research and Studies Program. The research methodology was a retrospective tracer study, inspired by the previous research of Bok and Bowen in Shape of the River, which examined the long-term impact of affirmative action. The design for the study was a mixed-methods one to provide important triangulation of data. In addition to the large national electronic survey, in-depth interviews were conducted of a random sample of 63 participants from the large survey. This was then complemented by 10 in-depth qualitative case studies chosen for the insight they provide in understanding how study abroad has influenced global engagement and contributions to the common good. Major findings from both the quantitative and qualitative phases of the study were as follows: Study abroad was by far the most impactful aspect of their undergraduate experience. The major qualitative finding is that overwhelmingly, the study abroad experience was among the most influential experiences in participants lives, or was the most impactful experience. Many of our survey participants demonstrated diverse and extensive global engagement and often attributed that outcome to their study abroad experiences.

3 This was particularly clear in the area of global values related to the practice of voluntary simplicity and purchasing decisions. Study abroad significantly influenced many in their educational and occupational decisions and those in our study were far more likely to pursue graduate work, compared to the national average. Destination and depth of program were strongly related. This suggests that programs in non-traditional parts of the world are likely to have more depth and be less shallow than programs in traditional study abroad locations. Of the various study abroad factors, depth of program was consistently that which showed the most influence on global engagement. Prior to this project, there seemed to be considerable empirical evidence related to the individual and personal gains from study abroad (private benefits and returns). From an economic perspective, if those were the only outcomes, then the argument for subsidizing study abroad may not be particularly compelling. However, our findings suggest that investing in study abroad has both major social and individual benefits, and, thus contributes to the development of not only human capital but social capital, and, thus contributes to the common good, above and beyond the personal private benefits. Thus, we have solid empirical evidence justifying public support for the expansion, diversification, and democratization of study abroad as called for in the visionary Lincoln Commission Report and Simon Study Abroad Foundation Act. B. Executive Summary "Global student mobility is one of the fastest growing phenomena in higher education in the twenty-first century. Over three million students are currently mobile, crossing geographic, cultural, digital, and educational borders in the pursuit of an international education - a movement that has significant consequences for higher education institutions and nations worldwide... Bhandari & Blumenthal (2011) This research project Beyond Immediate Impact: Study Abroad for Global Engagement (SAGE) was designed to examine the relationship between study abroad during an individual s college years and subsequent global engagement. Global engagement was conceptualized as a post-study abroad set of multidimensional behaviors organized into five distinct categories: civic engagement, philanthropy, knowledge production, social entrepreneurship, and voluntary simplicity (an environmentally conscious lifestyle). The central research questions of the study were: (1) To what degree and in what ways do former study abroad students become globally engaged in the years following their study abroad experiences?

4 (2) To what degree do former study abroad students attribute their global engagement to their having studied abroad? (3) What are the relationships between the specific aspects of study abroad (student demographics, duration, destination, and depth of program (what we have identified as the basic 4Ds of study abroad) and global engagement outcomes? To answer these research questions, the SAGE research team designed a retrospective tracer study of program alumni who had been abroad between 1960 and 2007, a near 50 year time span. The project generated survey data from 6,378 former study-abroad and 5,924 nonstudy abroad participants representing U.S. 20 colleges and universities, and, for study abroad students, two additional education-abroad providers. SAGE has been funded by a four-year grant from the US Department of Education, Title VI: International Research and Studies Program. The broader context of this study is the rapidly growing, worldwide interest in internationalizing higher education and the promotion of more effective cultural and language learning. Colleges and universities are investing heavily in a variety of activities intended to create a global campus environment; these include, among other things, international education and exchange agreements, bringing international students and scholars to the campus, conducting international collaborative research, internationalizing the curriculum, and offering study abroad opportunities to their students. Indeed, during the past 20 years, study abroad has become a centerpiece of many internationalization efforts and the growth in study abroad participation has been notable. The Open Doors 2009 (IIE, 2009a) report shows that there was an increase of 8.5% from the previous year in the number of Americans studying abroad (262,416), a fourfold jump since Similarly, ERASMUS data show a dramatic increase in EU student mobility from a mere 3,244 in to 2.2 million by mid (European Commission Education and Training, 2010). One component of this overarching internationalization context is the increased interest in globally-oriented learning outcomes. Terms such as global competence, global citizenship, and global engagement are commonly mentioned as the expected benefits of study abroad. Yet, when this study began, these terms were only loosely defined and there was little solid empirical research on global engagement outcomes. Hence, a fundamental purpose of this study was to conceptualize global engagement, empirically validate that conceptual model, and then examine the relationships between study abroad and global engagement. SAGE and its methodology was inspired by the well-known book, The Shape of the River (Bowen and Bok 1998), a powerful account of the long-term effects of affirmative action policies on the recipients, their academic institutions, and society at large. The authors used a retrospective tracer study research design that informed our work. In a philosophical sense, we were moved by Putnam s (2000) Bowling Alone and Bellah s (1985) Habits of the Heart, both of which expressed deep concern about the decline of social capital, civic engagement, and commitment to the public good. Our view was that globally engaged behavior contributes to social capital formation hence is worthy of study. Moreover, there was considerable anecdotal evidence that those who have studied abroad feel that the experience was transformative and changed the ways that they engage with the world in later years. However, there was little empirical evidence to support this idea. The SAGE project thus was designed to build on the

5 existing body of knowledge regarding the personal and professional impact of study abroad and expand upon it by conceptualizing and then studying global engagement as it unfolds throughout a person s life. SAGE was conducted over a four-year period from 2006 to Using a mixed method approach, the study generated both survey and qualitative interview data from 6,378 study abroad participants, 63 study abroad interviewees, and 5,924 non-study abroad participants from five decades, The information provided by these respondents through the analysis of global engagement outcomes and their relationships with different study abroad variables constitutes valuable data of relevance to higher education institutions and beyond. By adding educational decisions and career choices as outcomes, we expanded the study to include important elements of the respondent s life histories to compliment our central focus on global engagement. In all, we were mapping critically important relationships among these key outcomes and study abroad. The SAGE research program progressed through three phases. In phase one (AY ), the team first focused on the conceptual model of global engagement, then went into a lengthy instrument development process that included (1) creating a draft instrument, (2) vetting the draft Global Engagement Survey instrument via focus group discussions with an advisory council of study abroad experts/professionals (who were members of the Forum on Education Abroad board members), and, lastly (3) conducting a full fledging pilot test of the instrument with one university. In phase two (AY ), the core activities were (1) administering the Global Engagement Survey to 24,019 alumni from the 22 partner institutions who had studied abroad as undergraduates between 1960 and 2007, and (2) analyzing the data and disseminating the results at professional association meetings and publications. During this phase, the conceptually-generated global engagement data were empirically analyzed. This produced a similar but more refined set of six new global engagement variables that are psychometrically sound, demonstrating strong validity and reliability. In phase three (AY ), by means of a no-cost extension to the grant, the team was able to (1) sample a non-study abroad comparison group, (2) administer a slightly revised version of the Global Engagement Survey to this audience, and (3) analyze the findings. Summary of Findings: Quantitative and Qualitative Our major quantitative findings can be summarized in two primary categories, descriptive and analytical. Descriptive Findings In the field of higher education, increasing attention is being given to the nature of the undergraduate experience (Kuh 2005a, 2005b; Pascarella, 2005; Foster, 2007; Hu, et al., 2008; Harper & Quaye, 2009; Healy, Pawson, & Solem, 2010). The most dramatic SAGE descriptive finding related to this important issue was that 83.3% of respondents indicated that study abroad had had a strong impact on their lives. Interaction with faculty in contrast was indicated as having strong impact by only 37.8%. Thus, study abroad was seen as the most impactful aspect of their undergraduate experiences and perceived as being far important than any other aspect of their undergraduate experience. This finding should be well received by those dedicated to

6 internationalizing higher education and committed to the importance of international/intercultural education and learning. Participants were asked directly to assess how study abroad had influenced their global engagement. In one of the most important findings of this study, 70.3% indicated that study abroad had influenced to a large or some degree their practice of voluntary simplicity (cf. Roy & Anderson, 2010). Given the serious problem of global warming and overconsumption, this is an encouraging finding. Also related to environmental consciousness and issues of social justice, study abroad participants compared to the comparison group were much more likely to make purchasing decisions based on the values of the companies or corporations involved. Out of our 10 major dimensions of global engagement, on eight of those measures such as social entrepreneurship and international civic engagement over 50% of the sample indicated that study abroad has influenced their involvement in these domains to a large or some degree. Also 59.7% indicated that study abroad had influenced their future education decisions to a large or some degree. With regard to education and career paths, the results show that 58.7%, more than half of study abroad alumni attained at least one graduate degree. Moreover, out of those pursuing graduate education, 35 % of the participants indicated having an internationally oriented graduate degree. Particularly the graduate completion rate of participants in the SAGE project is striking compared to that in national data. In 2006, the percentage of the U.S. population age 18 and over whose highest degree attained was a Bachelors degree was 25.5%. Further, among those with a Bachelors degree, 33.4% have gone on to receive a post-baccalaureate degree. (U.S. Census Bureau, 2007). This is an extremely important finding, given concerns about US national competitiveness in the age of the knowledge economy (Friedman, 2005). The caveat is, however, that those who study abroad may be already a more motivated group and therefore more likely to attempt graduate education. Analytical Findings A major element in the SAGE study and contribution to the field was the development of a number of scales related to both study abroad itself and global engagement. Related to the nature of the study abroad experience itself, we identified and developed the four Ds of study abroad, namely, 1) demography: who goes?, 2) duration: how long do they stay? 3) destination: where do they go and what is the nature of that destination? and 4) depth: to what extent is their program deep versus shallow in terms of cultural and language learning and having a transformative learning experience (Mezirow, 2000; Fry, 2007). We developed psychometrically sound and robust scales for assessing for both destination and depth of study abroad programs. Interestingly, a strong correlation was found between destination and program depth (r=.50). Thus, programs in non-traditional destinations such as the Middle East, Africa, or Asia were more likely to be in-depth than programs in traditional destinations such as England and Mexico (see Conlin, 2010). This provides strong empirical support for the goal of the Simon Study Abroad Foundation Act to diversify study abroad opportunities. We also developed a psychometrically sound and robust multidimensional scale for assessing individuals global engagement. Having developed these sound scales, we then examined analytically the relationship among background, demographic (exogenous), the four

7 Ds of study abroad (endogenous), and our global engagement outcomes variables, using various multivariate statistical techniques such as regression analysis, path analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis (see Appendix F). Given the extremely large sample of this study and associated statistical power, we found many highly significant statistical relationships. However, size effects in most cases were modest. The variable with the highest explanatory power and by far the greatest size effects was consistently program depth. This has important implications for the field and is highly consistent with both the Georgetown (Vande Berg, et al., 2009) and MAXSA (Cohen, et al., 2005) findings which emphasize the importance of intervention to ensure genuine and impactful learning experiences. Interpretation of the unexpected results (basically a null finding) related to duration are complex. This is the wonderful surprise aspect of research. The basic finding that duration of study abroad per se does not matter in terms of impact was a finding that generated considerable discussion in the field (see Appendix B). Many other studies may indicate that duration probably does affect language learning positively, for example, but we were not assessing that kind of outcome. Actually our finding can be interpreted in a rather positive way. What really counts is not how long you stay or where you go, but the quality of the program and the nature of deep cultural and learning experiences provided. This is consistent with the recently concluded major Georgetown research on study abroad (Vande Berg, et al., 2009) which indicates the critical need for intervention to ensure impact and genuine learning. This finding related to duration also has important implications for the field given the dramatic growth in short-term study abroad and it having become the most common genre of study abroad. If done in the right way, short-term study abroad can have impact (see Nam & Fry, 2010). Qualitative findings Our qualitative findings derive from three primary data sources: 1) two open-ended questions at the end of the large electronic survey, 2) in-depth interviews of 63 individuals randomly selected from those participating in the electronic survey who indicated that they were willing to be interviewed, and 3) detailed case studies of individuals purposively selected because of the richness (Yin, 2009) of their experiences and how those help us to understand more deeply how study abroad influences global engagement and concrete examples of the nature of that global engagement and its impact on the common good. The major qualitative finding is that overwhelmingly, the study abroad experience was among the most influential experiences in participants lives, or was the most impactful experience. A number of key themes and patterns emerged from analysis of the qualitative interviews related to the impact of study abroad on participants lives. These themes were as follows: Personal learning and development Refined language and cultural abilities Development of cultural empathy Impact on education and educational decisions and shift in educational choices

8 Impact on career and professional development and shift in career choices; Nonpecuniary job choice Increased understanding of the world issues and relations Changes in worldview and values Global engagement activities One vivid example of impact was a former study abroad student who had a much more open attitude toward recent immigrants, stating that they were not just faceless people who work in a processing plant. Related to the last global engagement theme, the major focus of the study, several key patterns emerged: Wanting to make a difference Actively engaged in working for the common good Seeking a more balanced life Changing lifestyles Taking action to influence purchasing decisions to enhance social justice and environmental preservation Changing world views and values was another major pattern in terms of outcomes, illustrated by the following patterns identified: Tolerance and seeing multiple perspectives Generational multiplier effect; Becoming international and developing comparative thinking Cumulative persistent influence throughout lives Realization and negotiation of identity and values Critical consciousness related to media, for example. Prior to study abroad many had accepted media presentations of other countries and cultures as the truth. Also a number of key themes and patterns emerged related to the study abroad experience itself. These themes were as follows Choice of college influenced by study abroad opportunities offered 1+1=3 (distinctive impact of multiple study abroad experiences) Importance of intensity and depth of experience Value of carefully designed field trips and experiential learning (non-classroom) The first theme has important implications for colleges and universities around the country as they compete for the best and most talented students. It suggests that the policy of

9 Princeton University to encourage a gap year for their entering students may be a visionary policy in many regards (Tilgman, 2008). The second theme was somewhat unexpected and supports the comparative perspective emphasized by international educators such as Josef Mestenhauser (1998). Multiple experiences seem to have more than increased linear impact, but exponential influence in what might be termed the precious circle of study abroad reflected well in the individual case study of Maiyia Yang above. The 1+1=3 theme suggests that the IE 3 innovative approach to study abroad funded initially by the federal government was visionary (IE 3 ; Lahr, 2010). The IE 3 concept emphasized the integration of study abroad and work/internships overseas with the three Es being education, experience, and employment. Related to the final theme many study abroad reflected positively on the value of carefully planned field trips that required critical reflection. Integrated findings from the three stages of the qualitative research In terms of the nature of the study abroad experience, the following were the key themes identified: Value of intensity Benefit of multifaceted experiences Cumulative nature of experiences Importance of program intervention (cf. Maximizing Study Abroad, Paige, Cohen, & Shively, 2003; the Georgetown Study, Vande Berg, Connor-Linton, & Paige, 2009) In terms of the global engagement outcomes, the two major themes that emerged were: The multidimensional nature of global engagement The long-term nature of impact Dissemination and Outreach We have considered it extremely important to share these important SAGE findings at different stages of the research process with diverse scholarly and public audiences. There have two presentations internationally (one in Germany, two in Denmark, and one in Canada). In the U.S. we have presented three times in Washington, D.C. and Oregon, twice at the University of Minnesota, and also in Wisconsin, Hawai i, California, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Missouri. A total of 18 presentations have made over a period of three years ( ) (see Appendix A). Results have been presented at the conferences of the major organizations in the field of international/intercultural education, namely, the Council on International Education and Exchange, the Forum on Education Abroad, NAFSA: The Association of International Educators, the Comparative and International Education Society, the International Academy on Intercultural Research, the European Association for International Education, and the Pacific Circle Consortium. As the result of these many presentations, the project has attracted considerable media attention. A reporter from the Chronicle of Higher Education covered our

10 February presentation at the conference of the Forum on Education Abroad and wrote an article about SAGE and its basic findings (Fischer, 2009). That led in turn to a number of newspaper articles around the country (see Appendix B). The initial findings of the SAGE study were published in a prominent European journal, Intercultural Education (Paige, et al, 2009). (See Appendix G). A paper with more extensive findings was accepted by the Association for the Study of Higher Education (ASHE) and presented in Vancouver, Canada in November, 2009 (Jon & Fry, 2009) (See Appendix H). We have developed a strategic plan for the preparation of a series of papers for submission to key journals in the field over the next two years. After this period, we will then make the data set publically available for scholars and students around the nation and world to use with permission and acknowledgment for further research analysis. Finally, in the age of the Internet, early on we developed a project Web-site open to the public which contains detailed information on the SAGE project and our research processes and outcomes. The Web-site includes copies of all our formal presentations on SAGE research. One of our team members had the responsibility to maintain the Web-site and to respond to queries about the project. The url for the site is: Limitations of the Study Our study has several major limitations. First, though our response rate is considered quite respectable for an electronic survey of this type, there is the selection bias in that those electing to participate in our study were those who were more likely to have had more positive and impactful study abroad experiences. Unfortunately we were not able to track down nonrespondents to ascertain explicitly the extent of this bias. Second, with our huge sample, we have exceptionally good statistical power. However, we must, therefore, be mindful not to exaggerate the impact of highly statistically significant findings but where size effects are minimal. Directions for Future Research The ideal future study would be a genuine longitudinal tracer study, with a carefully selected control group, to follow study abroad alumni into the future over many decades. Our cross-sectional retrospective tracer study going back 50 years was an attempt to replicate a genuine longitudinal tracer study. Because of the enormous costs involved, such a dream study may never be feasible. In September, 2009, the University of Wisconsin invited us to their campus to discuss our SAGE project and its methodology. Inspired by our work, they are carrying out their own Wisconsin study of that universities study abroad alumni, drawing on the SAGE instruments and methodology. Thus, we anticipate that the SAGE study will inspire numerous other institutions to assess systematically the impact of study abroad for their alumni. We have given authorization for each participating institution in our own project to do their own analyses of data from their own institutions if they choose to do so. Thus, we anticipate a valuable multiplier effect from SAGE, with the generation of a number of future studies of the impact of study abroad as an increasingly important of the undergraduate experience.

11 Concluding Thoughts and Reflections This research demonstrates the long-term impact of study abroad experience during undergraduate education, by examining the undergraduate experiences of study abroad alumni between 1960 and This study provides strong empirical evidence that undergraduate students who study abroad during their college years become globally engaged in a variety of ways in subsequent years. Moreover, many of them attribute their global engagement to their having studied abroad. An investment in study abroad then, at the federal and state levels, is a much broader investment in the long term well-being of society and the globe: socially, environmentally, and politically. This investment already has a platform in the Paul Simon Foundation Study Abroad Act and the Lincoln Commission Report, which calls for a vast expansion of study abroad opportunities, destinations, and participation to a million U.S. students abroad annually. The long term purpose of the act is to create a more globally informed and involved American citizenry. SAGE provides strong empirical evidence suggesting that this goal will be realized. A major finding related to the impact of study abroad on global values (environmentally mindful behaviors, for example, voluntary simplicity) contributes to the global imperative for more sustainable development. This research also has important implications for the field of higher education. Given the powerful and transformative impact of study abroad that we have demonstrated empirically, study abroad should be seen as central to having a genuine liberal education. The University of Minnesota s Carlson School of Management is now requiring all undergraduates to have a study abroad experience. It is even more important that liberal arts graduates have this experience. Given the findings of this study, ways need to be found to increase the number of students having this kind of opportunity. This research shows that undergraduate study abroad experiences promote participants long-term global engagement in a multifaceted way. It also provides strong empirical evidence that study abroad experiences can profoundly influence individuals pursuit of further graduate studies and career paths. Moreover, this research also has significant implications for policy makers and practitioners in the field. It is extremely timely from a policy perspective, given the Simon Study Abroad Foundation Act (2007) which has received strong bipartisan support in Congress. This study and its data can inform policy thinking about the goals of the Act to democratize, diversify, and expand study abroad. Also the finding that study participants viewed study abroad as the most impactful of their undergraduate experiences should be welcomed by international educators across the globe. With regard to research implications, it is meaningful that this study has examined the behavioral patterns of global engagement, going beyond previous studies which have concentrated on attitudinal or only short-term outcomes of international education. Also this research has important theoretical implications in that it has resulted in a reliable scale for assessing global engagement in a multifaceted way. Reliable scales have also been developed

12 for assessing the depth of the study abroad experience and the diversified nature of study abroad destinations. Nationally and internationally, there has been increasing emphasis on the internationalization of higher education. Study abroad is an important aspect of this process. Previous to this major study of the impact of study abroad on global engagement there has been much anecdotal information on this topic. It is meaningful that this research has documented empirically and systematically how study abroad has positively influenced global engagement in multifaceted ways. Also for many participants, study abroad is transformational in its influence on their later educational and occupational choices. Prior to this project, there seemed to be considerable empirical evidence related to the individual and personal gains from study abroad (private benefits and returns). From an economic perspective, if those were the only outcomes, then the argument for subsidizing study abroad may not be particularly compelling. However, our findings suggest that investing in study abroad has both major social and individual benefits, and, thus contributes to the development of not only human capital but social capital, and, thus contributes to the common good, above and beyond the personal private benefits. Thus, we have solid empirical evidence justifying public support for the expansion, diversification, and democratization of study abroad as called for in the visionary Lincoln Commission Report and Simon Study Abroad Foundation Act.

13 Beyond Immediate Impact: Study Abroad for Global Engagement (SAGE) Report Submitted to the Title VI: International Research and Studies Program U.S. Department of Education by R. Michael Paige and Gerald W. Fry, Principal Investigators Dr. Elizabeth Stallman, Dr. Jae-Eun Jon, Ms. Jasmina Josić, Research Associates Department of Organizational Leadership, Policy, and Development College of Education and Human Development University of Minnesota August 30,

14 Table of Contents Page List of Tables 4 List of Figures 7 I. Abstract 8 II. Executive Summary 10 III. Credits and Acknowledgements 18 IV. Introduction 20 V. Aims of the Study and Research Questions 26 VI. Research Design 27 A. Participants 27 B. Instrumentation-Online Survey 29 C. Data Collection Procedures 33 D. Data Analysis Procedures 36 VII. Quantitative Findings and Interpretation 37 A. Descriptive Statistics 37 B. Variable Construction 56 C. Factor Analysis and Creating Global Engagement 57 Variables Empirically D. Destination Index 59 E. Assessing the Depth of Study Abroad Programs 65 F. Research Design: Data Collection Procedures-Study 66 Abroad and Comparison Groups G. Multivariate Quantitative Findings and Analysis 69 H. Regression and Path Analysis 71 2

15 Page I. Analysis of Differences between Study Abroad and 85 Comparison Groups VIII. Qualitative Findings and Interpretation 86 A. Open-Ended Question Analysis 87 B. Individual Interviews 89 C. Individual Case Studies 98 IX. Conclusions, Discussion, and Implications 117 A. Summary of Findings: Quantitative and Qualitative 117 B. Dissemination and Outreach 121 C. Limitations of Study 122 D. Directions for Future Research 122 E. Concluding Thoughts and Reflections 123 X. Bibliography 125 XI. Appendices 138 A. Presentations Given on SAGE Research at Diverse 138 Conferences and Settings B. Examples of Media Attention to SAGE and its Findings 140 C. The Electronic Survey 141 D. Interview Guide for Qualitative Case Studies 162 E. Technical Notes: Missing Values 164 F. Confirmatory Factor Analyses: Global Engagement, 167 Depth, and Destination G. Copy of Paper Published in Intercultural Education 169 H. Paper Presented at the American Society for the Study of 175 Higher Education (ASHE) 3

16 List of Tables Table 1 Participating institutions/organizations (by type) 28 Table 2 Participating institutions, study abroad and comparison Group 32 Table 3 Survey implementation timeline 35 Table 4 Gender 37 Table 5 Ethnicity 38 Table 6 Mother s education 38 Table 7 Father s education 39 Table 8 Lived abroad as a child 39 Table 9: Type of institution 40 Table 10: Institution/provider organization participation data 41 Table 11 Study abroad by time period 42 Table 12 Duration of study abroad program (in months) 43 Table 13 Program type 44 Table 14 Program description 44 Table 15 Impact of college experiences 45 Table 16 Impact of study abroad on global engagement 46 Table 17 Domestic civic engagement 47 Table 18 International civic engagement 48 Table 19 Philanthropy- monetary donations: type of organization by frequency of 49 donations Table 20 Philanthropy-volunteer work: type of organization by frequency of 50 volunteerism Table 21 Social entrepreneurship 50 Page 4

17 Table 22 Social entrepreneurship: type of organization created by 51 percent of entrepreneurs Table 23 Practice voluntary simplicity 52 Table 24 Had something published 52 Table 25 Publications by percent of respondents 53 Table 26 Other types of knowledge production (yes, no) 54 Table 27 Other types of knowledge production by percent of respondents 54 Table 28 Attended graduate school 55 Table 29 Impact of study abroad on education and occupation 55 Table 30 Career choice was or is internationally oriented 56 Table 31 Currently speak study abroad language 56 Table 32 Global engagement factors 58 Table 33 Countries by degree of similarity/dissimilarity compared to the U.S. 60 Table 34 Destination Index for select countries in the study and the appropriate 64 values of its three components Table 35 Basic descriptive statistics and missing data profile for the study abroad 67 group Table 36 Basic descriptive statistics and missing data profile for the comparison 68 group Table 37 Correlations among explanatory variables: Duration, Destination, and Depth 69 Indices Table 38 Correlations among Global Engagement Indices 70 Table 39 Correlations between Global Engagement (outcome) variables and study 71 abroad characteristics (explanatory) variables Table 40 Model fit indices for Global Engagement 1 models 73 Table 41 Direct effects from demographic and explanatory variables on GE 1 73 Page 5

18 Page Table 42 Model fit indices for Global Engagement 2 models 74 Table 43 Direct effects from demographic and explanatory variables on GE 2 75 Table 44 Model fit indices for Global Engagement 3 models 76 Table 45 Direct effects from demographic and explanatory variables on GE 3 76 Table 46 Model fit indices for Global Engagement 4 models 77 Table 47 Direct effects from demographic and explanatory variables on GE 4 77 Table 48 Model fit indices for Global Engagement 5 models 78 Table 49 Direct effects from demographic and explanatory variables on GE 5 79 Table 50 Model fit indices for Global Engagement 6 models 79 Table 51 Direct effects from demographic and explanatory variables on GE 6 80 Table 52 Model fit indices for Global Engagement 7 models 81 Table 53 Direct effects from demographic and explanatory variables on GE 7 82 Table 54 Model fit indices for Global Engagement: Knowledge Production models 83 Table 55 Direct effects from demographic and explanatory variables on KP_GE 83 Table 56 Model fit indices for Global Engagement: Social Entrepreneurship models 84 Table 57 Direct effects from demographic and explanatory variables on social 85 entrepreneurship Table 58 Means and standard deviations of variables for those missing on Global 164 Engagement survey items greater than 10%: Duration, Destination Index, Depth Index, age, SES, and gender Table 59 Means and standard deviations of education and career related variables for 165 those missing on Global Engagement Indices greater than 10%: Pursued an advanced degree, an internationally-oriented degree, and career is internationally-oriented Table 60 Means and standard deviations of variables for those missing on Global 165 Engagement survey items greater than 8%: Age, SES, gender, and education, career related variables 6

19 List of Figures Page Figure 1 Countries by degree of similarity/dissimilarity compared to the U.S. rank ordered. 62 Figure 2 Initial path model 72 Figure 3 Path model of GE 1 Philanthropic Donations 74 Figure 4 Path model of GE 2: Volunteerism: Social Justice 75 Figure 5 Path model of GE 3: Civic Engagement- International: Political 76 Figure 6 Path model of GE 4: Global Values 78 Figure 7 Path model of GE 5: Global Leadership 79 Figure 8 Path model of GE 6 Civic Engagement- Domestic: Political 81 Figure 9 Path model of GE 7 Volunteerism: Social Welfare 81 Figure 10 Path model of Global Engagement: Knowledge Production 84 Figure 11 Path model of Global Engagement: Social Entrepreneurship 85 Figure 12 Example of a confirmatory factor analysis for the Global Engagement Construct 167 Figure 13 Example of a confirmatory factor analysis for the Depth Index 168 7

20 I. Abstract This research project Beyond Immediate Impact: Study Abroad for Global Engagement (SAGE) was designed to examine the relationship between study abroad during an individual s college years and subsequent global engagement. Global engagement was conceptualized as a poststudy abroad set of multidimensional behaviors organized into five distinct categories: civic engagement, philanthropy, knowledge production, social entrepreneurship, and voluntary simplicity (an environmentally conscious lifestyle). The central research questions of the study were: 1. To what degree and in what ways do former study abroad students become globally engaged in the years following their study abroad experiences? 2. To what degree do former study abroad students attribute their global engagement to their having studied abroad? 3. What are the relationships between the specific aspects of study abroad (student demographics, duration, destination, and depth of program (what we have identified as the basic 4Ds of study abroad) and global engagement outcomes? To answer these research questions, the SAGE research team designed a retrospective tracer study of program alumni who had been abroad between 1960 and 2007, a near 50 year time span. The project generated survey data from 6,378 former study-abroad and 5,924 non-study abroad participants representing U.S. 20 colleges and universities, and, for study abroad students, two additional educationabroad providers. SAGE was funded by a four-year grant from the US Department of Education, Title VI: International Research and Studies Program. The research methodology was a retrospective tracer study, inspired by the previous research of Bok and Bowen in Shape of the River, which examined the long-term impact of affirmative action. The design for the study was a mixed-methods one to provide important triangulation of data. In addition to the large national electronic survey, in-depth interviews were conducted of a random sample of 63 participants from the large survey. This was then complemented by 10 in-depth qualitative case studies chosen for the insight they provide in understanding how study abroad has influenced global engagement and contributions to the common good. Major findings from both the quantitative and qualitative phases of the study were as follows: Study abroad was by far the most impactful aspect of their undergraduate experience. The major qualitative finding is that overwhelmingly, the study abroad experience was among the most influential experiences in participants lives, or was the most impactful experience. Many of our survey participants demonstrated diverse and extensive global engagement and often attributed that outcome to their study abroad experiences. This was particularly clear in the area of global values related to the practice of voluntary simplicity and purchasing decisions. Study abroad significantly influenced many in their educational and occupational decisions and those in our study were far more likely to pursue graduate work, compared to the national average. 8

21 Destination and depth of program were strongly related. This suggests that programs in non-traditional parts of the world are likely to have more depth and be less shallow than programs in traditional study abroad locations. Of the various study abroad factors, depth of program was consistently that which showed the most influence on global engagement. Prior to this project, there seemed to be considerable empirical evidence related to the individual and personal gains from study abroad (private benefits and returns). From an economic perspective, if those were the only outcomes, then the argument for subsidizing study abroad may not be particularly compelling. However, our findings suggest that investing in study abroad has both major social and individual benefits, and, thus contributes to the development of not only human capital but social capital, and, thus contributes to the common good, above and beyond the personal private benefits. Thus, we have solid empirical evidence justifying public support for the expansion, diversification, and democratization of study abroad as called for in the visionary Lincoln Commission Report and Simon Study Abroad Foundation Act. 9

22 II. Executive Summary "Global student mobility is one of the fastest growing phenomena in higher education in the twenty-first century. Over three million students are currently mobile, crossing geographic, cultural, digital, and educational borders in the pursuit of an international education - a movement that has significant consequences for higher education institutions and nations worldwide... Bhandari & Blumenthal (2011) This research project Beyond Immediate Impact: Study Abroad for Global Engagement (SAGE) was designed to examine the relationship between study abroad during an individual s college years and subsequent global engagement. Global engagement was conceptualized as a poststudy abroad set of multidimensional behaviors organized into five distinct categories: civic engagement, philanthropy, knowledge production, social entrepreneurship, and voluntary simplicity (an environmentally conscious lifestyle). The central research questions of the study were: (1) To what degree and in what ways do former study abroad students become globally engaged in the years following their study abroad experiences? (2) To what degree do former study abroad students attribute their global engagement to their having studied abroad? (3) What are the relationships between the specific aspects of study abroad (student demographics, duration, destination, and depth of program (what we have identified as the basic 4Ds of study abroad) and global engagement outcomes? To answer these research questions, the SAGE research team designed a retrospective tracer study of program alumni who had been abroad between 1960 and 2007, a near 50 year time span. The project generated survey data from 6,378 former study-abroad and 5,924 non-study abroad participants representing U.S. 20 colleges and universities, and, for study abroad students, two additional educationabroad providers. SAGE has been funded by a four-year grant from the US Department of Education, Title VI: International Research and Studies Program. The broader context of this study is the rapidly growing, worldwide interest in internationalizing higher education and the promotion of more effective cultural and language learning. Colleges and universities are investing heavily in a variety of activities intended to create a global campus environment; these include, among other things, international education and exchange agreements, bringing international students and scholars to the campus, conducting international collaborative research, internationalizing the curriculum, and offering study abroad opportunities to their students. Indeed, during the past 20 years, study abroad has become a centerpiece of many internationalization efforts and the growth in study abroad participation has been notable. The Open Doors 2009 (IIE, 2009a) report shows that there was an increase of 8.5% from the previous year in the number of Americans studying abroad (262,416), a fourfold jump since Similarly, ERASMUS data show a dramatic increase in EU student mobility from a mere 3,244 in to 2.2 million by mid (European Commission Education and Training, 2010). 10

23 One component of this overarching internationalization context is the increased interest in globally-oriented learning outcomes. Terms such as global competence, global citizenship, and global engagement are commonly mentioned as the expected benefits of study abroad. Yet, when this study began, these terms were only loosely defined and there was little solid empirical research on global engagement outcomes. Hence, a fundamental purpose of this study was to conceptualize global engagement, empirically validate that conceptual model, and then examine the relationships between study abroad and global engagement. SAGE and its methodology was inspired by the well-known book, The Shape of the River (Bowen and Bok 1998), a powerful account of the long-term effects of affirmative action policies on the recipients, their academic institutions, and society at large. The authors used a retrospective tracer study research design that informed our work. In a philosophical sense, we were moved by Putnam s (2000) Bowling Alone and Bellah s (1985) Habits of the Heart, both of which expressed deep concern about the decline of social capital, civic engagement, and commitment to the public good. Our view was that globally engaged behavior contributes to social capital formation hence is worthy of study. Moreover, there was considerable anecdotal evidence that those who have studied abroad feel that the experience was transformative and changed the ways that they engage with the world in later years. However, there was little empirical evidence to support this idea. The SAGE project thus was designed to build on the existing body of knowledge regarding the personal and professional impact of study abroad and expand upon it by conceptualizing and then studying global engagement as it unfolds throughout a person s life. SAGE was conducted over a four-year period from 2006 to Using a mixed method approach, the study generated both survey and qualitative interview data from 6,378 study abroad participants, 63 study abroad interviewees, and 5,924 non-study abroad participants from five decades, The information provided by these respondents through the analysis of global engagement outcomes and their relationships with different study abroad variables constitutes valuable data of relevance to higher education institutions and beyond. By adding educational decisions and career choices as outcomes, we expanded the study to include important elements of the respondent s life histories to compliment our central focus on global engagement. In all, we were mapping critically important relationships among these key outcomes and study abroad. The SAGE research program progressed through three phases. In phase one (AY ), the team first focused on the conceptual model of global engagement, then went into a lengthy instrument development process that included (1) creating a draft instrument, (2) vetting the draft Global Engagement Survey instrument via focus group discussions with an advisory council of study abroad experts/professionals (who were members of the Forum on Education Abroad board members), and, lastly (3) conducting a full fledging pilot test of the instrument with one university. In phase two (AY ), the core activities were (1) administering the Global Engagement Survey to 24,019 alumni from the 22 partner institutions who had studied abroad as undergraduates between 1960 and 2007, and (2) analyzing the data and disseminating the results at professional association meetings and publications. During this phase, the conceptually-generated global engagement data were empirically analyzed. This produced a similar but more refined set of six new global engagement variables that are psychometrically sound, demonstrating strong validity and reliability. In phase three (AY ), by means of a no-cost extension to the grant, the team was able to (1) sample a non-study abroad comparison group, (2) administer a slightly revised version of the Global Engagement Survey to this audience, and (3) analyze the findings. 11

24 Summary of Findings: Quantitative and Qualitative Our major quantitative findings can be summarized in two primary categories, descriptive and analytical. Descriptive Findings In the field of higher education, increasing attention is being given to the nature of the undergraduate experience (Kuh 2005a, 2005b; Pascarella, 2005; Foster, 2007; Hu, et al., 2008; Harper & Quaye, 2009; Healy, Pawson, & Solem, 2010). The most dramatic SAGE descriptive finding related to this important issue was that 83.3% of respondents indicated that study abroad had had a strong impact on their lives. Interaction with faculty in contrast was indicated as having strong impact by only 37.8%. Thus, study abroad was seen as the most impactful aspect of their undergraduate experiences and perceived as being far important than any other aspect of their undergraduate experience. This finding should be well received by those dedicated to internationalizing higher education and committed to the importance of international/intercultural education and learning. Participants were asked directly to assess how study abroad had influenced their global engagement. In one of the most important findings of this study, 70.3% indicated that study abroad had influenced to a large or some degree their practice of voluntary simplicity (cf. Roy & Anderson, 2010). Given the serious problem of global warming and overconsumption, this is an encouraging finding. Also related to environmental consciousness and issues of social justice, study abroad participants compared to the comparison group were much more likely to make purchasing decisions based on the values of the companies or corporations involved. Out of our 10 major dimensions of global engagement, on eight of those measures such as social entrepreneurship and international civic engagement over 50% of the sample indicated that study abroad has influenced their involvement in these domains to a large or some degree. Also 59.7% indicated that study abroad had influenced their future education decisions to a large or some degree. With regard to education and career paths, the results show that 58.7%, more than half of study abroad alumni attained at least one graduate degree. Moreover, out of those pursuing graduate education, 35 % of the participants indicated having an internationally oriented graduate degree. Particularly the graduate completion rate of participants in the SAGE project is striking compared to that in national data. In 2006, the percentage of the U.S. population age 18 and over whose highest degree attained was a Bachelors degree was 25.5%. Further, among those with a Bachelors degree, 33.4% have gone on to receive a post-baccalaureate degree. (U.S. Census Bureau, 2007). This is an extremely important finding, given concerns about US national competitiveness in the age of the knowledge economy (Friedman, 2005). The caveat is, however, that those who study abroad may be already a more motivated group and therefore more likely to attempt graduate education. Analytical Findings A major element in the SAGE study and contribution to the field was the development of a number of scales related to both study abroad itself and global engagement. Related to the nature of the study abroad experience itself, we identified and developed the four Ds of study abroad, namely, 1) demography: who goes?, 2) duration: how long do they stay? 3) destination: where do they go and what is the nature of that destination? and 4) depth: to what extent is their program deep versus shallow in terms of cultural and language learning and having a transformative learning experience (Mezirow, 2000; Fry, 2007). We developed psychometrically sound and robust scales for assessing for both destination and depth of study abroad programs. Interestingly, a strong correlation was found between 12

25 destination and program depth (r=.50). Thus, programs in non-traditional destinations such as the Middle East, Africa, or Asia were more likely to be in-depth than programs in traditional destinations such as England and Mexico (see Conlin, 2010). This provides strong empirical support for the goal of the Simon Study Abroad Foundation Act to diversify study abroad opportunities. We also developed a psychometrically sound and robust multidimensional scale for assessing individuals global engagement. Having developed these sound scales, we then examined analytically the relationship among background, demographic (exogenous), the four Ds of study abroad (endogenous), and our global engagement outcomes variables, using various multivariate statistical techniques such as regression analysis, path analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis (see Appendix F). Given the extremely large sample of this study and associated statistical power, we found many highly significant statistical relationships. However, size effects in most cases were modest. The variable with the highest explanatory power and by far the greatest size effects was consistently program depth. This has important implications for the field and is highly consistent with both the Georgetown (Vande Berg, et al., 2009) and MAXSA (Cohen, et al., 2005) findings which emphasize the importance of intervention to ensure genuine and impactful learning experiences. Interpretation of the unexpected results (basically a null finding) related to duration are complex. This is the wonderful surprise aspect of research. The basic finding that duration of study abroad per se does not matter in terms of impact was a finding that generated considerable discussion in the field (see Appendix B). Many other studies may indicate that duration probably does affect language learning positively, for example, but we were not assessing that kind of outcome. Actually our finding can be interpreted in a rather positive way. What really counts is not how long you stay or where you go, but the quality of the program and the nature of deep cultural and learning experiences provided. This is consistent with the recently concluded major Georgetown research on study abroad (Vande Berg, et al., 2009) which indicates the critical need for intervention to ensure impact and genuine learning. This finding related to duration also has important implications for the field given the dramatic growth in short-term study abroad and it having become the most common genre of study abroad. If done in the right way, short-term study abroad can have impact (see Nam & Fry, 2010). Qualitative findings Our qualitative findings derive from three primary data sources: 1) two open-ended questions at the end of the large electronic survey, 2) in-depth interviews of 63 individuals randomly selected from those participating in the electronic survey who indicated that they were willing to be interviewed, and 3) detailed case studies of individuals purposively selected because of the richness (Yin, 2009) of their experiences and how those help us to understand more deeply how study abroad influences global engagement and concrete examples of the nature of that global engagement and its impact on the common good. The major qualitative finding is that overwhelmingly, the study abroad experience was among the most influential experiences in participants lives, or was the most impactful experience. A number of key themes and patterns emerged from analysis of the qualitative interviews related to the impact of study abroad on participants lives. These themes were as follows: Personal learning and development Refined language and cultural abilities Development of cultural empathy 13

26 Impact on education and educational decisions and shift in educational choices Impact on career and professional development and shift in career choices; Nonpecuniary job choice Increased understanding of the world issues and relations Changes in worldview and values Global engagement activities One vivid example of impact was a former study abroad student who had a much more open attitude toward recent immigrants, stating that they were not just faceless people who work in a processing plant. Related to the last global engagement theme, the major focus of the study, several key patterns emerged: Wanting to make a difference Actively engaged in working for the common good Seeking a more balanced life Changing lifestyles Taking action to influence purchasing decisions to enhance social justice and environmental preservation Changing world views and values was another major pattern in terms of outcomes, illustrated by the following patterns identified: Tolerance and seeing multiple perspectives Generational multiplier effect; Becoming international and developing comparative thinking Cumulative persistent influence throughout lives Realization and negotiation of identity and values Critical consciousness related to media, for example. Prior to study abroad many had accepted media presentations of other countries and cultures as the truth. Also a number of key themes and patterns emerged related to the study abroad experience itself. These themes were as follows Choice of college influenced by study abroad opportunities offered 1+1=3 (distinctive impact of multiple study abroad experiences) Importance of intensity and depth of experience Value of carefully designed field trips and experiential learning (non-classroom) The first theme has important implications for colleges and universities around the country as they compete for the best and most talented students. It suggests that the policy of Princeton University to encourage a gap year for their entering students may be a visionary policy in many regards (Tilgman, 2008). 14

27 The second theme was somewhat unexpected and supports the comparative perspective emphasized by international educators such as Josef Mestenhauser (1998). Multiple experiences seem to have more than increased linear impact, but exponential influence in what might be termed the precious circle of study abroad reflected well in the individual case study of Maiyia Yang above. The 1+1=3 theme suggests that the IE 3 innovative approach to study abroad funded initially by the federal government was visionary (IE 3 ; Lahr, 2010). The IE 3 concept emphasized the integration of study abroad and work/internships overseas with the three Es being education, experience, and employment. Related to the final theme many study abroad reflected positively on the value of carefully planned field trips that required critical reflection. Integrated findings from the three stages of the qualitative research In terms of the nature of the study abroad experience, the following were the key themes identified: Value of intensity Benefit of multifaceted experiences Cumulative nature of experiences Importance of program intervention (cf. Maximizing Study Abroad, Cohen, et al., ; the Georgetown Study, Vande Berg, et al., 2009) In terms of the global engagement outcomes, the two major themes that emerged were: The multidimensional nature of global engagement The long-term nature of impact Dissemination and Outreach We have considered it extremely important to share these important SAGE findings at different stages of the research process with diverse scholarly and public audiences. There have two presentations internationally (one in Germany, two in Denmark, and one in Canada). In the U.S. we have presented three times in Washington, D.C. and Oregon, twice at the University of Minnesota, and also in Wisconsin, Hawai i, California, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Missouri. A total of 18 presentations have made over a period of three years ( ) (see Appendix A). Results have been presented at the conferences of the major organizations in the field of international/intercultural education, namely, the Council on International Education and Exchange, the Forum on Education Abroad, NAFSA: The Association of International Educators, the Comparative and International Education Society, the International Academy on Intercultural Research, the European Association for International Education, and the Pacific Circle Consortium. As the result of these many presentations, the project has attracted considerable media attention. A reporter from the Chronicle of Higher Education covered our February presentation at the conference of the Forum on Education Abroad and wrote an article about SAGE and its basic findings (Fischer, 2009). That led in turn to a number of newspaper articles around the country (see Appendix B). The initial findings of the SAGE study were published in a prominent European journal, Intercultural Education (Paige, et al, 2009). (See Appendix G). A paper with more extensive findings was accepted by the Association for the Study of Higher Education (ASHE) and presented in Vancouver, Canada in November, 2009 (Jon & Fry, 2009) (See Appendix H). We have developed a 15

28 strategic plan for the preparation of a series of papers for submission to key journals in the field over the next two years. After this period, we will then make the data set publically available for scholars and students around the nation and world to use with permission and acknowledgment for further research analysis. Finally, in the age of the Internet, early on we developed a project Web-site open to the public which contains detailed information on the SAGE project and our research processes and outcomes. The Web-site includes copies of all our formal presentations on SAGE research. One of our team members had the responsibility to maintain the Web-site and to respond to queries about the project. The url for the site is: Limitations of the Study Our study has several major limitations. First, though our response rate is considered quite respectable for an electronic survey of this type, there is the selection bias in that those electing to participate in our study were those who were more likely to have had more positive and impactful study abroad experiences. Unfortunately we were not able to track down non-respondents to ascertain explicitly the extent of this bias. Second, with our huge sample, we have exceptionally good statistical power. However, we must, therefore, be mindful not to exaggerate the impact of highly statistically significant findings but where size effects are minimal. Directions for Future Research The ideal future study would be a genuine longitudinal tracer study, with a carefully selected control group, to follow study abroad alumni into the future over many decades. Our cross-sectional retrospective tracer study going back 50 years was an attempt to replicate a genuine longitudinal tracer study. Because of the enormous costs involved, such a dream study may never be feasible. In September, 2009, the University of Wisconsin invited us to their campus to discuss our SAGE project and its methodology. Inspired by our work, they are carrying out their own Wisconsin study of that universities study abroad alumni, drawing on the SAGE instruments and methodology. Thus, we anticipate that the SAGE study will inspire numerous other institutions to assess systematically the impact of study abroad for their alumni. We have given authorization for each participating institution in our own project to do their own analyses of data from their own institutions if they choose to do so. Thus, we anticipate a valuable multiplier effect from SAGE, with the generation of a number of future studies of the impact of study abroad as an increasingly important of the undergraduate experience. Concluding Thoughts and Reflections This research demonstrates the long-term impact of study abroad experience during undergraduate education, by examining the undergraduate experiences of study abroad alumni between 1960 and This study provides strong empirical evidence that undergraduate students who study abroad during their college years become globally engaged in a variety of ways in subsequent years. Moreover, many of them attribute their global engagement to their having studied abroad. An investment in study abroad then, at the federal and state levels, is a much broader investment in the long term well-being of society and the globe: socially, environmentally, and politically. This investment already has a platform in the Paul Simon Foundation Study Abroad Act and the Lincoln Commission Report, which calls for a vast expansion of study abroad opportunities, destinations, and participation to a million U.S. students abroad annually. The long term purpose of the 16

29 act is to create a more globally informed and involved American citizenry. SAGE provides strong empirical evidence suggesting that this goal will be realized. A major finding related to the impact of study abroad on global values (environmentally mindful behaviors, for example, voluntary simplicity) contributes to the global imperative for more sustainable development. This research also has important implications for the field of higher education. Given the powerful and transformative impact of study abroad that we have demonstrated empirically, study abroad should be seen as central to having a genuine liberal education. The University of Minnesota s Carlson School of Management is now requiring all undergraduates to have a study abroad experience. It is even more important that liberal arts graduates have this experience. Given the findings of this study, ways need to be found to increase the number of students having this kind of opportunity. This research shows that undergraduate study abroad experiences promote participants long-term global engagement in a multifaceted way. It also provides strong empirical evidence that study abroad experiences can profoundly influence individuals pursuit of further graduate studies and career paths. Moreover, this research also has significant implications for policy makers and practitioners in the field. It is extremely timely from a policy perspective, given the Simon Study Abroad Foundation Act (2007) which has received strong bipartisan support in Congress. This study and its data can inform policy thinking about the goals of the Act to democratize, diversify, and expand study abroad. Also the finding that study participants viewed study abroad as the most impactful of their undergraduate experiences should be welcomed by international educators across the globe. With regard to research implications, it is meaningful that this study has examined the behavioral patterns of global engagement, going beyond previous studies which have concentrated on attitudinal or only short-term outcomes of international education. Also this research has important theoretical implications in that it has resulted in a reliable scale for assessing global engagement in a multifaceted way. Reliable scales have also been developed for assessing the depth of the study abroad experience and the diversified nature of study abroad destinations. Nationally and internationally, there has been increasing emphasis on the internationalization of higher education. Study abroad is an important aspect of this process. Previous to this major study of the impact of study abroad on global engagement there has been much anecdotal information on this topic. It is meaningful that this research has documented empirically and systematically how study abroad has positively influenced global engagement in multifaceted ways. Also for many participants, study abroad is transformational in its influence on their later educational and occupational choices. Prior to this project, there seemed to be considerable empirical evidence related to the individual and personal gains from study abroad (private benefits and returns). From an economic perspective, if those were the only outcomes, then the argument for subsidizing study abroad may not be particularly compelling. However, our findings suggest that investing in study abroad has both major social and individual benefits, and, thus contributes to the development of not only human capital but social capital, and, thus contributes to the common good, above and beyond the personal private benefits. Thus, we have solid empirical evidence justifying public support for the expansion, diversification, and democratization of study abroad as called for in the visionary Lincoln Commission Report and Simon Study Abroad Foundation Act. 17

30 III. Credits and Acknowledgments The research team extends thanks to the many people who contributed to make this study a success over its four-year duration ( ). First, we are grateful to the research participants the 6,391 alumni of the 23 partner institutions who took their valuable time to provide us with their reflections and insights about their study abroad experiences. Ultimately, our respondents made the study possible. They brought to life for us the impact of study abroad on their careers, later education, and subsequent global engagement. We are very appreciative. Second, we are indebted to the 23 partner institutions, particularly the faculty and staff, who helped us to establish a baseline of global engagement. The following individuals tirelessly assisted us in this regard: Dennis Dutschke at Arcadia University, Patrick Duffey and Karen Nelson at Austin College, Elizabeth Brewer and Barbara Spencer at Beloit College, Naomi Ziegler at Carleton College, Lisa Krieg and Linda Gentile at Carnegie Mellon University, John Tansey at Dartmouth College, Brian Whalen and Walt Chromiak at Dickinson College, Kathleen Sideli at Indiana University, Jill Wright at the Institute for Shipboard Education/Semester-at-Sea, Lee Sternberger and Judy Cohen at James Madison University, Anne Dueweke at Kalamazoo College, Liz Ross at Middlebury College, Barbara Colyar at Santa Clara University, Alejandra Pallais at the School for International Training/World Learning, Rosemary Sands at St. Norbert College, Eric Lund and Scott Johnson at St. Olaf College, Mark Beirn at Tulane University, Jodee Ellett and Charles Lesher at the University of California, Davis, Lynn Anderson at the University of California, San Diego, Kim Kreutzer at the University of Colorado, Boulder, Sophie Gladding at the University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, Susan Lochner at the University of Wisconsin, Eau Claire, and Natalie Mello at Worcester Polytechnic Institute. Special thanks go to the Forum on Education Abroad, which served as a core partner of the SAGE project. Under the leadership of Brian Whalen, the Forum created a SAGE/Forum Advisory Group consisting of: Brian Whalen - Dickinson College, Natalie Mello Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Mell Bolen - Brethren Colleges Abroad, Jim Citron - Colby College, Kate Darian-Smith - University of Melbourne, Darla Deardorff - Duke University and Association of International Education Administrators, and Dennis Gordon - Santa Clara University. The Advisory Group reviewed the initial draft of the Global Engagement Survey (GES) instrument and participated in a two follow-up focus group interviews to discuss the instrument. We also want to extend our sincerest thanks to Dickinson College for agreeing to pilot test the Global Engagement Survey. The pilot was a very important step in finalizing the instrument for the SAGE study. Bruce LaBrack, Professor Emeritus of Anthropology and Sociology at the University of the Pacific, served as our external research consultant throughout the four years of the project. His insightful commentaries on the research design, the GES instrument, project timetable, pilot phase, and many other aspects of the project were invaluable. Many, many thanks. We had invaluable contributions from several Research Assistants over the years. We are grateful to Shelly Fisher and Julia Clark for their assistance in researching and writing the grant proposal; to Andrew Williams for his conceptual thinking about and research on the original variables; and to Aaron Horn for his assistance in constructing the survey, contacting partner institutions, and conducting initial quantitative analyses. Our core research associate team Elizabeth Stallman, Jae- 18

31 Eun Jon, and Jasmina Josić worked tirelessly on the SAGE project in virtually every capacity from helping manage the many details of the grant to data collection and data analysis. SAGE Principal Investigators R. Michael Paige, Ph.D. in International Development Education, is a professor of international and intercultural education at the University of Minnesota, Twin Cities. He is an internationally recognized scholar on intercultural education and training, the lead author of two volumes on language and culture learning strategies for study abroad (Maximizing Study Abroad: A Students Guide to Strategies for Language and Culture Learning and Use, 2002; Maximizing Study Abroad: A Program Professionals Guide to Strategies for Language and Culture Learning and Use, 2003), and coprincipal investigator (with Andrew Cohen) of the three-year Maximizing Study Abroad research project sponsored by a Department of Education Title VI International Research and Studies Program grant. He has also edited Education for the Intercultural Experience (Intercultural Press, 1993) and is the co-editor with Dale Lange of Culture as the core: Perspectives on culture in second language learning (2003, Information Age Publishing). Dr. Paige has more than 35 years of experience as a professional international educator, scholar, teacher, and program administrator. Gerald Fry, Ph.D. in International Development Education, is Distinguished International Professor and a professor of international and intercultural education at the University of Minnesota, Twin Cities. Dr. Fry is a former director of International Studies and the Center for Asian and Pacific Studies at the University of Oregon. Professor Fry s specialty is international and intercultural education. For the past 17 years he has been leading overseas study programs for a wide variety of institutions such as the East-West Center, Stanford University, the University of Oregon, and the University of Minnesota. He recently evaluated CIEE s study abroad program in Thailand. Among his many publications is the monograph: International Cooperative Learning: An Innovative Approach to Intercultural Service, the culmination of a 10 year project which annually took multicultural groups to Southeast Asia for intensive research fieldwork and intercultural learning. Professor Fry was an editor and advisor for the Encyclopedia of Global Perspectives on the United States, commissioned by the Congressional Quarterly (CQ) Press, Among his recent publications are an anthology of many of his major research studies, Understanding Thailand and Its Neighbors: Interdisciplinary Perspectives (2005), The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (2008), and The Transformative Power of Study Abroad (2009), with R. Michael Paige, et al. Professor Fry also serves on the editorial board of the Journal of Studies in International Education. SAGE Research Associates Elizabeth Stallman, Ph.D., received her doctorate in comparative and international development education at the University of Minnesota. She is the lead research associate on the SAGE project. Her research interests are racial and ethnic identity, intercultural competence, college student development, and internationalization of the campus. She received her M.A. in international educational development from Teachers College, Columbia University, where she also served as assistant director of International Services. She received her B.A. in international politics from Penn State University. From 1994 to 1996 she was a JET Program participant for which she taught English to Japanese high school students in Shizuoka, Japan. Jae-Eun Jon, Ph.D., completed her doctorate in the comparative and international development education from the Educational Policy and Administration program at the University of Minnesota. She is a research assistant on the SAGE project. Her previous involvement in research projects at the University of Minnesota includes the Georgetown consortium project and the study on a long-term 19

32 study abroad impact sponsored by the Council on International Educational Exchange. Her research interests include the internationalization of higher education, intercultural competence, intercultural friendship, and international educational development. Before she came to the U.S. for her doctoral degree, she received B.A. in linguistics and M.A. in international area studies from Seoul National University in South Korea. Her passion in international education grew from her year-long study abroad experience at the Tokyo University of Foreign Studies in Japan as an undergraduate. SAGE Graduate Research Assistant Jasmina Josić is a research assistant on the SAGE research project and a Ph.D. candidate in comparative and international development education at the University of Minnesota. Her research interests are in the areas of citizenship education in multicultural societies, dynamics of educational policies in urban environment, gender equity in education, organizational aspects of internationalization of higher education, and development of intercultural competence. Jasmina holds M.B.A. and B.A. in international business/economics from Ramapo College of New Jersey, where she also served at different professional positions in international education and student affairs offices. SAGE Research Consultant Bruce La Brack, Ph.D., is professor emeritus of anthropology and international studies at the School of International Studies, University of the Pacific, Stockton, CA, USA. He has traveled to over eighty countries and has twice been a Fulbright scholar (India and Japan). At UOP, he served as chair of the Pacific Master's of Arts in Intercultural Relations (MAIR) program, director of the Pacific Institute for Cross-Cultural Training (PICCT), and Coordinator of Cross-Cultural Training where he was responsible for origination, design, coordination, and facilitation of both orientation and reentry training for study abroad students. He has been, researching, writing about, and providing training related to international transition issues for thirty years in South Asia, North America, and East Asia including reentry research in India, Japan, Uganda, and England. He is the Training Section co-editor and a reviewer for the International Journal of Intercultural Relations and a senior faculty member at the Summer Institute for Intercultural Communication, Portland, Oregon. His "What's Up with Culture?" Web site, an online cultural training resource for US-American study abroad students, was developed as part of the three-year FIPSE (Fund for the Improvement of Post-Secondary Education) project. IV. Introduction This research project Beyond Immediate Impact: Study Abroad for Global Engagement (SAGE) was designed to examine the relationship between intercultural/international experiences and subsequent global engagement. Intercultural/international experiences were represented by participation in U.S. study abroad programs during a person s college years. Global engagement was conceptualized as a post-study abroad set of behaviors organized into five distinct categories: civic engagement, philanthropy, knowledge production, social entrepreneurship, and voluntary simplicity (an environmentally conscious lifestyle). The central research questions of the study were: 1. To what degree and in what ways do former study abroad students become globally engaged in the years following their study abroad experiences? 2. To what degree do former study abroad students attribute their globally engagement to their having studied abroad? 20

33 3. What are the relationships between the global engagement outcomes and specific aspects of study abroad (duration, depth, destination, and student demographics)? To answer these research questions, the SAGE research team designed a retrospective tracer study of program alumni who had studied abroad between 1960 and 2007, a nearly 50 year time span. The project generated survey data from 6,378 former study-abroad and 6,000 non-study abroad participants representing 20 U.S. colleges and universities, and, for study abroad students, two additional education-abroad providers. SAGE was funded by a four-year grant from the US Department of Education, Title VI: International Research and Studies Program. The broader context of this study is the rapidly growing, worldwide interest in internationalizing higher education. Many colleges and universities are investing heavily in a variety of activities intended to create a global campus environment; these include, among other things, international education and exchange agreements, bringing international students and scholars to the campus, conducting international collaborative research, internationalizing the curriculum, and offering study abroad opportunities to their students. Indeed, during the past 20 years, study abroad has become a centerpiece of many internationalization efforts and the growth in study abroad participation has been notable. The 2009 (IIE, 2009b) report shows that there was an increase of 8.5% from the previous year in the number of Americans studying abroad (262,416), a fourfold jump since Similarly, ERASMUS data show a dramatic increase in EU student mobility from a mere 3,244 in to 2.2 million by mid-2010 (European Commission Education and Training, 2010). One component of this overarching internationalization context is the increased interest in globally-oriented learning outcomes. Terms such as global competence, global citizenship, and global engagement are commonly mentioned as the expected benefits of study abroad. Yet, when this study began, these terms were loosely defined and there was little solid empirical research on global learning and engagement. Hence, a fundamental purpose of this study was to conceptualize global engagement, empirically validate that conceptual model, and then examine the relationships between study abroad and global engagement. SAGE was inspired by the well-known book, The Shape of the River (Bowen & Bok, 1998), a powerful account of the long-term effects of affirmative action policies on the recipients, their academic institutions, and society at large. The authors used a retrospective tracer study research design that informed our work. In a philosophical sense, we were influenced by Putnam s (2000) Bowling Alone, Coleman s (1994) Foundations of Social Theory and article, Social capital in the creation of human capital (1988, American Journal of Sociology) and Bellah s (1985) Habits of the Heart, all of which expressed deep concern about the decline of social capital, civic engagement, and commitment to the public good. Our view was that globally engaged behavior contributes to social capital formation; hence is worthy of serious study. Our basic hypothesis is that study abroad has social benefits that go beyond private benefits to individuals. This is what economists terms positive externalities. If such benefits can be substantiated empirically, then this provides an important rationale for public investments in expanding study abroad such as that represented by the Simon Study Abroad Foundation Act. Moreover, there was considerable anecdotal evidence that those who have studied abroad feel that the experience was transformative and changed the ways that they engage with the world in later years. However, there was little solid empirical evidence to support this idea. The SAGE project thus was designed to build on the existing body of knowledge regarding the personal and professional impact of study abroad and expand upon it by conceptualizing and then studying global engagement as it unfolds throughout a person s life. 21

34 SAGE was conducted over a four-year period from 2006 to Using a mixed methods approach, the study generated both survey and qualitative interview data from 6,378 study abroad participants, 63 study abroad interviewees, and 5,924 non-study abroad participants from five decades, The information provided by these respondents through the analysis of different study abroad variables and their relationship with global engagement outcomes constitutes valuable data of relevance to higher education institutions and beyond. By adding educational decisions and career choices as outcomes, we expanded the study to include important elements of the respondent s life histories to complement our central focus on global engagement. In all, we were mapping critically important relationships among study abroad and these key outcomes. The SAGE research project progressed through three phases. In phase one (AY ), the team first focused on the conceptual model of global engagement, then went into a lengthy instrument development process that included (1) creating a draft instrument, (2) vetting the draft Global Engagement Survey instrument via focus group discussions with an advisory council of study abroad experts/professionals (who were members of the Forum on Education Abroad board members), and, lastly (3) conducting a full fledging pilot test of the instrument with one university. In phase two (AY ), the core activities were (1) administering the Global Engagement Survey to 24,019 alumni from the 22 partner institutions who had studied abroad as undergraduates between 1960 and 2007, and (2) analyzing the data and disseminating the results at professional association meetings and through publications. During this phase, the conceptually-generated global engagement data were empirically analyzed. This produced a similar but more refined set of six new global engagement variables that have strong validity and reliability. In phase three (AY ), by means of a no-cost extension to the grant, the team was able to (1) sample a non-study abroad comparison group, (2) administer a slightly revised version of the Global Engagement Survey to this audience, and (3) analyze the findings. The results of phase three will be disseminated in the future via conference presentations and publications. Review of Related Literature Recharging our civic batteries is no simple task, but studying abroad gives students and faculty a chance to learn more about the rest of the world and almost inevitably that stimulate interest in our government and its policies. The late Senator Paul Simon (Durbin, 2009). While research literature on outcomes of study abroad has emerged, the overwhelming focus to date has been on immediate and short-term outcomes. This study will address near-term (which we define as one to five years post study abroad) and long-term (six or more years post study abroad) impacts of the study abroad experience. In terms of near-term assessment, these studies serve a great purpose, for example, for higher education institutions to determine goals for student learning and institutional investment. This would seem to suggest that the benefits of study abroad are limited in scope or expire after a short time. Even the literature pertaining to intermediate or long-term outcomes has focused primarily on one: job history and trajectory (Abrams, 1979; Burn, 1982; American Institute for Foreign Study, 1988; Carlson, Burn, Useem, & Yachimowicz, 1990; Starr, 1994; Wallace, 1999; Whalen, 2001; Alred & Byram, 2002; Fagan & Hart, 2002; McMillan & Opem, 2004; Browne, 2005). Some of these studies examine a single institution or unspecified professional development outcomes (Abrams, 1979; Burn, 1982; Whalen, 2001; Browne, 2005). 22

35 Some studies have undertaken a long-term analysis of study abroad participants from various institutions. The Carlson, et al. (1990) study, while long-term (5-20 years post-graduation) and across four institutions (three of which were large research institutions), only had 76 respondents. This study makes some intriguing suggestions (that studying abroad results in decreased gender gap, increased educational attainment, and influence on career direction and practices) and yet notes the lack of information on how study abroad affects personal and civic life. Further, the researchers clearly state that their small sample size limited their ability to do statistical analyses or to generalize beyond their sample. Another longitudinal study was conducted by Wallace (1999), who contacted Pomona College study abroad alumni ten years after their participation in order to assess the impact on career, volunteer activities, and world and personal perspectives. This study indicated that length of time abroad may have affected individual outcomes. Like the Carlson, et al. (1990) study, the Wallace (1999) study had a small number of respondents (n=48), leaving the findings of both studies impossible to generalize to the larger study abroad alumni population. Dukes, Lockwood, Oliver, Pezalila, & Wilker (1994) contacted Semester at Sea alumni of ten years to determine any long-term effects of their experience. The researchers reported unspecified attitudinal outcomes related to global perspective and personal growth. Overall, their results hinted at higher educational attainment as a result of study abroad and that studies investigating participants more than 10 years after studying abroad are necessary. Lastly, a study conducted by the Institute for the International Education of Students (IES) (Akande & Slawson, 2000; Dwyer & Peters, 2004; McMillan & Opem, 2004) took a longitudinal analysis over 50 years of alumni who studied abroad on IES programs. This study researched professional and personal outcomes of participants on semester or academic year programs. Although the age range of the sample was and the number of respondents large (n=707), the median age of the respondents was 26, making this a study mainly of those alumni 5-10 years post-graduation. Further, Akande and Slawson (2000) note the limitations of their study and call for a larger scale, more comprehensive survey based on a more representative sample of all study abroad students (p. 8). During the past five years ( ), the literature on various aspects of study abroad has grown considerably. The major study of this period was the report of the bipartisan Abraham Lincoln Commission for Study Abroad inspired by the work and commitment of the late Senator Paul Simon cited at the beginning of this section. His legacy and impact appears to be similar to that of the visionary Senator William J. Fulbright. The main thrust of that report was recognition of the critical need for Americans to understand more deeply the rest of the world. To facilitate that vision, the Commission proposed to expand, diversify, and democratize study abroad and create a Simon Study Abroad Foundation to carry out that mission. More recently David Comp (2010) of the University of Chicago has done an excellent overview of the evolution of U.S. international education policy over time. He argues that in terms of national policy there has been a shift during the past twenty years to give priority to study abroad. This is certainly reflected in the legislation before Congress to establish and fund the Simon Study Abroad Foundation. Related to the issue of diversifying and democratizing study abroad, Jinous Kasvari (2009) studied students of color who did study abroad to discover how they had overcome the traditional barriers facing such students. Elizabeth Stallman (2009) in another valuable study looked at how study abroad affects racial attitudes and identities. Her work relates to the classic theoretical work of Gordon Allport discussed below related to the reduction of prejudice. Kyoung-Ah Nam (2010) in a comparative mixed methods study (Europe and Southeast Asia) looked at the impact of short-term study program. She found that even short-term abroad can be impactful if done well and with creative interventions to optimize student cultural immersion experiences. 23

36 In late 2009, the results of the major Georgetown research on study abroad (Vande Berg, et al., 2009) were published. This was an extensive study involving 54 institutions and over 1,000 student participants that looked systematically at learning outcomes in terms of intercultural competence and language proficiency. The major finding was that systematic program intervention and careful program design were important factors contributing to student learning. Also in 2009, R. Lewin produced an extensive anthology of research on study abroad and best practices as they relate to the development of global citizenship. With a strong interest in documenting how study abroad influences students personal and professional development, CIEE commissioned a major study of the long-term impact of study abroad. Unlike our SAGE project where the focus is on the impact on the common good, the CIEE focused on benefits to individuals. For the most part, the research clearly confirmed that for many study abroad was indeed a transformative experience and the best thing that had ever happened to them (Fry, et al., 2010). Joshua McKeown (2009) in a recent study using a rigorous pre and post-test design examined the impact of study abroad on specific learning outcomes, that is, students intellectual development. He operationalizes intellectual development as being able to think in complex ways, to interpret and analyze phenomena in a pluralistic context, and to embrace multiple and relativist perspectives. This research has resulted in what has been called the first time effect based on the finding that those experiencing study abroad for the first time show significant gains in intellectual development relative to their peers. Nam and Fry (2010) completed a major meta synthesis of the literature on intercultural competence and global literacy which has direct relevance to thinking about the learning outcomes of study abroad. Thus, the limited scope currently present in the literature provides little indication of the impact that study abroad has had across various areas of an individual s life over time. Further, the literature is lacking a cross-institutional, cross-generational study of any kind with regard to study abroad outcomes. Theoretical frames Though the major focus of this study is practical and policy-related, it can also inform important theoretical thinking and constructs. Three bodies of literature are particularly relevant to this study. The first is the work of the late Harvard social psychologist, Gordon Allport, who developed social contact theory and authored, The Nature of Prejudice (1954). Interestingly, Allport as an undergraduate at Harvard did what was not common in his day and age, especially at Harvard. He spent time in Greece having Peace Corps-type experiences, which obviously had a major impact on his subsequent career, knowledge production, and life-long research interests. Basically, Allport argues that if certain conditions are met, then contact among different ethnic or racial groups will reduce prejudice and enhance mutual understanding. Thomas Pettigrew and Linda Tropp (2000, 2006) in a major metaanalysis find solid support for Allport s theory, even when his strict scope conditions are not met. If Allport s theory is indeed valid, then study abroad should have significant long-term impact on the reduction of prejudice and ethnocentrism and in turn enhance cultural understanding and global citizenship. A second theoretical framework is presented by the psychologist-political scientist Robert J. Lifton, who introduced the construct of the Protean individual (1993). Proteus was the Greek god who could change forms readily and easily. Thus, the Protean individual can successfully integrate values from different world views and move easily from culture to culture. Lifton s concept of the Protean 24

37 individual also relates to a body of research developed by scholars such as Bennett (1993), Rosen, Digh, Singer, & Phillips (2000), and Hofstede & Hofstede (2005). Lifton s Protean individual is similar to an individual being highly ethnorelative on the Bennett s scale of intercultural development and sensitivity, with a well developed software of the mind in terms of the Hofstedes construct, and a high level of global literacy (Rosen, et al. 2000). Given this second body of literature, our proposition is that study abroad should contribute to individuals having higher levels of cultural competence and proficiency, an important part of civil society and global citizenship (Cogan & Derricott, 1998). Related to this important construct, Earley & Ang, (2003), have written extensively about the growing importance of enhancing cultural intelligence. Robert Rosen et al. (2000) s extensive empirical research on global literacies emphasizes the importance of having leaders courageous enough to learn from the rest of the world. Long-term U.S. international competitiveness will depend importantly on having globally literate business leadership. Again, it is our basic proposition that study abroad has contributed significantly to such leadership; however, that needs to be empirically demonstrated, one of the major purposes of the research project being proposed. A third relevant theoretical framework derives from the recent controversial work on globalization by the journalist, Thomas L. Friedman (2005) and his important construct of the flat world. His work has profound implications for both the United States and its educators. In a flat world, it is imperative that students in the U.S. prepare more effectively for the increasingly complex international/intercultural context of globalization 3.0, in which those countries having the greatest number of creative knowledge and innovation workers will have distinct comparative advantages. Friedman contrasts globalization 3.0 with globalization 1.0 (countries globalizing) and globalization 2.0 (companies globalizing). The defining feature of globalization 3.0 is the newfound power for individuals to collaborate and compete globally. Friedman defines the most important new feature of globalization 3.0 as the empowerment of individuals to act globally, to which study abroad should contribute significantly. It is our basic proposition that those having had study abroad experiences will be better prepared to cope with the complex challenges of this third era of globalization than those not having had such international opportunities. This was a major reason why Stanford, as part of a consortium of key U.S. universities, established a special study abroad center in Kyoto, Japan, oriented to high technology. A major goal of the Stanford initiative was to encourage students involved in high technology fields to have important international experience. With a major grant from the Bush Foundation, the University of Minnesota developed a highly successful curriculum integration approach, which involves efforts to encourage students in all fields, not just the humanities and social sciences, to study abroad (Anderson, 2005; Woodruff, 2009). The Minnesota Model of study abroad curriculum integration is based on partnering with academic units to effectively meet institutional goals to internationalize the curriculum. This model spreads the ownership for international education throughout the institution. (LAC, 2010). A fourth theoretical area relates to the complex relationships among study abroad, language study, the multilingual mind, and creativity. We will hypothesize that those having done study abroad may also be more creative. The European Union (2010) recently commissioned an important study which found a positive relationship between language learning and creativity. Since language study is often an important part of study abroad, then enhanced creativity may well be an important outcome of study abroad. Tohuhama-Espinosa (2003) has provided important insight into the nature of the multilingual mind. William Maddux and Adam Galinksy (2009) of the Kellogg School at Northwestern addressed directly the link between living overseas and creativity. Based on five 25

38 empirical studies, they found a positive link between study abroad and enhanced creativity. This fourth theoretical area primarily relates to two dimensions of global engagement, namely, knowledge production and the creation of new organizations serving the common good by social entrepreneurs. Given the dramatic globalization occurring across the global and the many challenges it presents, it is both ironic and surprising that there has been little significant new literature on global engagement during the five past years. Of the studies that have been conducted one of the most relevant and insightful is that of Kwame Appiah (2006) related to the construct of the cosmopolitan ethic which relates directly to several dimensions of our global engagement construct. Appiah seeks common ground between the extremes of Huntington s clash of civilizations and complete cultural relativism. Most relevant to our SAGE study, he introduces the construct of obligation to strangers which relates, for example, to our philanthropy and civic engagement variables. A key ethical question he raises is how committed should we be to enhancing social justice and the quality of life across the globe. Our participants who made purchasing decisions such as buying fair trade coffee or contributed significantly to UNICEF or Care International are demonstrating the cosmopolitan ethic. V. Aims of the Study and Research Questions The primary purpose of the SAGE research project was to conceptualize and measure global engagement, and then analyze the relationship between earlier study abroad experiences and subsequent forms of global engagement. The conceptualization of global engagement was in our view an absolute necessity and essential first step to realizing the project s overall research goal. Our earlier literature review, conducted while we were formulating the grant proposal, had indicated that while there was much discussion about the importance of having a globally engaged citizenry, there was little agreement on what constituted global engagement itself. Our first research objective, then, was to develop a conceptual model of global engagement, one that would be multifaceted and behavioral in nature. The measurement of global engagement was the second research objective and that was realized in two ways, through the creation of the conceptually-driven Global Engagement Survey and the subsequent empirical analysis of the survey data to generate a set of related scales with empirical validity and reliability. Having created the scales, the third objective was to analyze the data to examine and describe global engagement itself as well as study the influence of study abroad on this key outcome variable. The overarching research question was: What is the long-term impact of study abroad on alumni s patterns of global engagement, future professional development, and future educational choices as perceived by the alumni themselves and as assessed by a set of external measures? The specific research questions were: 1. What does global engagement mean and how can it be measured? 2. What are the patterns of global engagement, professional development, and educational choices following a study abroad program? 3. How important is study abroad in comparison to a variety of other experiences during the college years (e.g., courses, peers, and faculty)? 4. From the study abroad participants perspectives, how important is study abroad in terms of its influence on their global engagement? 26

39 5. To what degree are specific study abroad factors (program duration, destination, and depth of experience) and student characteristics (demographics) associated with the outcome variables of global engagement, professional development, and academic choices? A. Participants VI. Research Design Institutional participants. Our goal was to attain a large, diverse, nationwide sample within four institutional types: Doctoral-granting, Masters-granting, Baccalaureate, and Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU). We aimed to partner with four institutions within each type for a total of 16 institutional partners. Obtaining institutional partners was fundamental to this nationwide study as only institutional representatives have permission to access alumni contact information. As participating in the study would require time and resources for the institutional partners, we offered monetary incentives of $2,000 to each institution, paid in two installments. We also offered each a complete set of the institution s survey data. All final payments and materials were sent to the institutions in July In December 2006 we contacted The Forum on Education Abroad about partnering with is/ We felt the Forum was highly relevant to the SAGE project due to its large and diverse membership, its standing in the field as a leading professional association, its mission to encourage and support research initiatives exclusively in the area of education abroad. The Forum became a key partner in the early part of the SAGE study. In February 2007 we held two focus groups with members of the Forum Council (the SAGE/Forum on Education Abroad Advisory Committee) in order to review and critique the first complete draft of the online survey. Also in that month we began recruiting for institutional partners at the Annual Forum on Education Abroad Conference and via the Forum membership listserv. In April 2007, we extended our recruitment to the larger education abroad community via the SECUSS-L listserve. From this method we received additional applications. During this time we also contacted a number of HBCUs in order to encourage their participation. Despite our efforts (which continued into summer 2007), we were unable to recruit any HBCU institutions. Due to this limitation and since we had received applications from two education abroad providers, we revised our institutional classification to include this latter category. We initially accepted 24 institutions. Twenty-two ultimately remained with the study and are listed in Table 1. In consultation with the SAGE research team, representatives 1 of each partner institution sent recruitment letters by to all study abroad alumni in their institutional sample. For more detail regarding participant recruitment, please see the section on Data Collection Procedures. In November 2009 and January 2010 we collected data from a comparison group. We invited all 22 institutions, plus the pilot institution (Dickinson College), to join us in this final phase of data collection. Fourteen institutions joined us and are indicated in Table 1 below. 1 Representatives included those in offices of Education Abroad, International Education, Alumni Affairs, or Information Technology. 27

40 Table 1 Participating institutions/organizations (by type) Doctorate-granting colleges and universities (9): Carnegie Mellon University Dartmouth College Indiana University Tulane University University of California, Davis University of California, San Diego University of Colorado, Boulder University of Minnesota, Twin Cities Worcester Polytechnic Institute Masters colleges and universities (4): Arcadia University James Madison University Santa Clara University University of Wisconsin, Eau Claire Baccalaureate colleges (7): Austin College Beloit College Carleton College Kalamazoo College Middlebury College Saint Norbert College Saint Olaf College 28

41 Education Abroad Providers (2): Institute for Shipboard Education (Semester-at-Sea) School for International Training/World Learning Individual Participants. Out of 21,569 study abroad alumni who received the online survey invitation, we achieved 6,378 individual responses for a response rate of 29.6% 2. All had studied abroad with one of the partner institutions between 1960 and The average age of the respondents was 33, and 67.1% were female and 32.9% were male. This gender distribution parallels the distributions of study abroad participants reported in Open Doors (2003, 2005, 2008, 2009a) reports over the same period of time. The majority of the respondents identified as Caucasian (87.5%); the remaining respondents identified as multiple ethnicities (4.0%), Asian American (3.3%), Hispanic (1.7%), African American (1.1%), Native American or Native Alaskan (0.1%), Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander (0.1%), or Other (1.4%). In comparison to data (IIE, 2009), our sample has a somewhat higher Caucasian representation, whereas the gender distribution is very consistent with current national data. Since 1993, the first year that the Institute of International Education reported the racial/ethnic profile of American study abroad students, Caucasian representation has fluctuated between 85.0% in 1998/99 and 81.9% in 2006/07. Also, since the 1990s the field of study abroad has made ethnic diversification of students going abroad a major priority. Recalling that the SAGE respondents studied abroad as far back as 1960 and that Caucasian students dominated the study abroad ranks in even larger numbers from 1960 to 1990, it becomes clear that the ethnic breakdown of the SAGE respondents are likely representative of the study abroad population during this time period. B. Instrumentation - Online Survey At the outset of the SAGE project, no instrument existed that examined global engagement the way we were defining it. We spent the first year, therefore, in researching, developing, designing, and testing our own instrument: the Global Engagement Survey. A necessary component of that effort was a deeper exploration of the various literatures that might inform our understanding of global engagement. Co-principal investigators Paige and Fry had earlier identified four main dimensions of global engagement: civic engagement, knowledge production, philanthropy, and social entrepreneurship (Fry & Paige, 2001). Thus, we began with the literature regarding those four concepts. The knowledge production literature, for example, expanded our understanding to include not only traditional means of producing knowledge such as books and journals and newspaper articles but also non-traditional modalities such as websites, musical productions, and artworks (Fry, Nam, & Kasravi, 2008; Wickham & Collins, 2006). Our further investigation of social entrepreneurship yielded a dual understanding of the concept. The first meaning is the act of creating organizations that have serving the common good as their primary purpose, and the second refers to influencing an existing organization from within to be more socially responsible (Leggett, 2007; Makino, Yamada, & Fry, 2 NAFSA presentation - May 27, 2008 (updated May 27).pdf. other data in this paragraph from SAGE Presentation - NAFSA pdf 29

42 2005). Our review of the civic engagement literature revealed that there is a considerable body of knowledge on citizen characteristics (Cogan, 1997), political participation (Annette, 2005; Ikeda & Richey, 2005; Kim, 2006; Wagle, 2006), social capital and capacity building (Bellah, 1985; Elgin, 1993; Middleton, Murie, & Groves, 2005; Morse, 2006; Putnam, 2000; Ray & Anderson, 2000). These literatures led us to make an important distinction between behavior directed toward domestic issues and behavior focused more on international issues. Second, this literature provided us with a number of indicators of civic engagement. The philanthropy literature led to another important conceptual distinction between volunteerism and monetary donations as philanthropic acts. Though we didn t yet have our construct, we felt that one aspect of global engagement would be a commitment to environmental sustainability, a concern for the earth s resources. In their classic volume, Variations in Value Orientations, Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck (1964) identified relationship to nature as one of five problems facing all human communities and living in harmony with nature was one of the possible value orientations. Gerald Fry suggested that we use the concept of voluntary simplicity, which means adopting a life style that conserves natural resources, among other things. The literature on voluntary simplicity goes back to Gregg s (1936) essay and has been popularized more recently by Elgin (1993) and others (Ray and Anderson, 2000). We also gained insights from existing surveys of college alumni that investigated civic engagement (UCLA Higher Education Research Institute, 2007c; University of Minnesota Foundation, 2007), philanthropy (UCLA Higher Education Research Institute, 2007c; University of Minnesota Foundation, 2007), social entrepreneurship (University of Minnesota Foundation, 2007), the study abroad experience (UCLA Higher Education Research Institute, 2007c; Whalen, Pillemer, & Chromiak, 2006), and demographic questions (Lee, 2004; UCLA Higher Education Research Institute, 2007a & 2007b). Based on our literature review, we conceptualized global engagement: (1) in behavioral terms, and (2) as a multifaceted construct consisting of five dimensions: civic engagement (domestic and international), philanthropy (volunteer work and monetary donations), knowledge production (traditional and non-traditional), social entrepreneurship, and voluntary simplicity. The draft instrument was then created, reviewed by the Advisory Committee, and pilot tested at Dickinson College as described in more detail below. Online Survey Our main means of data collection was via an online survey. There are disadvantages to contacting respondents in this manner which include: the exclusion of any person in the population without an address (or who has not provided one to their alma mater), spam filters that delete a message, and varying levels of Internet access (Dillman, Smyth, & Christian, 2009). The advantages include low cost, ease of data entry, ability to contact large numbers, increasing use of as a means to contact college alumni, and ability to tailor survey to respondent answers. Emerging research shows that college-educated respondents are more likely to have Internet access (Dillman et al., 2009); further, all messages were sent by the recipients undergraduate alma mater. We weighed the risks against the advantages and determined that an online survey would be the best, perhaps the only way, to collect data from this population. 30

43 Survey Provider We reviewed four online survey providers 3. Three Survey Monkey, Zoomerang, and Vovici (formerly WebSurveyor) charged fees, and one at the University of Minnesota in the College of Education and Human Development s Online Survey Tool, or COST was free. For reasons of reliability, accessibility, availability of technical support, and customizability, we selected Vovici. Comparison Group In September 2009 we contacted Vovici again to inquire about hosting our comparison group survey. We learned that their fees had risen to a level that we could not afford. We also learned that the online survey portal housed in our College of Education and Human Development (CEHD) had been revamped and was a more robust and reliable instrument. We decided to use the CEHD online survey portal to collect data from the comparison group. The differences between the two portals were minimal and we could recreate nearly the exact instrument as before. Instrument Testing We contacted the Forum Council, an advisory body to The Forum on Education Abroad, to coordinate a focus group of education abroad experts. These experts also provided sensitivity review of the items. Two focus groups of five and six people each were held in February The groups helped to clarify language, align questions and sections, and pare down the overall length. Instrument development and refinement continued until October 2007, when we conducted individual think-aloud tests and launched a pilot of the instrument and of the procedure. The thinkaloud tests were conducted with two study abroad alumni and current graduate students at the University of Minnesota. The process entailed sitting next to the respondent as he or she completed the online survey and having the respondent say thoughts aloud as he or she read and responded to the directions and items. The purpose is to discern the thought processes as the respondent works through the items and have an indication of how the respondent interprets the items. Familiarity of survey style throughout the instrument was helpful to these respondents. Dickinson College agreed to be the site for the pilot test. We piloted the online instrument and the four-message procedure of contacting the alumni. The pilot launched on October 12, 2007, and ended October 31, The main outcomes of these think-aloud and the pilot tests were that we simplified the survey answer options for the items in Civic Engagement, Knowledge Production, and Philanthropy and clarified and reduced demographic items. We also added a final, open-ended question where we asked about the overall impact study abroad had on the respondent s life. Survey Procedure - Study Abroad Group We made final adjustments and launched the final instrument to the Study Abroad group in November 2007 with eighteen institutions. A second round was launched in January 2008 with the remaining four institutions. We ended data collection and closed the Study Abroad survey in April Survey Procedure - Comparison Group In September 2009 we contacted all partners except two from the Study Abroad data collection round to invite them to participate in this survey of a comparison group. Since they only have alumni 3 SAGE\Instruments+ Procedures\ Online survey instrument providers.doc 31

44 who studied abroad, we did not invite the education abroad providers. Fourteen of the original twenty higher education institutions joined in this second round (see Table 2). The Comparison Group survey was launched in November 2009 and closed in February Table 2. Participating institutions, study abroad and comparison group Institutional Type Institution Name Doctorate-granting colleges and Carnegie Mellon University * universities (9) Dartmouth College * Indiana University * Tulane University University of California, Davis University of California, San Diego * University of Colorado, Boulder * University of Minnesota, Twin Cities * Worcester Polytechnic Institute * Masters colleges and universities (4) Arcadia University James Madison University * Santa Clara University * University of Wisconsin, Eau Claire Baccalaureate colleges (7) Austin College * Beloit College * Carleton College Kalamazoo College Middlebury College Saint Norbert College * Saint Olaf College * Dickinson College * Education Abroad providers (2) Institute for Shipboard Education (Semester-at-Sea) School for International Training/World Learning All institutions participated in the study abroad alumni group. 32

45 *Institutions that participated in the comparison (non-study abroad alumni) group. Dickinson College participated in the comparison group and as the pilot institution in the experimental group. The procedures we followed to implement the surveys for both the Study Abroad and Comparison groups were largely taken from Dillman s Tailored Design Method (2000). We wrote a series of four messages to be sent by 1) a pre-notice message, 2) an invitation to complete the survey, 3) a thank you and first reminder, and 4) final thank you and reminder. We did not offer any incentive to the respondents. All messages contained a hyper link to the survey location and were sent via by a representative of the respondent s alma mater. This was primarily in order to respect privacy. In addition, we hoped that respondents would have loyalty to their alma mater and would therefore welcome a request to participate in a survey if sent by its representative. C. Data Collection Procedures Interviewee Selection Among the 2,982 survey respondents who agreed to participate in the interview portion of this study (JE needs to check from which stage of data cleaning this number came from), 125 interviewees were randomly selected. Targeting to complete 100 individual interviews, 25 extra participants were chosen. While in general this sample of 125 participants represented the overall distribution of ethnicity in the total sample, only a few Asians and Hispanics were included and no African-Americans. Accordingly, 10 African-Americans were purposively sampled separately using random selection among 50 African Americans who agreed to be interviewed. Among 135 participants contacted, a total of 54 individual interviews were completed, who were originally from the SAGE survey pool. Prior to these interviews, nine pilot interviews were conducted and four of them did not participate in the SAGE survey portion. Pilot interviewees were chosen deliberately in terms being exemplary in representing the impact of study abroad on global engagement. Online Survey Data Collection procedure The online survey was administered using Vovici online survey services. The survey was administered in two cohorts, due to the schedule of partner institutions and their ability to obtain contact data on their alumni. The survey participants were identified by their alma matter and were contacted directly from those institutions via messages. The participants were contacted through multiple contacts method, which improves survey response rates (Dillman, 2000). This method involves four different notices while contacting the participants, including: pre-notice letter, administering the survey (along with the recruitment letter), the first reminder (with a thank you note), and a final contact or final reminder. According to social exchange theory (Dillman, 2000), the pre-notice procedure provides an opportunity to send a message that does not ask for immediate action, but builds interest and anticipation. With the goal to prepare the participants for the survey and develop the notion of that something important is about to be sent to them, the pre-notice message was sent only several days prior to administering the survey. Several days later a recruitment message including the survey link and IRB notice was sent to the participants. As it was anticipated that only a portion would complete the survey with the recruitment letter, the first reminder that included a thank you note and the survey link followed a week later. Lastly, in order to gather responses from all other alumni who had not yet 33

46 got a chance to complete the survey, a final reminder was sent two weeks after the recruitment letter indicating urgency and usefulness of their response. In preparing the timeline for administration of the survey, the suggestions made by Dillman (2000) were used to maximize the likelihood for receiving more responses from partner s alumni. Therefore, the period between Thanksgiving and Christmas holidays was avoided. The first round of the survey was administered in November and the second in January. Table 3 illustrates a list of tasks and the specific timeline that the administration of surveys involved: 34

47 Table 3 Survey implementation timeline Round 1 Send materials to the Partner institutions October 31 Pre-notice Letter Administering Survey November 2 (Fri) November 5 (Mon.) Incl. (IRB notice in the Rec. Letter) 1 st Reminder/Thank you Note November 12 (Mon.) 2 nd Reminder November 19 (Mon.) Round 2 Send materials to the Partner institutions Pre-notice Letter Administering Survey Incl. (IRB notice in the Rec. Letter) 1 st Reminder/Thank you Note 2 nd Reminder End of Data Collection May, 4,

48 D. Data Analysis Procedures Quantitative Analysis Procedures: Variables and Measures Creating Destination and Depth Indices The Destination Index and Depth Index were created to be used as key explanatory variables. Destination Index. The Destination Index was generated conceptually by using three previous studies in which the degree of cultural and socioeconomic difference from American culture had been empirically determined. The index was created from three constructs: cultural similarity-dissimilarity (Vande Berg, Conner-Linton, & Paige, 2009), cultural distance based on Hofstede s four cultural dimensions of power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism-collectivism, and masculinityfemininity (Kogut & Singh, 1988), and socioeconomic development as measured by the Human Development Index (UNDP, 2008). Each component represents an individual country s difference or deviation from the U.S. score on each of these three values and then a composite score is generated. Details of the Destination Index are presented in section VIII.D. Depth Index. A composite variable was created to represent the depth of the study abroad experience. This Depth Index was comprised of eight components that typically reflect the intensity of an experience abroad. Some items were included based on our own findings within this research project, such as multiple genres and multiple study abroad experiences having an impact on global engagement. Other items were included based on findings from other studies (length and language of study abroad) and assumptions that have been informing the education abroad field for some time (type of study abroad program and less-common destination). Duration. Duration indicates the number of months that participants studied abroad. If they studied abroad multiple times, they were asked to choose the most significant one to answer the question. Background demographic variables. Gender, age, socioeconomic status, prior international experience, and ethnicity variables were also included as background demographic variables. A variable for socioeconomic status was accounted by the levels of parents education, and a variable for prior international experience came from the number of years living abroad prior to the age of 18. Analyses. After creation of key variables for this study (see section VIII) the Global Engagement Indices, Destination Index, and Depth Index correlation analyses were conducted. Correlations between the Global Engagement and the explanatory variables Duration, Destination, and Depth and correlations among explanatory variables were examined. After checking the relationships between explanatory and dependent variables Global Engagement Indices, multiple regression analyses were performed. Based on the results of correlation and regression analyses, path model was constructed tested. In addition, logistic regression for education and career related variables were conducted. Lastly, the different levels of global engagement between study abroad and comparison groups were compared using the original survey items for global engagement variables: civic engagement, philanthropy, knowledge production, and social entrepreneurship. 36

49 VII. Quantitative Findings and Interpretations A. Descriptive Statistics Demographic characteristics of the sample The sample consisted of 6,378 respondents from 20 U.S. colleges and universities, and two education abroad providers. As is the case with study abroad nationally, Table 4 shows that women were overrepresented (67.1%) compared to men (32.9%). The average age of the respondents was 33 years, which is far above normal but is a function of the 50 year time span from which we had sampled. Table 6 shows Caucasians were the most highly represented in the sample (87.5%) followed by those who referred to themselves as multiple ethnic (4.0%), Asian Americans (3.3%), Hispanics (1.7%), and African Americans (1.1%). The figures for students of color in the SAGE sample are substantially lower than national statistics (Institute of International Education, 2009), which is attributable to the fact that in the earlier decades from which we sampled, Caucasian students represented an even greater majority of study abroad participants. With respect to family background, Tables 6 and 7 show the majority came from homes in which their parents were highly educated. 67.9% of mothers and 76.5% of fathers had bachelors, masters, professional or doctoral degrees. Table 4 Gender Frequency Percent Male Female Missing 21.3 Total

50 Table 5 Ethnicity Frequency Percent African American Asian Caucasian Hispanic Native American or Native Alaskan 8.1 Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 7.1 Multiple Ethnic Other Missing 54.8 Total Table 6 Mother s education Frequency Percent 8th grade or less 57.9 Some high school High school graduate Some college no degree Associate or technical degree Bachelors degree Masters degree Professional or Doctorate degree Missing 12.2 Total

51 Table 7 Father s education Frequency Percent 8th grade or less Some high school High school graduate Some college no degree Associate or technical degree Bachelors degree Masters degree Professional or Doctorate degree Missing 23.4 Total We were also interested in their prior international experiences. While the vast majority (93.7%) were born in the U.S., as Table 8 indicates, 11% had lived abroad as a child with the majority between 1 4 years. Table 8 Lived abroad as a child Frequency Percent No Yes Missing 12.2 Total Characteristics of the study abroad program Our respondents came from 20 different colleges and universities representing three types of institutions (bachelor granting, masters granting, and doctoral granting) as well as two study abroad provider organizations. Table 9 shows that the largest number came from bachelor granting institutions (34.5%) and doctoral granting institutions (24.6%), followed by providers (21.3%) and masters granting (19.2%). 39

52 Table 9 Type of institution Frequency Percent Bachelor granting Masters granting Doctoral granting Provider Other 10.2 Missing 15.2 Total

53 Table 10 presents the data on the number of respondents by college and organization, i.e., the institution from which they received the survey Table 10 Institution/provider organization participation data Frequency Percent Arcadia 54.8 Austin Beloit Carleton Carnegie Dartmouth Indiana SAS JMU Kalamazoo Middlebury Santa Clara SIT St. Norbert St. Olaf Tulane 45.7 UC Davis UC San Diego U Col Boulder UMN Univ Wisc- Eau Claire 44.7 WPI Total Missing System 25.4 Total Table 11 presents respondent data by five year time periods. While the numbers are much lower for the 1960s, we were still pleased to have 185 respondents from that time period. For each subsequent decade, the number of respondents rises, not surprisingly: (n = 474), (n = 877), (n = 1624), and (n = 3,075). 41

54 Table 11 Study abroad by time period Frequency Percent Missing Total Duration. The average length of stay in their study abroad programs was 4.89 months. It is notable on Table 12 that 87.2% of our respondents studied abroad for 3 or more months and only 10.6% went on short term programs of two or fewer months. These duration data stand in stark contrast to current study abroad patterns. In , 56.3% of U.S. students went on short term programs in (IIE, 2009b). As education abroad professionals know, the trends for some time have been (1) a rapid increase in study abroad participation and (2) the sizeable growth of participation in short term study abroad. The interesting issue here is whether or not short term study abroad reduces the potential for these programs to have an impact on their students. Our data on duration, destination, and depth suggest that at least with respect to global engagement, duration is not the principle explanatory factor. 42

55 Table 12 Duration of study abroad program (in months) # of Months Frequency Percent Missing 29.5 Total Mean 4.89 S.D Program type, program description. We were very interested in learning about the nature of their study abroad programs. We posed the question, What was the predominant nature of your study abroad program? and provided five response choices based on common classifications of study abroad programs. Table 13 presents the participation rates in each of the six types of programs, with the highest percentage students being in classes designed for study abroad students (37.1%). No other program type had more than 20% of the students in the sample. 43

56 Table 13 Program type Frequency Percent Classes designed for SA students Mixture of two or more Regular classes alongside host country students Travel seminar or shipboard Field research or internship Campus of US institution in another country Missing 13.2 Total We also asked the students to describe their program and they could indicate as many of the seven descriptors as they wished. As shown in Table 14, the three most frequently mentioned were (1) area studies (56.0%), theme-based (52.6%), and (3) language instruction (45.8%) programs. Research, service learning, internships, and work abroad had much lower participation rates. Table 14 Program description Yes No Total % Area studies 56.0% 44.0% 100% Theme-based 52.6% 47.4% 100% Language instruction 45.8% 54.2% 100% Research 14.5% 85.5% 100% Service learning 10.4% 89.6% 100% Internship 5.1% 94.9% 100% Work abroad 2.9% 97.1% 100% Total

57 The impact of study abroad on global engagement There were several approaches that we used to determine the impact of study abroad. The first was to have respondents tell us about the impact of a wide variety of college experiences, including but not limited to study abroad. As table 15 shows, study abroad was far and away the most impactful experience; fully 83.3% said that study abroad had a strong impact. Study abroad was followed by friendships/student-peer interactions (73.4%) and coursework (65.9%). No other type of college experience had more than 30% of the respondents rating is as having a strong impact. For the SAGE team, this is a striking finding. Table 15 Impact of college experiences Strong Impact Some Impact Little Impact No Impact Not Applicable Total Athletics/ Intramural sports Community service/ volunteer work 16.8% 21.8% 22.1% 16.2% 22.0% 100% 22.4% 37.1% 23.2% 6.6% 9.6% 100% Coursework 65.9% 30.0% 3.1% 2.0% 4.0% 100% Fraternity-Sorority 8.8% 7.8% 5.9% 11.1% 65.2% 100% Friendships/student-peer interactions 73.4% 21.7% 3.8% 5.0% 1.0% 100% Interaction with faculty 37.8% 43.4% 16.1% 2.1% 2.0% 100% Internship (in the U.S.) 20.9% 20.5% 9.0% 5.6% 43.1% 100% Religious organization 7.6% 12.8% 14.9% 22.3% 41.6% 100% Student clubs 13.2% 28.5% 29.1% 12.2% 16.1% 100% Student government 2.2% 6.7% 16.6% 28.7% 44.4% 100% Study Abroad 83.3% 14.8% 1.4% 1.0% 1.0% 100% Work/employment during college 27.2% 36.9% 19.5% 5.2% 10.2% 100% Total

58 The second approach was to ask respondents about how influential their study abroad experience had been regarding their involvement in each of the eight global engagement areas (note: philanthropy, civic engagement, and knowledge production were divided into two subcategories in the survey). Table 16 presents the results. Over 20% of the respondents said that study abroad influenced their participation to a large degree regarding three global engagement variables: (1) international civic engagement (27.1%), (2) voluntary simplicity (26.6%), and (3) knowledge production- print media (21.8%). For six of the eight global engagement variables, over 50% said study abroad had influenced their involvement when we combined to a large degree and to some degree. We feel these findings provide additional support that students perceive study abroad to have been impactful on their subsequent global engagement activities. Table 16 Impact of study abroad on global engagement My level of involvement in the To a large To some Very Not at Missing Skipped following categories was influenced by my study abroad experience degree degree little all International civic engagement 27.1% 33.3% 18.6% 20.5%.5% n.a. Voluntary simplicity 26.6% 41.8% 19.6% 9.3%.3% 2.4% Knowledge production - print 21.8%* 29.9%* 24.4%* 23.8%*.1%* 60.9% Social entrepreneurship 19.3%* 42.1%* 25.6%* 12.4%*.6%* 74.8% influencing organization from within Knowledge production other 17.4%* 38.6%* 26.6%* 17.0%*.3%* 61.3% Domestic civic engagement 12.7% 42.2% 28.1% 16.6%.4% n.a. Philanthropy volunteer work 10.8% 34.3% 31.4% 23.0%.5% n.a. Philanthropy monetary 8.5% 28.9% 32.0% 30.0%.6% n.a. donation Total 6378 * Subsample percentages by global engagement variable (total = 100%) The nature of global engagement Domestic and international civic engagement. One of the central goals of the SAGE study was to conceptualize and then measure global engagement. We were very interested in learning about the degree to which our respondents became involved in various global engagement activities. For civic engagement (around domestic and international issues), we identified nine types of behavior, listed in 46

59 Tables 17 and 18 below. Table 17 shows that voting in an election (77.7%) was far and away the most frequent form of domestic civic engagement, followed by purchasing decision (32.5%), playing a leadership role in improving the quality of life (20.4%), and using the internet to raise awareness about social and political issues (11.2%). Over 30% of the respondents were frequently or sometimes involved in seven of the nine activities Table 17 Domestic civic engagement On issues of domestic (local, state, or national) importance I have: Frequently Sometimes Rarely Never Missing Total % voted in an election. 77.7% 15.8% 2.7% 3.1%.7% 100% made a purchasing 31.5% 41.1% 16.2% 10.4%.9% 100% decision because of the social or political values of a company. played a leadership role in 20.4% 34.2% 22.2% 21.7% 1.4% 100% improving quality of life. used the internet to raise 11.2% 24.1% 25.5% 38.0% 1.2% 100% awareness about social and political issues. contacted or visited a 8.5% 26.1% 30.1% 34.1% 1.3% 100% public official. organized or signed 8.4% 35.8% 31.6% 23.0% 1.2% 100% petitions. given formal talks or 7.5% 22.7% 20.0% 48.2% 1.5% 100% demonstrations. been involved in protests, 2.8% 17.1% 24.5% 53.8% 1.8% 100% demonstrations. written letter(s) to the 2.1% 13.2% 23.1% 59.9% 1.7% 100% editor. Total 6378 International civic engagement shows a lower frequency of participation with only purchasing decision and voting being engaged in frequently by more than 20% of the respondents (Table 18). Interestingly, though, the top four activities were the same (though not in the same order or level of frequency) for both domestic and international civic engagement. 47

60 Table 18 International civic engagement On issues of international importance I have: made a purchasing decision because of the social or political values of a company. Frequently Sometimes Rarely Never Missing Total % 24.5% 33.2% 14.4% 24.5% 3.4% 100% voted in an election. 21.0% 5.2% 2.7% 65.6% 5.5% 100% used the internet to raise awareness about social and political issues. 8.6% 18.2% 18.7% 52.6% 3.8% 100% played a leadership role in 8.0% 18.2% 18.8% 50.9% 4.0% 100% improving quality of life. given formal talks or 5.0% 15.3% 15.4% 60.9% 3.4% 100% demonstrations. organized or signed 4.3% 19.4% 20.0% 52.9% 3.4% 100% petitions. contacted or visited a 4.3% 13.1% 18.5% 60.2% 3.9% 100% public official. been involved in protests, 1.7% 11.4% 15.1% 68.2% 3.7% 100% demonstrations. written letter(s) to the.8% 5.0% 11.4% 79.1% 3.7% 100% editor. Total

61 Philanthropy. We divided philanthropy into two forms: donating money and doing volunteer work. We then identified eleven types of organizations and asked the respondents to indicate how frequently they had made monetary donations and volunteered their time to those different types of organizations. As seen in Table 19 respondents said they made monetary donations frequently to organizations focusing on education (20.5%) and religion (18.2%). More than 30% gave frequently or sometimes to seven of the eleven types of organizations. Table 19 Philanthropy- monetary donations: type of organization by frequency of donations Frequently Sometimes Rarely Never Missing Total % Education 20.5% 27.2% 18.7% 30.6% 3.1% 100% Religion 18.2% 13.6% 13.2% 52.4% 2.7% 100% Poverty (e.g., food bank, 14.4% 31.3% 22.0% 29.5% 2.7% 100% construction and repair) Community (e.g., board 12.2% 24.1% 19.6% 40.6% 3.6% 100% service) Environment 11.6% 26.0% 23.1% 36.3% 3.0% 100% Health 10.5% 23.0% 20.6% 42.0% 3.9% 100% Arts 10.3% 24.6% 22.9% 39.7% 2.6% 100% Youth Organizations (e.g., 10.0% 19.3% 21.9% 45.9% 2.8% 100% Scouts, athletic teams) Human Rights (includes 8.8% 20.2% 21.7% 46.4% 2.9% 100% women, minority groups, and GLBT) Social Justice 7.0% 17.2% 21.1% 51.4% 3.3% 100% International 6.1% 16.9% 20.8% 53.0% 3.2% 100% Development Total

62 The philanthropic patterns of volunteerism were quite similar, as seen in Table 20. In terms of greatest frequency of volunteering work, organizations for education, religion, and community were still in the top five, but poverty and environment were replaced by youth organizations and health. Here, more than 30% of the respondents volunteered their time frequently or sometimes to five of the eleven organizations. Table 20 Philanthropy-volunteer work: type of organization by frequency of volunteerism Frequently Sometimes Rarely Never Missing Total % Education 23.6% 31.0% 21.2% 22.3% 1.9% 100% Community (e.g., board 19.1% 28.7% 21.4% 28.7% 2.1% 100% service) Youth Organizations (e.g., 13.8% 20.3% 20.9% 42.9% 2.0% 100% Scouts, athletic teams) Religion 12.8% 13.8% 15.8% 55.4% 2.1% 100% Health 8.8% 17.0% 24.1% 46.8% 3.2% 100% Poverty (e.g., food bank, 8.4% 26.2% 27.5% 35.8% 2.1% 100% construction and repair) Arts 8.3% 17.4% 24.9% 46.6% 2.7% 100% Human Rights (includes 7.9% 18.2% 23.5% 48.4% 2.1% 100% women, minority groups, and GLBT) Social Justice 7.4% 16.8% 23.1% 50.1% 2.7% 100% Environment 7.3% 25.7% 29.1% 35.3% 2.6% 100% International 5.7% 11.4% 19.2% 62.8% 2.6% 100% Development Total 6378 Social entrepreneurship. We conceptualized social entrepreneurship either as (1) creating a new organization that has social objectives as its primary goal and (2) influencing a for-profit organization, from within, to channel an increasing portion of its surpluses and/or profits for the good of the community. Respondents were first asked if they had ever been a social entrepreneur. Table 21 shows that 14.3% (n = 911) said yes. Table 21 Social entrepreneurship Have you ever been a social entrepreneur? Frequency Percent Valid no yes Total Missing 10.2 Total

63 Of those who responded in the affirmative, Table 22 shows the type of organization that had been created by the highest percentage of respondents was the community organization (30.7%), followed by education (30.5%), arts (17.8%), youth organizations (17.3%), and human rights (16.1%). Table 22 Social entrepreneurship: type of organization created by percent of entrepreneurs Type of Organization % of Social Entrepreneurs Community (e.g., board 30.7% service) Education 30.5% Arts 17.8% Youth Organizations (e.g., 17.3% Scouts, athletic teams) Human Rights (includes 16.1% women, minority groups, and GLBT) Social Justice 15.6% Health 15.6% Poverty (e.g., food bank, 14.9% construction and repair) International Development 13.7% Environment 12.8% Religion 7.5% Other 15.7% Total 6378 Voluntary simplicity. As discussed elsewhere in this report, the research team was very interested in environmental sustainability as a dimension of global engagement. Voluntary simplicity was defined in the Global Engagement Survey as, the effort to lead a more modest, simple lifestyle. Examples are riding a bike to work, taking a job that pays less but contributes more to the common good, or being motivated to use recycled products and to practice active recycling. It ended up being one of the most important forms of global engagement in the study. As seen in Table 23, fully 86% of the respondents said they practiced voluntary simplicity either to a large degree (34.9%) or to some degree (51.1%). No other global engagement dimension had this level of involvement. Moreover, as shown in Table 16, 68.4 percent said that study abroad had influenced voluntary simplicity to a large degree (26.6%) or to some degree (42.8%), the highest combined total of all eight global engagement variables. 51

64 Table 23 Practice voluntary simplicity Frequency Percent Valid Not at all Very little To some degree To a large degree Missing 6.1 Total Knowledge production. We conceptualized two forms of knowledge production: print media, such as books and magazine articles, and alternative forms of production, such as websites and blogs. We first asked respondents if they had ever had something published and if they had every engaged in other types of knowledge production. If they said yes, they were presented with a menu of items and asked if they had published or produced knowledge in those ways. As seen in Table 24, 39 percent of the respondents had been published. Table 24 Had something published Frequency Percent No Yes Missing 5.1 Total

65 Table 25 shows the type of publication by the percentage of respondents. Academic journal articles (20.5%), newspaper articles (14.8%), magazine articles (13.2%), and educational materials (12.5%) were the most common types of publications. Table 25 Publications by percent of respondents Yes Novels/works of fiction 2.1% Magazine articles 13.2% Academic journal articles 20.5% Newspaper articles 14.8% Report (non-governmental or governmental agencies) 12.2% Nonfiction book (scholarly) 2.8% Nonfiction book (trade) 1.5% Translated work 3.2% Educational materials, including curricula 12.5% Patent awards 1.2% Works published in another language 2.6% Publications translated into another language Works published with a co-author of another culture or ethnic group Publications with an international or intercultural orientation Publications that draw upon research using a language gained in study abroad 3.4% 5.1% 9.2% 4.8% 53

66 Table 26 delineates other types of knowledge production and shows that 38.5 percent of the respondents had been involved in one or another of those forms. Among these alternative forms of publication, websites (18.5%), artworks (15.7%), blogs (14.4%), and digital media (14.0%) were the most popular. Table 26 Other types of knowledge production Frequency Percent No Yes Missing 14.2 Total Table 27 Other types of knowledge production by percent of respondents Yes Web-published articles 11.% Blogs 14.4% Websites 18.5% Dramatic productions 6.0% Films 6.6% Musical productions 6.15 Artworks (sculptures, paintings, etc.) 15.7% Digital media 14.0% 54

67 Long term impact of study abroad on education, occupation. In addition to the global engagement variables, we also looked into the impact of study abroad on later education and careers. First, Table 28 shows that an unusually high percentage of respondents (39.4%) attended graduate school. This is substantially higher than the national norm for college graduates. Table 29 shows that of those who continued on to graduate school, 59.5% said that study abroad, to a large or some degree, had an impact on their decision to continue for an advanced degree. Similarly, 55.9% said study abroad influenced their career choice to a large or some degree. Moreover, fully 74.7% of respondents said that study abroad had helped their career to a large degree (35%) or to some degree (39.7%). And Table 30 shows that a large 37.3% chose a career that was internationally oriented. Table 28 Attended graduate school Frequency Percent Yes No Missing 11.2 Total Table 29 Impact of study abroad on education and occupation To a large To some Very Not at Missing Skipped degree degree little all Education: Study abroad 26.7%* 32.8%* 20.9%* 19.2%* 0.4%* 39.4% influenced my decision to continue for advanced degrees Occupation: Study abroad 23.8% 32.1% 24.3% 19.2% 0.7% n.a. influenced my career choice Occupation: Study abroad has 35.0% 39.7% 18.0% 6.7% 0.6% n.a. helped my career Total 6378 * Subsample percentages by education and occupation variables (total = 100%) 55

68 Table 30 Career choice was or is internationally oriented Frequency Percent Valid No Yes Missing 38.6 Total Language use. Lastly, we were interested in the long term effects of study abroad on second language use. We asked them if they are currently speaking their study abroad language and how frequently. 15.1% said to a large degree and 16.7% to some degree, which together is almost one third of the sample. Recent studies linking language capabilities with creativity make this a particularly important variable (EC, 2010; see also Tokuhama-Espinosa, 2003). Table 31 Currently speak study abroad language Frequency Percent Not at all Very little To some degree To a large degree Missing Total B. Variable Construction The variables used in this study were derived principally from the conceptual, theoretical, and empirical literatures. Early on, the research team determined that the global engagement concept would be a behavioral nature; what mattered to us was the actual behavioral demonstrations of commitment to the public good rather that attitudes or values regarding those commitments. In other words, we were most interested in what our respondents did in the years following their study abroad programs. A second decision, made while we were conceptualizing global engagement for the grant proposal, was that it was a multifaceted construct. No single factor could adequately capture global engagement in our view and many different aspects of it had been discussed in the literature. In selecting the five original dimensions of global engagement, we sought out those factors that would have obvious face validity as behaviors that could be seen as serving the larger public good. 56

69 With those criteria in mind, we decided upon a five factor model that included the following dimensions: civic engagement (domestic and international), philanthropy (volunteering time and donating money), social entrepreneurship (creating new organizations or encouraging existing ones to serve the public good), knowledge production (produced by traditional and new media), and voluntary simplicity (a life style committed to environmental sustainability). For civic engagement, the research team identified nine specific behavioral examples of citizen involvement that could be directed toward domestic and international issues. The philanthropy variable not only studied the volunteering of time and donating of funds but also identified eleven different types of organizations that might be the recipients of those contributions. This gave us a much richer picture of philanthropic contributions. The social entrepreneurship variable had several dimensions including the type of organization created, the number of organizations created, and the percentage of profits or surpluses reinvested for the good the community. Knowledge production asked if the respondents had produced knowledge using one or more of 15 more traditional and eight more contemporary media outlets. Finally, the voluntary simplicity variable asked respondents the degree to which they practiced, a more modest, simple lifestyle. Examples are riding a bike to work, taking a job that pays less but contributes more to the common good, or being motivated to use recycled products and to practice active recycling. The explanatory variables were selected based on the theoretical and empirical possibility that they might be associated with different degrees of global engagement. A set of program variables was identified including program type, duration, destination, and depth. Destination and depth were reconstituted into more complex indices that are described elsewhere in the report. Student demographics were also incorporated into the explanatory model and included: age, gender, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, and prior intercultural/international experience. We also incorporated career and academic futures as outcome variables in the study. The career variable asked about current occupation and the degree to which study abroad influenced as well as helped their career. The education variable asked if and what advanced degrees the respondents had completed, the degree to which study abroad influenced their educational plans, the academic field in which they studies, and whether or not their academic program was internationally oriented. The interview schedule, to be described later, was designed to go into much greater depth regarding the core questions and provide rich narratives and more nuanced accounts of the study abroad and global engagement. C. Factor Analysis: Creating Global Engagement Variables Empirically Once the survey data had been collected, exploratory factor analysis was conducted (using principal components extraction and orthogonal rotation methods) to test the conceptual model of global engagement empirically and produce valid and reliable global engagement variables. Principal component analysis was chosen because the research team was interested in reducing a large number of variables down to a smaller number of components. (Tabachnik & Fidell, 2001). A total of 41 original items from survey responses was included in this analysis. In creating new Global Engagement indices based on the results of factor analysis, the research team decided to create factor-based scales instead of using factor scores estimated by the SPSS program (Pett et al., 2003, p.221; Pedhazur & Schmelkin, 1991). This method of creating factor-based scales involved selecting only the items which loaded high and yielded high coefficient alphas, instead of using estimated factor scores, which include all the items for each component. The latter method to estimate factor scores include all the items for each component, including those with low factor 57

70 loadings or deleted for a higher value of coefficient alpha. However, this study decided to include only those that loaded greater than.45 and satisfied reliability test results as well as conceptual understanding of each component by the research team. Subsequently, items chosen for each component were aggregated. For example, the first Global Engagement variable, Philanthropic Donations, was created by adding the ten survey items shown in Appendix I: philanthropic donations related to health, environment, poverty, human rights, education, international development, community, social justice, youth organizations, and arts. This process yielded six new factor-based Global Engagement scales, as shown in Table 32: philanthropic donations, volunteerism-social justice, international civic engagement-political, global values, global leadership, and domestic civic engagement-political. A seventh factor, volunteerismsocial engagement, did not meet all our criteria for inclusion. Table 29 also shows the number of original items used, the explained variance, and the reliability coefficient alpha. The new scales had sound internal consistency reliability and we feel that they are reasonably robust. For more information on the items and the scales, see Appendix I. The two additional Global Engagement variables are global knowledge production and social entrepreneurship. The original knowledge production variable was binary and the results of knowledge production- traditional (15 items) and non-traditional (8 items) were aggregated to produce the new global knowledge production variable. Social entrepreneurship was dummy coded to indicate whether a participant is a social entrepreneur or not, and was also scaled as an ordinal variable for a participant s intensity of involvement within the organization. Furthermore, these two items were merged into one final social entrepreneurship variable indicating three levels: no involvement, participating in one form of social entrepreneurship (created an organization or changed an organization from within), or engagement in both types of social entrepreneurship activities. Table 32. Global engagement factors Number of Items % Explained Variance Coefficient Alpha 1. Philanthropic Donations Volunteerism: Social Justice Civic Engagement - International: Political Global Values Global Leadership Civic Engagement - Domestic: Political N=

71 D. Destination Index The purpose of the Destination Index was to create a multifaceted variable that would distinguish various study abroad destinations from each other and from the U.S. The degree of cultural difference from American culture, as well as the degree of difference in the levels of social and economic development was considered in creating this index. The index was developed from three components: Cultural Dis/Similarity (Vande Berg, Conner-Linton, & Paige, 2009), Cultural Distance (Kogut & Singh, 1988), and Human Development Index (UNDP, 2008). The Destination Index is a composite score that represent an individual country s degree of difference from the U.S. on these three values. The Cultural Dis/Similarity component has emerged in the Georgetown Consortium Project (Vande Berg, Conner-Linton, & Paige, 2009). It represents the U.S. study abroad students perceptions of the amount of cultural similarity or dissimilarity of their destination countries compared to the U.S. Study abroad participants in the Georgetown Consortium Project rated how similar or dissimilar they felt the host culture was from the U.S culture on nine dimensions. Those nine dimensions included political system, economic system, school system, language, medical practice, communication practices, customs, physical environment, and lastly, attitudes, beliefs, values. The response format was: very similar, similar, somewhat similar, somewhat dissimilar, dissimilar, and very dissimilar. Scoring was from 1 (very similar) to 6 (very dissimilar). These scores were averaged by destination countries in the Georgetown Consortium Project (n=1175), as shown in Table 33 and Figure 1. 59

72 Table 33 Countries by degree of similarity/dissimilarity compared to the U.S. Country Frequencies Mean Australia Austria Botswana Chile China Czech Republic Denmark Dominican Republic Ecuador England Egypt France Germany Italy Japan Lebanon Mexico Morocco Netherlands New Zealand Russia

73 Senegal South Africa Spain Tanzania

74 Figure 1. Countries by degree of similarity/dissimilarity compared to the U.S. rank ordered. Overall, Figure 1 confirms the expectation that U.S. undergraduate students would feel cultural similarity towards the Western English-speaking countries, such as New Zealand and Australia, but most dissimilarity towards countries such as China, Egypt, Dominican Republic, and South Africa. Cultural distance represents a composite index of Hofstede s (2001) four indices on cultural dimensions, namely power distance, individualism, masculinity, and uncertainty avoidance. Cultural distance (CD) as a composite index was first developed by Kogut and Singh (1988) and has been used in numerous studies. CD is based on the deviations along countries four aforementioned cultural dimensions from the U.S. ranking on the same dimensions. In addition, these deviations were corrected for variation within each dimension. Finally, the four scores were arithmetically averaged into a 62

75 composite score titled cultural distance. The formula below indicates the steps suggested by Kogut and Singh for developing this index: CD j = (4) i=j {( I ij I iu ) 2 /V i }/4 CD j = cultural distance of the j-th country from the U.S. I ij = the index for the i-th cultural dimension and j-th country, V i = the variance of the index of the i-th dimension, u = the U.S. The Human Development Index (HDI) represents a composite index measuring social and economic development in a country by combining indicators of life expectancy, educational attainment and income (UNDP, 2008). The composite index is expressed as a value between 0 and 1. Similarly to the previous components, the HDI component of Destination Index represents a deviation of the country s HDI score from the U.S. HDI score. The values of the three components were standardized (z-score), and an arithmetic average was calculated from the standardized values. The reliability analysis was conducted on the standardized scores, and as Coefficient Alpha indicates the index holds well together (α =.73). Additionally, the three components have significant moderate to very moderate correlations among each other, in their original as well as standardized values. The Destination Index was calculated only for the participants who did not study in multiple locations (N = 3499), and for the destinations where the scores for all three components were available. Table 34 provides details on the Destination Index for these countries, including the scores of the three components. 63

76 Table 34 Destination Index for select countries in the study and the appropriate values of its three components. Country Cultural Dis/Similarity CD HDI Index Destination Index Count Australia Austria United Kingdom New Zealand Italy Ecuador Chile Japan Germany Spain Denmark Lebanon China Morocco Mexico Netherlands, The Egypt France Tanzania, United Republic of Czech Republic Russian Federation Total

77 Discussion The value of the Destination Index is that it reflects study abroad participants subjective evaluation of cultural similarity-dissimilarity as well as the objective assessments of cultural values and socioeconomic development. The example of application (JE) For example, it has been long assumed in the field of education abroad that the more culturally different and challenging countries a student studies abroad in, the greater impact the student would have in intercultural learning and development. This hypothesis could not be tested properly because study abroad destinations could not be included in a statistical model. The development of the Destination Index by the SAGE research team can facilitate a deeper examination of the role and impact of study abroad destinations as one potentially important component of the study abroad experiences. E. Assessing the Depth of Study Abroad Programs One of our four major Ds of study abroad and perhaps the most important is the depth of study abroad programs. Fry (1987, 2007) introduced the distinction between shallow and deep internationalism to be thought of in terms of a broad continuum ranging from the shallowest to the deepest. This distinction influenced our thinking about how to operationalize fruitfully the depth of study abroad construct. Initially we were thinking of measuring this variable directly with a single measure such as direct enrollment in a local university program. However, we rather quickly realized that such an approach was overly simplistic. One of our research team members argued strongly that we should develop a multidimensional measure of depth of study abroad and that the construct should be treated as an unmeasured variable (Blalock, 1971). It was agreed that this was a reasonable approach. In his research on educational and occupational attainment in Thailand, Fry (1980) faced the challenge of how to assess the quality of Thai secondary schools. Earlier the economist of education Mark Blaug (1971) in a major rate of return study simply used a dummy dichotomous variable, public versus private school, as a proxy for quality. This turned out to be overly simplistic, mechanistic, and misleading. As an alternative Fry developed a multiple criteria approach that produced a convenient quantitative ratio variable. Schools were ranked on different criteria such as their perceived social charter (Meyer, 1970), the scores of their students on the national secondary leaving examination, and the number of national merit scholars produced. In ranking the top research universities in the US, the Center for Measuring University Performance (Capaldi, et al, 2009) uses exactly the same methodology. They have identified nine key criteria contributing to excellence such as federal research dollars brought in by faculty, the number of doctorates granted, and the level of endowment assets. Again as with the Thai study of secondary schools, this methodology yields a quantitative ratio variable, with universities having scores ranking from zero to a maximum of a full score of nine if they rank highly on all the criteria. Committed to seeing depth of study abroad as a multidimensional construct, we decided to use the multiple criteria approach developed by the Center for Measuring University Performance. We identified the following seven key criteria: 65

78 1) Experienced more than one study abroad genre such as studied and worked abroad. 2) Studied abroad in more than one destination. 3) Directly enrolled in an overseas institution and took courses alongside host nationals. 4) As part of their study abroad, they had work, internship, or field research experience. 5) Studied in a non-english speaking destination. 6) Studied in a less common destination. 7) Had more than one study abroad experience as an undergraduate Thus, the maximum score was seven and the range for this variable is 0-7. Since a key variable in our study is another D, duration of study abroad in months, we considered using it in the depth index, but eventually decided to drop it. Otherwise in looking at the relationship between depth and duration, there would have been an element of tautology. Thus, our depth measure is based on the major seven criteria identified above which allow us to assess the depth of study abroad on a continuum of 0 to 7. F. Research Design: Data Collection Procedures Study Abroad and Comparison Groups Data screening Prior to conducting quantitative analyses, each group of collected data study abroad group and non-study abroad comparison group was checked for the accuracy of data entry, missing data, and satisfaction of the assumptions for multivariate analysis, using various procedures. As a result, the final sample of 6,378 for study abroad group and 5,924 for comparison group were used for subsequent analyses. Study abroad group The collected data with 6,391 study abroad alumni were examined for the accuracy of data entry, missing data, and satisfaction of the assumptions for multivariate analysis. Those whose responses were out of range were eliminated, including those who studied abroad in the U.S., or those who responded twice. Subsequently, the remaining 6,378 were checked for missing data and the assumptions for multivariate analysis. As shown in Table 35, several Global Engagement Indices had missing data greater than 5%, the Destination Index had about 45% missing values. The number of years having lived abroad prior to college also had as much as 89% of missing data, which was used as a proxy variable to previous international experience. While there is no rule for the tolerable amount of missing data, researchers generally agree that less than 5% of missing data from a large data set has little impact on results and any procedures would produce similar results (Allison, 2002; Peng, et al.,, 2007; Tabachnick & Fidwell, 2007). It is important that data are Missing Completely at Random (MCAR) or 66

79 Missing at Random (MAR), which indicates that missing values do not show any patterns, nor are they associated with particular variables. Accordingly, various procedures were used to check whether people who are missing on Global Engagement Indices greater than 10% display any systematic patterns. As discussed in Appendix E, Technical Notes, some social desirability may be associated with those missing values. However, as noted in Technical Notes, various preemptive measures were applied in constructing a survey to address this issue of social desirability, and the SAGE survey seeks behavioral data, not attitudes. With regard to the number of years having lived abroad, a variable indicating whether a participant lived abroad prior to college was used as a proxy variable for previous international experience, as it had only 0.2% of missing data. After the examination of normality, the final sample of 6,378 was used for further analyses. Table 35 Basic descriptive statistics and missing data profile for the study abroad group N Mean SD Missing Count GE 1 Philanthropic Donations GE 2 Volunteerism: Social Justice GE 3 Civic Engagement- International: Political GE 4 Global Values GE 5 Global Leadership GE 6 Civic Engagement: Domestic: Political GE 7 Volunteerism: Social welfare Knowledge Production_GE Social Entrepreneurship Pursued an advanced degree/ Graduate school a - a 11.2 Pursued an internationally-oriented degree a - a Internationally-oriented career a - a 38.6 Duration Destination Index Depth Index Number of years living abroad prior to college Lived abroad prior to college Age SES Gender a - a 21.3 Ethnicity a - a 55.9 *SD indicates standard deviation; the variable of graduate education is binary. a Binary or categorical variables were not given their mean and standard deviation scores. Percent Comparison group The collected data with 7,194 non-study abroad alumni, or comparison group were examined for the accuracy of data entry and missing data. Firstly, those who indicated their study abroad participation during undergraduate were deleted. Those who selected non-participating institutions as well as responses out of range, such as college graduation years, were also eliminated. As a result, 5,924 were left for checking missing data. 67

80 As shown in Table 36, several individual survey items which belong to various Global Engagement variables had missing data greater 5%. For example, an item for the Civic Engagement on the issues of international importance, talks and presentations (full item name) was missing for 10.7%, and an item for the Civic Engagement on the issues of domestic importance, leadership (full item name) was missing for 9.4%. Similarly to the study abroad group, various procedures were used to check whether those who are missing on Global Engagement related items greater than 8% show any systematic patterns. As discussed in Appendices E, Technical Notes, some social desirability and age may be associated with those missing values. However, as noted in the above with the study abroad group, various preemptive measures were applied in constructing a survey to address this issue of social desirability, and the SAGE survey asks behavioral facts, not an attitudinal questions. After the examination of normality, the final sample of 5,924 was used for further analyses. Table 36 Basic descriptive statistics and missing data profile for the comparison group N Mean SD Missing Count Percent Civic Engagement (Domestic): Organized or signed petition Civic Engagement (Domestic): Have been nvolved in protests, demonstrations Civic Engagement (Domestic): Played a leadership role in improving quality of life Civic Engagement (Domestic): Made a purchasing decision because of the social or political values of a company Civic Engagement (Int l): Gave formal talks or demonstrations Civic Engagement (Int l): Wrote letter(s) to the editor Civic Engagement (Int l): Voted in an election Civic Engagement (Int l): Used the internet to raise awareness about social and political issues Civic Engagement (Int l): Contacted or visited a public official Knowledge Production: Have ever published something formally Philanthropic volunteering: arts Philanthropic volunteering: environment Philanthropic donation: community Philanthropic donation: poverty Age Gender a - a 21.4 Pursued an advanced degree/ Graduate school a - a 12.2 *SD indicates standard deviation; the variable of graduate education is binary. a Binary or categorical variables were not given their mean and standard deviation scores. 68

81 G. Multivariate Quantitative Findings and Analysis Correlations among the Major Variables of the Study Correlations between the explanatory variables of this study Duration, Destination, and Depth Indices, and the Global Engagement dependent variables were examined. Prior to these analyses, correlations among Global Engagement Indices as well as among Duration, Destination, and Depth Indices were also analyzed. Correlations among explanatory variables: Duration, Destination, and Depth Indices The correlation results among the three key explanatory variables of Duration, Destination Index, and Depth are shown in Table 37. The relationship between the Duration and the Destination index is statistically significant but very weak (r= -.04, p<.05). Although this result with minimum value can be regarded as negligible, this negative relationship may suggest that participants who studied abroad in a more culturally different and less developed country compared to the U.S. tend to have a stay of slightly shorter duration. The relationship between Duration and Depth Index (without duration) is also statistically significant but very minimal (r=.06, p<.05). While the relationship between Duration and Depth Index (without duration) can be considered negligible, their positive relationship may suggest that the more in-depth experience of study abroad is associated with a participant s longer stay in a country. When Depth includes a duration component, the higher moderate relationship between Duration and Depth Index can be explained by their overlap of duration component, 6 weeks abroad total as an undergraduate (r=.29, p<.01). Unlike the two previous results, the relationship between Destination and Depth Indices were moderate to strong and statistically significant, regardless of involvement of a duration component. This result indicates that a participant s in-depth experience while abroad is positively associated with studying in a more culturally different and less developed country than the U.S.. This finding has important policy implications as will be discussed in our concluding chapter. Table 37 Correlations among explanatory variables: Duration, Destination, and Depth Indices Destination Index Depth Index (without duration) Depth Index (8) Duration -.04*.06**.29** Destination Index.49**.40** Note. (r) indicates the correlation results using Spearman s Rho Correlations among Global Engagement outcome indices The correlation results among the various Global Engagement Indices are presented in Table 38. Overall they show statistically significant positive relationships with each other, which are weak to moderate. Several relatively strong relationships are considered natural for sharing common dimensions of global engagement. For example, the second and the seventh Global Engagement 69

82 variables, Volunteerism: Social Justice and Volunteerism: Social welfare share volunteerism as a common dimension of global engagement, and showed a moderately strong relationship (r=.60, p<.01). Similarly, the third and the six Global Engagement variables, Civic Engagement International: Political and Civic Engagement Domestic: Political share civic engagement as a common dimension of global engagement, and show a moderately strong relationship (r=.60, p<.01). It is noteworthy that the second Global Engagement variable, Volunteerism: Social Justice has positive relationships with all other Global Engagement variables at the moderate level. Its statistically significant correlation coefficients range from.4 to.6. Table 38 Correlations among Global Engagement Indices GE Indices Philanthropic Donations.414**.296**.253**.285**.401**.505** 2. Volunteerism: Social Justice.499**.409**.537**.540**.591** 3. Civic Engagement -.483**.487**.604**.250** International: Political 4. Global Values.348**.454**.268** 5. Global Leadership.474**.453** 6. Civic Engagement - Domestic:.387** Political 7. Volunteerism: Social welfare KP_GE.144**.184**.250**.176**.348**.260**.120** Social Entrepreneurship (r).224**.279**.192**.186**.327**.263**.268** *p<.05 **p<. 01 Correlations between explanatory and outcome variables The results of simple bivariate correlations the Global Engagement variables and the three explanatory variables of Duration, Destination, and Depth are presented in Table 39. The previous sections in this chapter have discussed how these variables and indices were created. Overall, the results of correlations between Global Engagement Indices and either Duration or Destination Index are either statistically significant but very weak, or statistically non-significant at all. Considering the large sample size, these relationships can be considered negligible. In other words, the duration and the destination of study abroad program are not meaningfully associated with participants global engagement in various dimensions. These finding suggest simply placing students in exotic locations or sending them abroad for long periods of time per se may have limited impact. Rather, programs of shorter duration even in more traditional destinations can contribute significantly to global engagement. These results signify the importance how study abroad programs are designed. The caveat is, however, not to misinterpret these results and impose limited impact of duration and destination for global engagement on other kinds of study abroad impact. For example, duration can be an important factor for language learning and intercultural development as other studies have shown (Dwyer, 2004; Medina-Lopez-Portillo, 2004; IIE, 2009b). The depth variable, however, shows considerably stronger relationships with global engagement outcomes. The relationships of the Depth Index with GE 2: Volunteerism: Social Justice, GE 3 Civic Engagement-International: Political, and GE 4: Global Values, and GE 5: Global Leadership were 70

83 relatively stronger and statistically significant at r=.15 or.16 (p<.05). This indicate that the more indepth experience while studying abroad is positively associated with the stronger global engagement in the dimensions of volunteering for social justice, civic engagement for political issues of domestic importance, and global leadership. Table 39. Correlations between Global Engagement (outcome) variables* and study abroad characteristics (explanatory) variables Global Engagement Indices Duration Destination Index Depth Index (without duration) Depth Index (all 8 components) 1. Philanthropic Donations.047** * Volunteerism: Social Justice.043**.078**.147**.152** 3. Civic Engagement -.096**.070**.163**.177** International: Political 4. Global Values.051**.077**.153**.156** 5. Global Leadership.086**.081**.164**.179** 6. Civic Engagement - Domestic:.051** **.075** Political 7. Volunteerism: Social welfare *.058**.060** KP_GE.097** ** Social Entrepreneurship.057** (r).010 (r).050**(r).060**(r) Note. (r) indicates the correlation results using Spearman s Rho *p<.05 **p<. 01 H. Regression and Path Analyses Path analyses An initial path model was constructed, which was used as a generic one for nine different Global Engagement outcome variables: seven Global Engagement Indices, Global Knowledge Production, and Social Entrepreneurship. In other words, an initial path model in Figure 2 was performed, and then modified for each Global Engagement outcome variable. This initial path model shown in Figure 2 was based on the conceptual model of the SAGE research and also reflects the previous quantitative results. For example, Depth and Destination were previously shown to be correlated (r=.49, p<.01). Although Hofstede s Cultural Difference Index was used instead of the Destination Index, the correlation between Hofstede s Cultural Difference Index and the Depth Index (r=.49, p<.01) is strong. All demographic variables were also correlated with each other in the initial path model. Prior to performing path analyses using a model in Figure 2, confirmatory factor analyses were conducted for explanatory variables, Depth and Destination Indices, separately, which consisted of multiple components. These analyses aimed to examine whether they are valid measurement models for Depth and Destination latent variables. This trial was made as CFA tends to decrease measurement error (Kline, 2005). However, the results of CFA models showed that they have either a poor model fit 71

84 or not identified as a model; therefore they could not be included in the model as latent variables (see Appendix F). Accordingly, in conducting path analyses, the composite Depth Index and one of Destination Index components, Hofstede s Cultural Difference Index, were used for explanatory variables as were in previous regression analyses. Figure 2 Initial path model The following section discusses the results of path analyses for each Global Engagement Index using the initial path model in Figure 2 as a base model. 1. Global Engagement 1: Philanthropic Donations The initial path model, Figure 2, was used with the Global Engagement Index, Philanthropic Donations. Subsequently, the model was modified by deleting non-significant paths. The final model is presented in Figure 3, and the model fit indices for both initial and modified path models of Global Engagement 1 are presented in Table 40. Overall, the results of fit indices indicate a good fit of the initial model and a slightly better fit for the modified model. First, the statistically significant value of the chi-square associated with degrees of freedom, (12) =192.03, p=.00 indicates that the model does not fit the sample data well. However, the chi-square as a fit index can be affected by the sample size as well as the violation of multivariate normality (Hu & Bentler, 1995; Keith, 2006; Kline, 2005; Schumacker & Lomax, 1996). Other fit indices were evaluated and they similarly point to a good fit of this initial model. For example, the RMSEA, which is based on a noncentral chi-square distribution, also suggests a good fit. An RMSEA value less than.08, or more restrictively.05 represents a good or a reasonable fit, and larger than.10 represents a poor fit (Keith, 2006; Schumacker & Lomax, 1996). Its value of.049 in this study suggests a good fit, which has improved from the initial model. The CFI, the standardized fit index also 72

85 suggests a good fit with its value close to 1. The modified model is only slightly better than the initial model in their model fit, but the modified model was chosen for further analysis due to its model parsimony from eliminating insignificant paths. Table 40. Model fit indices for Global Engagement 1 models Model df p RMSEA (90%CI) CFI Initial ( ).956 Modified ( ).954 Note. RMSEA= root mean square error of approximation; CFI= comparative fit index The results of the modified path model are presented in the following Table 41 and Figure 3. Table 41 shows the direct effects alone from demographic variables and explanatory variables on an outcome variable, Global Engagement 1: Philanthropic Donations. Results show that the Depth Index is the only explanatory variable which has significant effect on GE 1. In other words, the depth of study abroad experience is the only characteristic of study abroad programs, which influence study abroad participants to be globally engaged to make philanthropic donations. Its magnitude of effect,.04, was very small. The duration and destination of study abroad programs proved to be non-significant. On the other hand, all the demographic variables except for previous international experience have impact on GE 1. Particularly age has a strong direct effect on GE Philanthropic Donations, and SES and gender also had some degree of effect on GE 1. In other words, the older a study abroad participant is, the more likely the person is engaged in making philanthropic donations. The higher SES and being a female were also positively associated with making philanthropic donations. This finding can be easily understood that those older would be more able to afford to make monetary donations than those younger. Table 41. Direct effects from demographic and explanatory variables on GE 1 Direct effects Path coefficients Demographic variables GE 1 Philanthropic Donations Previous international experience --- Age.54*** SES.06*** Gender.10*** Explanatory variables GE 1 Philanthropic Donations Depth Index.04*** Duration --- Destination (Hofstede s Cultural Difference Index)

86 Background Demographic Variables Explanatory Variables Outcome Variables: Global Engagement Previous International Experience,06,09.54 Depth Index (without duration component) Age SES -.15, Duration of Study Abroad program.04 Global Engagement 1 Philanthropic Donations Gender.07 Destination: Hofstede s Cultural Difference Index Figure 3 Path model of GE 1 philanthropic donations 2. Global Engagement 2: Volunteerism: Social Justice Similar to GE 1, the initial path model in the Figure 2 was used for the Global Engagement 2: Volunteerism: Social Justice variable. This model was modified by deleting non-significant paths, and their fit indices are presented in Table 42. a good fit of the initial model and a slightly better fit for the modified model. The modified models is only slightly better than the initial model in their model fit; however, the modified model was chosen for further analysis due to its model parsimony from eliminating insignificant paths. The statistically significant value of the chi-square associated with degrees of freedom, (11) =179.41, p=.00 indicates that the model does not fit the sample data well. However, other fit indices, RMSEA lower than.05 and CFI close to 1 indicate a good fit. Accordingly, using this modified model, the following results in Table 43 and Figure 4 are discussed. Table 42 Model fit indices for Global Engagement 2 models Model df p RMSEA (90%CI) CFI Initial ( ).927 Modified ( ).927 Note. RMSEA= root mean square error of approximation; CFI= comparative fit index Among study abroad program-related variables, the Depth Index and Duration have significant effect on GE 2: Volunteerism: Social Justice. These results indicate that the in-depth experience of studying abroad has positive effect on a participant s global engagement behavior of volunteering for social justice after return. The longer duration also has positive effect but its degree of effect is very weak. For demographic variables, age, SES, and gender were all significant variables for GE 2. Particularly gender, being a female has a relatively stronger effect on volunteering for social justice than other demographic variables. 74

87 Table 43. Direct effects from demographic and explanatory variables on GE 2 Direct effects Path coefficients Demographic variables GE 2 Previous international experience --- Age.08*** SES.03* Gender.13*** Explanatory variables GE 2 Depth Index.15*** Duration.03* Destination (Hofstede s Cultural Difference Index) --- Background Demographic Variables Explanatory Variables Outcome Variables: Global Engagement Previous International Experience,06,09.08 Depth Index (without duration component) Age SES -.08, Duration of Study Abroad program Global Engagement 2 Volunteerism: Social Justice Gender.07 Destination: Hofstede s Cultural Difference Index Figure 4. Path model of GE 2: Volunteerism: Social Justice 3. Global Engagement 3: Civic Engagement- International: Political Similar to GE 1 and GE 2, initial and modified path models were analyzed and compared. Their fit indices are presented in Table 44. Similar to the path models of GE1 and GE 2, The modified models is only slightly better than the initial model in their model fit; however, the modified model was chosen for further analysis due to its model parsimony from eliminating insignificant paths. The statistically significant value of the chi-square associated with degrees of freedom, (11) =177.9, p=.00 indicates that the model does not fit the sample data well. However, other fit indices, RMSEA lower than.05 and CFI close to 1 indicate a good fit. Accordingly, using this modified model, the following results in Table 45 and Figure 5 are discussed. 75

88 Table 44 Model fit indices for Global Engagement 3 models Model df p RMSEA (90%CI) CFI Initial ( ).928 Modified ( ).929 Note. RMSEA= root mean square error of approximation; CFI= comparative fit index The results of explanatory variables in Table 45 are similar to those with GE 2 in the above. The Depth Index and Duration were significant, but the Destination was not for their relationship with the Global Engagement 3: Civic Engagement- International: Political. Results indicate that the more indepth experience a participant had during study abroad, the more this person is globally engaged in civic engagement behaviors for political issues of international importance. The longer stay during study abroad is also positively associated with GE 3, but its value is relatively low. For the results of demographic variables, again all three demographic variables except for previous international experience of living abroad were significant. Table 45 Direct effects from demographic and explanatory variables on GE 3 Direct effects Path coefficients Demographic variables GE 3 Previous international experience --- Age.06*** SES.10*** Gender.07*** Explanatory variables GE 3 Depth Index.17*** Duration.06*** Destination (Hofstede s Cultural Difference Index) --- Background Demographic Variables Explanatory Variables Outcome Variables: Global Engagement Previous International Experience,06,09.10 Depth Index (without duration component) Age SES -.15, Duration of Study Abroad program Global Engagement 3 Civic Engagement- International: Political Gender.07 Destination: Hofstede s Cultural Difference Index Figure 5. Path model of GE 3: Civic Engagement- International: Political 76

89 4. Global Engagement 4: Global Values The same analytical procedures were used with GE 4: Global Values. The results of both initial and modified models in Table 46 show that the modified model has only a slightly better fit than the initial model. It has smaller RMSEA value and slightly larger CFI. The modified model was chosen for further analysis as it is more parsimonious with fewer paths in the model. Table 46. Model fit indices for Global Engagement 4 models Model df p RMSEA (90%CI) CFI Initial ( ).928 Modified ( ).929 Note. RMSEA= root mean square error of approximation; CFI= comparative fit index As shown in Table 47 and Figure 6, the results of explanatory variables for their relationships with GE 4 Global Values are consistent with those of GE 2 and GE 3. The Depth Index and Duration are meaningfully related but Destination is not. Results indicate that the more in-depth experience during study abroad has a direct and positive effect on the participant s subsequent global engagement in global values after return. As explained in the previous section, enacting global values in this study means making purchasing decisions based on the values of a company and practicing a simple and modest lifestyle. Duration also has a positive and direct effect on the global engagement of global values but it is as low as.04. The results of demographic variables for their effect on the GE 4 are different from previous results in that previous international experience is significant but age is not. Although it is very weak, previous international experience of living abroad has a positive and direct effect on GE 4 Global Values. The higher SES and being a female also have a positive and direct effect on GE 4. Table 47. Direct effects from demographic and explanatory variables on GE 4 Direct effects Path coefficients Demographic variables GE 4 Previous international experience.04** Age --- SES.07*** Gender.12*** Explanatory variables GE 4 Depth Index.14*** Duration.04*** Destination (Hofstede s Cultural Difference Index)

90 Background Demographic Variables Explanatory Variables Outcome Variables: Global Engagement.04 Previous International Experience,06,09 Depth Index (without duration component) Age SES -.15, Duration of Study Abroad program Global Engagement 4 Global Values Gender.07 Destination: Hofstede s Cultural Difference Index Figure 6. Path model of GE 4: Global Values 5. Global Engagement 5: Global Leadership Following the same analytical procedures for GE5-Global Leadership, the results of both initial and modified models in Table 48 indicate that the modified model is only slightly better than the initial model in their model fit. Nevertheless, the modified model was chosen for further analysis due to its parsimony with fewer paths in the model. Table 48. Model fit indices for Global Engagement 5 models Model Df p RMSEA (90%CI) CFI Initial ( ).927 Modified ( ).928 Note. RMSEA= root mean square error of approximation; CFI= comparative fit index The results of path analysis for the Global Engagement 5: Global Leadership using its modified model is presented in Table 49 and Figure 7. The results are similar to those of GE 2 Volunteerism: Social Justice and GE 3 Global Engagement 3: Civic Engagement- International: Political. Firstly, the Depth Index and Duration have significant effects on the global engagement with respect to leadership. In other words, the more in-depth experience a participant had during study abroad, the more likely the person is globally engaged in playing a leadership role and giving formal talks and presentations on the issues of both domestic and international importance. Duration also has a positive and direct effect on GE 5 Global Leadership but it is relatively weak. 78

91 Table 49 Direct effects from demographic and explanatory variables on GE 5 Direct effects Path coefficients Demographic variables GE 5 Previous international experience.04** Age.11*** SES.03* Gender --- Explanatory variables GE 5 Depth Index.18*** Duration.05*** Destination (Hofstede s Cultural Difference Index) --- Background Demographic Variables Explanatory Variables Outcome Variables: Global Engagement Previous International Experience,06, Depth Index (without duration component) Age SES -.15, Duration of Study Abroad program Global Engagement 5 Global Leadership Gender.07 Destination: Hofstede s Cultural Difference Index.03 Figure 7. Path model of GE 5: Global Leadership 6. Global Engagement 6: Civic Engagement- Domestic: Political The path analysis with Global Engagement 6: Civic Engagement- Domestic: Political again used the initial path model in Figure 2, and modified it by deleting non-significant paths. The results of both initial and modified models in Table 50 indicate that the modified model is only slightly better than the initial model in their model fit. However, the modified model was chosen for further analysis due to its parsimony for having fewer paths in the model. Table 50 Model fit indices for Global Engagement 6 models Model Df p RMSEA (90%CI) CFI Initial ( ).926 Modified ( )

92 Note. RMSEA= root mean square error of approximation; CFI= comparative fit index The results of path analysis for the Global Engagement 6: Civic Engagement- Domestic: Political using its modified model is presented in Table 51 and Figure 8. The results with explanatory variables are noteworthy as Destination using Hofstede s Cultural Difference Index proved to be significant unlike the previous results. Although it is as weak as -.05, this is the first Global Engagement variable which is significantly associated with study abroad destination. The path coefficient of -.05 indicates that the more culturally different from the U.S. the study abroad destination is, the less likely a participant is globally engaged in terms of civic engagement on the political issues of domestic importance. In other words, a participant who studied abroad in more culturally similar destination country is more likely to be involved in civic engagement for the domestic political issues. However, it should be noted that its path coefficient is relatively low and it is significant at the p value of.05. On the other hand, Duration was not significantly related with GE 6. The Depth Index has a positive and direct effect on GE 6, which is consistent with the previous results. With regard to the results of demographic variables, age shows a stronger effect than other significant demographic variables, SES and gender. The older a participant is, the more likely the person is likely to globally engaged in civic engagement on domestic political issues. Similarly, the higher SES and being a female are positively associated with GE 6, while their values are as low as.04 and.05. Table 51. Direct effects from demographic and explanatory variables on GE 6 Direct effects Path coefficients Demographic variables GE 6 Previous international experience --- Age.19*** SES.04** Gender.05*** Explanatory variables GE 6 Depth Index.12*** Duration --- Destination (Hofstede s Cultural Difference Index) -.05* 80

93 Background Demographic Variables Explanatory Variables Outcome Variables: Global Engagement.19 Previous International Experience,06,09 Depth Index (without duration component) Age SES -.15, Duration of Study Abroad program Global Engagement 6 Civic Engagement- Domestic: Political Gender.07 Destination: Hofstede s Cultural Difference Index Figure 8. Path model of GE 6 Civic Engagement- Domestic: Political 7. Global Engagement 7: Volunteerism: Social Welfare The path analysis with Global Engagement 7 Volunteerism: Social welfare used the initial path and modified models and the results presented in Table 52 indicate that the modified model is only slightly better than the initial model in their model fit. However, the modified model was chosen for further analysis due to its parsimony for having fewer paths in the model. Table 52 Model fit indices for Global Engagement 7 models Model df p RMSEA (90%CI) CFI Initial ( ).931 Modified ( ).932 Note. RMSEA= root mean square error of approximation; CFI= comparative fit index The results of the explanatory variables, shown in Table 53 and Figure 9 regarding their relationships with the Global Engagement 7: Volunteerism: Social Welfare are distinguished from the previous results in that the path coefficient of the Depth Index is low only next to that of GE 1 Philanthropic Donations and Duration have a negative path coefficient. Although they are all very weak, these results indicate that the more in-depth experience of study abroad is positively related with 81

94 global engagement to volunteer for social welfare, and that the longer stay abroad is negatively related with it. The results of explanatory variables with GE 7 are distinct from previous results as the path coefficient of the Depth Index is low only after that of GE 1, and that of Duration is negative. Their values are also all very weak. These results indicate that the in-depth study abroad experience is positively associated with global engagement to volunteer for social welfare, but the longer duration of study abroad has negative effect on this type of global engagement, volunteering for social welfare. About the results of demographic variables with GE 7, they also distinguished from the previous results in a similar way to those of explanatory variables. Firstly, age shows a strong positive effect on GE 7 only after GE 1 Philanthropic Donations. The fact that both GE 1 and GE 7 concern the philanthropic activities can be considered for one possible reason. Gender also shows the strongest relationship with GE 7 Volunteerism: Social Welfare among other GE variables. Lastly, SES is not significant in its relationship with GE 7. These results indicate that the older the participant is, the more likely the person is likely to be globally engaged to volunteer for social welfare. Being a female is also positively related with global engagement of volunteering for social welfare. Table 53. Direct effects from demographic and explanatory variables on GE 7 Direct effects Path coefficients Demographic variables GE 7 Previous international experience --- Age.24*** SES --- Gender.14*** Explanatory variables GE 7 Depth Index.09*** Duration -.04** Destination (Hofstede s Cultural Difference Index) --- Background Demographic Variables Explanatory Variables Outcome Variables: Global Engagement.24 Previous International Experience,06,09 Depth Index (without duration component) Age SES -.15, Duration of Study Abroad program Global Engagement 7 Volunteerism: Social Welfare Gender.07 Destination: Hofstede s Cultural Difference Index.14 82

95 Figure 9. Path model of GE 7 Volunteerism: Social Welfare 8. Global Engagement: Knowledge Production The initial path model in Figure 2 was conducted for the Global Engagement: Knowledge Production. Subsequently, the model was modified by deleting non-significant paths. The results of fit indices shown in Table 54 indicate a good fit of the initial model and a slightly better fit for the modified model. Similar to the results of previous other Global Engagement Indices, an RMSEA value has improved. The modified model was used for the further path analysis. Table 54. Model fit indices for Global Engagement: Knowledge Production models Model df p RMSEA (90%CI) CFI Initial ( ).927 Modified ( ).927 Note. RMSEA= root mean square error of approximation; CFI= comparative fit index The results of demographic variables as shown in Table 55 and Figure 10 show that all demographic variables have significant effect on Knowledge Production. Gender alone indicated a negative impact relationship with Knowledge Production. This means that male participants tend to be slightly more active than female participants in producing knowledge, including traditional ways of writing journal articles and books, and non-traditional ways of digital media and art works. Previous international experience of living abroad and a higher socioeconomic status were negligible but had a positive effect on knowledge production. Age was relatively stronger in its effect on knowledge production that older participants tend to have worked on more knowledge production. The results of explanatory variables also were all significant but weak on the global engagement in terms of knowledge production. The Depth Index and Duration had positive effect, but Destination using Hofstede s Cultural Difference Index was negative. These results indicate that in-depth study abroad experience and the longer duration of stay abroad contribute to participants knowledge production. However, a participant who studied abroad in more culturally similar destination country is more likely to be involved in civic engagement for the domestic political issues. Table 55 Direct effects from demographic and explanatory variables on KP_GE Direct effects Path coefficients Demographic variables KP_GE Previous international experience.03* Age.17*** SES.06*** Gender -.10*** Explanatory variables KP_GE Depth Index.08*** Duration.06*** Destination (Hofstede s Cultural Difference Index) -.05* 83

96 Background Demographic Variables Explanatory Variables Outcome Variables: Global Engagement Previous International Experience,06, Depth Index (without duration component) Age SES -.15, Duration of Study Abroad program Knowledge Production Global Engagement Gender.07 Destination: Hofstede s Cultural Difference Index Figure 10. Path model of Global Engagement: Knowledge Production 9. Global Engagement: Social Entrepreneurship It should be noted in this path analysis that the Global Engagement: Social Entrepreneurship consists of three categories by the degree of social engagement. As discussed in Byrne (2001) and Finney and DiStefano (2006), an ordered categorical variable with a small number of categories may attenuate the parameter estimates, and using a categorical variable could also be problematic in using Amos program. Therefore, caution is needed in interpreting the results of path analysis below. The initial path model in Figure 2 was analyzed for the Global Engagement: Social Entrepreneurship, and modified by deleting non-significant paths. The results of fit indices shown in Table 56 indicate a good fit of the initial model and a slightly better fit for the modified model. The modified model was used for the further path analysis. Table 56. Model fit indices for Global Engagement: Social Entrepreneurship models Model df p RMSEA (90%CI) CFI Initial ( ).922 Modified ( ).920 Note. RMSEA= root mean square error of approximation; CFI= comparative fit index The results of path analysis in Table 57 and Figure 11 show that only age, gender, and the Depth Index were significant in their effects on the Global Engagement: Social Entrepreneurship. However, the results of gender and the Depth Index were relatively weak. This indicates that the older and a male a participant is, the more intensely the participant is likely to have been involved in social entrepreneurship. The more in-depth study abroad experience also appeared to contribute to a study abroad participant s subsequent involvement in social entrepreneurship. 84

97 Table 57. Direct effects from demographic and explanatory variables on Social Entrepreneurship Direct effects Path coefficients Demographic variables SE_GE Previous international experience -- Age.12 SES -- Gender -.03 Explanatory variables SE_GE Depth Index.07 Duration -- Destination (Hofstede s Cultural Difference Index) -- Background Demographic Variables Explanatory Variables Outcome Variables: Global Engagement Previous International Experience,06,09.12 Depth Index (without duration component) Age SES -.15, Duration of Study Abroad program.07 Knowledge Production Social Entrepreneurship Gender.07 Destination: Hofstede s Cultural Difference Index -.03 Figure 11. Path model of Global Engagement: Social Entrepreneurship I. Analysis of Differences between the Study Abroad and Comparison Samples While we are disappointed that on numerous variables the study abroad and comparison groups were quite similar, there were some areas (and those seem particularly salient to the field of international education and study abroad), where the two groups diverged significantly. These key findings are as follows: In terms of background factors, those of higher socioeconomic status were about 11% more likely to be in the study abroad group. In terms of their undergraduate experience, for those who studied abroad friendships and student-peer interactions were far more important than those who did not study abroad (73.4% compared to 54.4%). Also community service and volunteer work was more important for the study abroad group (22.4% compared to 14.1%). For those who studied abroad 83.3% indicated study abroad as their most impactful experience. For 85

98 those who did not study abroad no undergraduate factor was higher than the 54.4% (for friendship mentioned above). Those who had studied abroad were far more likely to make purchasing decisions based on the values of a company than those who did not (mean of 1.95 compared to a mean of.24). This is a huge size effect. Those having studied abroad scored 11 percent higher on our measure of the practice of voluntary simplicity. Those who studied abroad were 37% higher on the scale of college having influenced their practice of voluntary simplicity. Those who studied abroad scored 60 percent higher on a measure of whether they had published in another language. Also those who had studied abroad scored twice as high on measure assessing the extent to which they drew upon research in other languages in their publications. Those who studied abroad were more three times more likely to have become social entrepreneurs related to international development. Those who studied abroad were about three and a half times more likely to pursue an internationally-oriented graduate degree. VIII. Qualitative Findings and Interpretations Qualitative analysis The Global Engagement Survey (GES) (see Appendix C) represented a focused instrument on understanding individuals global engagement and measuring the impact of study abroad on that engagement. In addition, the qualitative interviews complement this effort and provide illustrative narratives of the role and impact of study abroad on global engagement. However, knowing that we would not be able to reach all the participants with the qualitative interviews, we provided an opportunity in the GES to hear from the larger number of survey participants. Therefore, an openended question included at the end of the survey instrument provided a channel to hear from the participants in their own voices what the overall impact of study abroad has been on their lives. In addition to this open-ended question, at the end of the survey, the participants could express interest in participating in the qualitative interviews. Almost all survey participants have offered a comment or more in the open-ended question, while approximately 50 percent of survey participants expressed interest in being interviewed for our qualitative data analysis process. Clearly many of our survey respondents were eager to talk about their study abroad experiences and its impact on them. The qualitative analysis therefore consists of three stages: analysis of the open-ended questions on the GES, analysis of 63 qualitative interviews (randomly selected from the large survey sample), and individual case studies with special richness for understanding the relationship between study abroad and global engagement. 86

99 A. Open-ended question analysis The first portion of qualitative analysis has focused on the open-ended question, asking to In your own words, describe the impact that study aboard has had on your life (Paige, et al, 2007). The participants were free to comment on any impact of their study abroad experience, including a small number who have mentioned that the experience itself did not have any profound impact on their subsequent lives. The analysis of the responses to the open-ended question has focused on total of 632 responses; these included 132 responses from the individuals selected for qualitative interviews as well as additional 500 randomly selected responses after these 132 participants were taken out of the sample. The comments were coded for the common themes using the analytical software NVivo. The comments were first read for inductive coding allowing for categories of meaning to emerge; afterwards, the comments were coded deductively for the codes focusing on the impact of study abroad on seven concepts examined under global engagement. Finally, the codes were reviewed and grouped into common themes. The themes that emerged from our analysis of the open-ended question on the impact of study abroad on participants lives include: Personal learning and development Changes in the worldview and values Impact on career and professional development Impact on education and educational decisions Increased understanding of the world issues and relations Global engagement activities The themes are listed based on their intensity as well as how they align with SAGE s targeted focus on global engagement. Overwhelmingly, one theme stood out among the participants comments the participants noted that study abroad experience was either among the most influential experiences in their lives, or was the most impactful life experience. While this theme has been already noted in other studies focused on evaluating study abroad experiences, the objective of SAGE study was more specific and targeted. The SAGE study rather focuses on learning about the study abroad impact on one s global engagement and subsequent life experiences or decisions. Acknowledging the importance of the strongest theme, a number of other the emerging themes among the open-ended answers were very helpful in understanding the questions SAGE study raises. Largely, the participants spoke about the impact of study abroad experience on their worldview, noting increased interest in making an impact or making a difference in the world. Additionally, they have expressed a desire to become a 'world citizen' or 'global citizen'. Many participants have shared changing their careers due to solidified interest in working within disadvantaged areas during their experience abroad. Following survey participants explain this development of interest: Studying abroad was a life changing experience. I became a global citizen, striving to understand the impact of my choices and actions on people, cultures and places beyond the scope of my experience. (ID#7996) 87

100 My college study abroad experiences helped me to begin to understand that world, and my place in it. My work now with an international humanitarian organization is directly related to the time I spent studying abroad. Both my ability to cope with challenges of living in a developing country, and to understand the issues I face on a daily basis, derive directly from the things I learned while studying in both Morocco and Switzerland. (ID#2713) Other themes identify the impact of study abroad experience on the individuals career or educational paths. Additionally, the participants noted that study abroad has "helped" and "impacted" their careers, or even assisted in professional development by increasing the understanding of their career. These impacts are well summarized in the words of this participant: I was going to become a physical scientist, but after my study abroad experience, I opted for a 40-year career in international relations, just retiring from the US Dept. of State several months ago. (ID#1476) Study abroad was also identified as enriching the participants overall undergraduate experience, or the educational projects they have undertaken afterwards. In addition, study abroad experience solidified their decision to apply for international educational opportunities, such as Fulbright grants, applying to the Peace Corps, or pursuing graduate education abroad. Moreover, as the participant often reported study abroad impacting their career choices, they also noted that it often included completing a different bachelor s degree or going for a masters degree to hold a current career. Therefore, the participants have also talked about the impact of study abroad on both categories - their career and educational decisions. It spurred me to go to graduate school and earn my Ph.D. Now I am a study abroad professional--the Associate Director of International Programs. There really has been no more crucial experience for my professional life than my experience studying abroad. It has led me to where I am today. (ID#6695) Going to Botswana was a life-changing event. It opened my eyes to the world. Because of my experience abroad, I then traveled for several months after graduating, which led me to join the Peace Corps which led me to get my Master's degree in planning. It had a significant impact on my life and I don't think I would be in the same place now if it weren't for my experience in Botswana. (ID#1178) My study abroad experience was mostly an opportunity for me to see and experience Europe (mostly Italy) Doing that on my own gave me the confidence to later go by myself, without a program, to Central America, and work in orphanages and health care settings there. THIS later experience convinced me to get my master of public health and medical degrees. But I don't think I could have done it without [study abroad] and seeing that I could go to another country, get around on my own, and quickly learn the language. (ID#4676) Lastly, the participants talked about the impact of study abroad on their global engagement activities, particularly various activities within their communities. Often, they have noted a mixture of activities including civic engagement and community service; the respondents mention engaging into existing activities at their workplace or in their community, starting new initiatives at work or in the community, starting new organizations, etc. Participants also talked about their greater focus on 88

101 leading a simpler life and making daily choices with more concern for the environment. Additionally, some participants noted that even though they already volunteered prior to study abroad experience, they have continued these activities after the experience abroad but with a new focus. The following quotes illustrate this theme of global engagement activities: I believe that my study abroad experience is a large part of the reason that I try to not to be "overly consumptive", e.g., recycling much more than most people I know, driving a small hybrid car, and not being part of the consumer society (I don't buy much outside the basic necessities, and am very happy with that). (ID#7868) I realized how challenging and rewarding international study/volunteer/work abroad can be. Prior to my study abroad, I had been abroad only once before and afterward I am glad to say that I have been to numerous countries. I will also embark on a yearlong volunteer program this January. Had I not studied abroad I would have probably never even thought this a possibility!(id#2991) B. Individual interviews Among findings from the qualitative analysis of individual interviews, two broad categories of themes are discussed below: 1) impact of study abroad on various dimensions of global engagement, as well as career and education, and 2) nature of study abroad experience related to its impact. The interview protocol can be found in Appendix D. Impact of study abroad experience on global engagement Civic engagement on the issues of domestic and international importance Many interviewees related their study abroad experiences to various aspects of civic engagement. Some could give detailed examples for specific aspects of engagement as listed in the SAGE survey, while others talked about the overall impact of study abroad experience on their civic engagement. In the following quote, for example, Carrie explained how she feels study abroad participation influenced her general involvement in civic engagement: Yeah, I mean, I don t know that I can define it in a simple way. It s just, clearly my time at Carlton and in the study abroad being a significant part of that. I think has helped me understand political issues and civic issues much more fully. Everything from how I vote, and thinking about the way the international community looked at the two presidential candidates, to the products that I buy, I think that s influenced me again very significantly. As detailed examples of civic engagement, several interviewees said that they delivered presentations and talks about their experiences abroad and cultural differences. Their audiences included people at a company they work, students at a school their child goes to, or in the case of Andrew, students in international economic classes, different universities, and people at civic organizations and churches. 89

102 It was also interesting that many had become more cognizant of U.S. politics, foreign policy and its impact abroad, and felt strongly about voting in presidential elections For example, one interviewee said that she checks candidates foreign policy or at least their international experience as she feels obligated to think of other countries and how what people in the U.S. do influences other countries. Similarly, interviewees expressed their feelings of international connections and interests in the issues of the regions they visited and people they met while studying abroad. In addition to their active interests in international issues and critical view of media based on their first-hand experiences in those areas, interviewees have continued and developed their connections through philanthropic activities. One interviewee s example in the following quote illustrates her engagement in international philanthropic activities related to her interests in international issues as influenced by her prior international experiences. I think I pay more attention to international issues than I would say most of my friends and colleagues, who I find tend to just focus more on national issues. For instance, I m very interested in following closely what s going on Zimbabwe right now. I have supported, for a long time by donating money and time to that. I also sponsor a woman in the Congo through an organization called Women to Women International. Without traveling abroad, I don t think I would be nearly as interested or feel as invested in the outcomes of international issues as I do now because before I did travel abroad, I was much more focused on the American issues, like interstate poverty and things like that. Whereas now, I think my interest is split. I m still interested in that, but also am paying much more attention to what s happening internationally. Philanthropic activities: Donations and volunteering for local and international communities Interviews with participants also demonstrated their active involvement in philanthropic activities of making donations and volunteering. Some did this for local communities, and some did it for international ones. Some could make clear connections of their activities with study abroad experiences, but some could not. The organizations they supported ranged from Rooms to Read, National Wildlife Fund, Amnesty International, Heifer International, KIVA a micro lending organization, to a museum, and they also made contributions for world hunger or women s rights in the Middle East region. Their kinds of volunteering activities ranged from mentoring students at an inner city school, tutoring K-12 students, helping Girl Scouts develop international perspectives, interviewing students for an alma mater, working for multicultural students at a university, to working with adjudicated youth and homeless, sponsoring girls for their tuition payment in South Africa, coordinating relief for tsunami, and promoting Fair Trade movement. Why they volunteer related to study abroad experience Particularly regarding their philanthropic involvement, interviewees added explanations about how their study abroad experience may have influenced those activities. For example, one interviewee explained that his broad exposure to the various challenges in the world motivated him to donate for international organizations and issues such as Amnesty International. Another interviewee said that her Semester-at-Sea experience left her with a taste that 90

103 she can do something she enjoys and also makes a difference, for example, when she visited an orphanage in Fiji. Krista projected her realization of importance to have safe secure housing in Ecuador to the U.S. and volunteered for Habitat for Humanity domestically. Carrie explained that she realized that the world is bigger than herself from the overall experience of learning while abroad, which has kept her values through life. One interviewee said that she could understand better the impact of donations she makes by having been on the ground, in an area, where the populace received those donations. Particularly her encounter with an old French man in France engraved a lasting impression on her mind and made her believe in a lasting impact of her contribution. Just when I was studying in France, in walking around the town and whatever. This very old man, tiny, little Frenchman came up to my friend and I, and he said, Are you Americans? We said, Yes, we are. He went on to just profusely thank us. Here we are eighteen, nineteen years old, and he was probably in his eighties. Thanking us for assisting France in World War I. He was so amazing. To walk away from that conversation and think, you really got the sense that I, as an individual, and a representative of everything that is American, in other people s eyes. So, you could be the loud, ugly American. I was there in I don t know, historically the early 80 s, the dollar was so incredibly strong against every European currency. That Americans were just flooding over there on vacation. So, many of them were the ugly Americans. They were loud. They were, If you don t understand me, I m just going to speak it louder and more slowly until you understand. I mean there wasn t, you were kind of nervous when people said, Oh, are you Americans? Oh, yeah, sorry. So, this exchange with this old man. I mean, it really opened my eyes that there is a lasting impact on everything you do. For good or for evil. So, I didn t hesitate after that to give what I could give, In addition, Harold, who will be discussed as a case study later in this report, explained how he became actively engaged in volunteering after his study abroad in early 1970s. Definitely well, yes, maybe because yes. I m thinking it definitely made me feel capable. Let me back up this way. For having seen Spain and having seen Sierra Leone I realized how wealthy and lucky I am to be here in the United States. So with that paradigm, with that understanding of how bountiful my plate is, I ve always been able to easily volunteer to assist others with their issues. Had I not seen that, had I not, you know if I just used a viewpoint of where I make big social, in a social economic stamp here in New York with billionaires living here and billionaires I may have had a feeling that I needed to get more of those sort of things and not realized how much I already had. So, I may not have looked anywhere but up in the sense of I need to get more of, as opposed to, well, I can share more of myself with the world and I have the time and the ability to do that. I don t know if I m making sense. 91

104 Global values: Voluntary simplicity Another prominent element of global engagement that interviewees demonstrated was related to their values and philosophy of life that they are willing to lead a simple and modest life and value common good for a wider community. This was termed as voluntary simplicity in the conceptual model of global engagement in this study. For example, many continued lifestyle learned in European countries and Australia, such as using public transportation, riding a bike or walking instead of driving a car, practicing and valuing recycling, and using their own bags for grocery shopping. Several mentioned their increased consciousness about excessive consumerism and overly materialistic lifestyles in the U.S. They were overwhelmed by the abundance and massiveness of products at supermarkets back in the U.S.; Dana and Krista called it a culture shock. Dana said that she was reminded of people in Ghana and realized what she has take for granted in the U.S. may be extravagant in other countries. Another interviewee explained how her time in France made her decide not to spend more than needed, as following: Then you come back to the United States and you re like, oh my gosh, we are so wasteful and we don t even know it, and why do I need a washer and dryer this size Why do I need this big sport utility vehicle while I m driving in the city?... I guess that s one way in which it affected the way that I think about what I purchase Similarly, some became supportive of local markets and food produced locally, which was also related to their environmental consciousness from study abroad. One example of supporting local produce and community is illustrated below: So, [my husband] and I actually have a crop share. We pay a farmer for his fees and work the vegetable and he is not certified organic but he brings us vegetables but he doesn t spray and doesn t pollute. It is very fun. It is actually really affordable because he hasn t paid for all of the organic certifications. We pay $200 and we split a share with friends who pay another $200, so it is $400 for the whole summer, which if you got to the store and buy vegetables it is more than that. Several described how they made purchasing decisions based on the values of companies, as Sandra did: I definitely make purchasing decisions based on the values of the companies that are producing products, what their aims are, like what types of energy they use. So, any product that uses sustainable energy or solar energy or sometime like that, I think is great. I also tend to buy things that are locally made. Part of that is bioenergetics. It s like why would I buy something that was made far away and shipped to me. I mean that costs so much energy to get that to me when I could just get something locally made right here, especially from local resources. I mean that s extra good because then it s grown here and made here, all that kind of stuff. That was something that I was introduced to on study abroad. With regard to these types of lifestyle and values, some tried to explain that it came from their learning during study abroad that they feel connected to people in other regions and felt responsible for each other. This is what Appiah (2006) calls the cosmopolitan ethic. One interviewee said: 92

105 I am more aware of the idea that we re all connected. That environmentally, socially, and politically as well but certainly environmentally, that the earth is all connected. So, what happened in California, my little corner of the world, can actually affect people in these countries that I visited, and that what they do can affect me. I need to take responsibility for what I m doing to the environment and to the world around me. Lastly, it was interesting that two lawyers among interviewees explained how their study abroad influenced their decision to practice law for the public interest and have an immediate impact on a local community rather than making big money at large firms. Knowledge Production Much of knowledge production was directly related to their study abroad experience. For example, they shared their own study abroad experience by writing for a journal or creating a DVD presentation, posted a list of things to prepare for study abroad on the web, or wrote about countries in which they had studied abroad. Krista said that she and her friends recommended bringing crayons and stickers to give to children in the villages of South Africa before leaving for a Semester-at-Sea program. Impact of study abroad experience on education, career, and personal development Education First, it was noticeable that many interviewees (particularly those with pre-collegiate international/intercultural experience chose their colleges and universities for reasons that they are well known for supporting undergraduate students studying abroad. Regarding their educational choices after study abroad, various interviewees explained how the curriculum and courses offered while abroad worked well for their academic requirements and interests. For example, they could take courses which are not offered at their home institutions in the U.S., or fulfill academic requirements for graduation through study abroad opportunities. One interviewee said that she was happy to take courses in marine biology in Australia, which she could not get at her college in the U.S. which is not located nearby oceans. She continued to study marine biology in graduate school. Another interviewee also explained that he could fulfill language and internship requirements for his international relations major while he studied abroad in Spain. In addition, interviewees often continued their original international focus on studies after return, and some tried to go back to the same region for graduate work, or teaching and working abroad. Another education choice that several interviewees made was changing their undergraduate academic majors. They confirmed or discovered different academic interests while abroad, and continued to pursue them after return. For example, one interviewee changed from pre-med to anthropology, and another interviewee confirmed that he does not want to continue in chemistry. Another interviewee has changed his major from engineering to archeology, and answered the question whether he was originally interested in archeology as follows: Before that, I had given it some thought. Yes. But, you know, I had other interests as well. After I decided to major in it, then that has led me in sort of a very direct line where I went on to do graduate work in archeology and then I taught archeology and ancient history. I am still doing that. So, really, that trip was a major turning point for me. Yes. 93

106 Career With regard to the influence of study abroad experience on career, interviewees commented that their study abroad experience helped them find what they want to do as a career, and imbued international aspirations and dimensions on what they do. As an example, one interviewee explained how her study abroad experience was helpful for her working in a global environment, who changed her major to international relations during study abroad and then went on to graduate work in public diplomacy. The switch definitely happened when I started abroad and that just made me so...i kind of got the travel bug and was just so interested in other cultures. It definitely helps me now. A lot of the contacts that I made in graduate school who do come from around the world, we connect because everyone has that same global citizenship kind of a thing. You sort of form a network and I think I definitely tap into the network all the time in my job now. Just one of having a global understanding really helps us. I work at a global PR firm so I ve helped clients that are based at Abu Dhabi, that are based in London, that are based in Switzerland. So just having that awareness, I think is number one, it s huge so that you can wait for them because I think so many people. It s embarrassing, how many people in America don t have that. And I think it s a real liability. But having that is huge and then, secondly, being able to call people in different countries and ask them questions and know what you don t know because, at least, you re a little bit more informed. Similarly, another interviewee explained how her study abroad in Ireland influenced an international dimension of her career as a nurse. I ve become a nurse since graduating from Carleton. I went onto become a nurse. I actually yet another bachelor s degree and I also got my master s in public health and international health. After starting my travels in Ireland, I realized the importance of the international community as a whole and that we really are all part of one community and to learn as much as you can about the health of this county. You also need to learn and appreciate the health needs of other countries. I went to Haiti as part of a medical team from John Hopkins, which is where I was working at, at the time. Went there three times. I didn t have to go as part of my job, but it was something that I was able to do as part of my job. I used vacation hours to do it but I went with colleagues from my job. The travels to South Africa that was part of an international health job that I had taken a few years ago, where I had to go set up a few clinics and do some conference work. That was something that I was paid to do. When their careers do not necessarily include international dimension, several interviewees explained how their study abroad experience can be still valuable for their career, especially in interacting with people from different cultures whether they are Americans or people from different cultures. One interviewee, for example, said that his broader experience from abroad helps him as a librarian as he needs to cover beyond his own specialized issues and also works with people from different countries on campus. As will be discussed in a case study, Andrew worked with legal clients from South Africa and helped an immigrant family in a town, as he could appreciate their linguistic and cultural differences from study abroad experience. Erin also pointed out the value of study abroad experience in interacting with people for her career as follows: 94

107 I think studying abroad got me out of my comfort zone to learn how to interact with various types of people and to be forced into situations where I didn t know anybody and I just had to fend for myself, which is invaluable in real estate as well. In addition, language skills acquired from study abroad was mentioned as advantages for career. There were also several who became to work in the field of international education or try to include study abroad as the part of their career in education field. With regard to educational and career choices after study abroad, it was interesting that there were four lawyers or law students among 58 interviewees, who explained the impact of study abroad on their law careers. They either decided to go to law school with an international focus, to focus on international human rights, for example, or decided to opt for less-pecuniary jobs after law school. Personal development and growth In addition to global engagement as the impact of study abroad, interviewees also described their experiences of personal development and growth from study abroad. They include increased confidence and independence, broader perspectives, as well as interpersonal skills and intercultural learning. They also mentioned friendships and relationships that they developed, and experience of exploring their identity and understanding an American self. Related to interpersonal skills and relationships, several said that after return they could relate to people from the regions that they visited or people from different cultures better. For example, Krista liked that she could bond with her doctor from India who operated on her for heart transplant surgery as she visited India through the Semester-at-Sea program and had to something else to talk about with him. As will be described in a case study later, Andrew contributed to his study abroad experience that he could work with clients from South Africa and an immigrant family in his town. Similarly Andy attributed his ability to communicate with people from different cultures to study abroad experience as below: But I think that specifically having had the opportunity to meet a lot of people from around the globe and learn another language. I think it helped me communicate better when I m on the phone with somebody who s in Tel Aviv better than other people within this Dallas based company when I was working because I could tune by ear to different accents and I can understand them a lot better than my boss could and so just the ability to sort of prior experience of dealing with people from other cultures and spoke other languages even where communicating in English was a big career boost. In addition, many of them compared educational systems in the U.S. and countries that they studied abroad in, which can be considered as the development of comparative learning and thinking. 95

108 Nature of study abroad experience Cumulative and persisting nature of study abroad influence The nature of study abroad experience that stood out from interviews was its cumulative, persisting, and formative influence. It often started with home stay during high school or other international experiences prior to college. After study abroad, quite a few interviewees returned or hoped return to countries and regions they studied abroad in. Some studied abroad again during undergraduate, and others studied abroad for graduate work, or worked abroad. For example, they taught English or applied to the Peace Corps. Participants also maintained interests in the countries and regions they visited while residing in the U.S., which sometimes led to their philanthropic activities in those areas, such as coordinating donation for Tsunami relief and supporting girls education. Or in general, study abroad returnees maintained interests in international issues, and several mentioned their critical take of the Western media coverage as they visited the regions, met and talked to people there. As one example, Danielle explained how her study abroad experience has lived on and carried different meanings in her life at different stages. I would just like to say, I guess, that study abroad, all my study abroad experiences live on. They don t end when you finish. They sort of live on and they had meaning then, they have new meanings now in the context of everything you ve lived through. They are so much a part of you that you can t walk away from them. All you can do is share them and acquire additional experiences. Having had the Semester at Sea experience has driven me to continue traveling, and to continue learning. I no longer am much of a vacationer, a person who goes and likes to put my feet up, necessarily. I m into the guidebook, reading about the cultural events, and wanting to immerse myself in any culture that I come across now that is a fundamental change that I can attribute to the travel abroad experience. Another interviewee explained her multiple international experiences, which started from a homestay during a summer in Belgium at age 16, led to one after another, and eventually where she is and what she does. She studied abroad at college in Australia, worked at the study abroad office after return as an undergraduate peer advisor. After graduation, she worked abroad in Japan, did her graduate work in international education, and obtained a job at the study abroad office in another institution. She also added the impact of a short-term program can have as a stepping stone, and how each international experience brought cumulative and impactful change on her life. So had I not worked in the Study Abroad Office and had I not been in Japan, I m not sure that just the Australia experience would stand alone and would have gotten me to where I am. It certainly started it and actually, I have to honestly say that back when I was 16, I spent a summer in Belgium and that is really, what started it. I probably wouldn t have gone abroad for a semester if I hadn t had the time in Belgium so it was that long process. The semester in Australia was what made me feel like I could spend a year in Japan and got me the job that led to where I am. It had kind of just been a stepping-stone for me because if I had just at 16 jumped to being abroad in Japan for two years, I probably wouldn t have been very successful. I had to sort of inch into it coming from a small family and you know, getting on that plane the first time. So that is why I think when you have the discussions about is it valuable for students to go for short term. Is it valuable for students to go for long term 96

109 and trying to equate short term equals this and long terms equals something better is a challenge for me because I am a product of multiple experiences being additive. If you took Belgium alone. Did it really change me that much? But if you look at the way it impacted and allowed me to do more, it had a huge impact and so that sort of which is why I am struggling to tell you what Australia did for me. Formative nature of study abroad experience Closely related to the cumulative and persisting nature of study abroad, many interviewees described its formative nature. They noted the study abroad experience as that which stood out most in their undergraduate life, and also one that has strong impact on their subsequent lives. One interviewee, for example, said that his study abroad experience in Brazil led him to become involved in an organized labor, working as a union attorney. He said, I don t think it s exaggerating to say that it [study abroad] really shaped who I am now. Another interviewee, who was mentioned earlier, a nurse having worked internationally, also explained the formative influence of study abroad on her life as following: It was probably the most fastest and most intense growing experience of my life, actually.when I went to Ireland,.It taught me the importance of being flexible and being able to adapt to your changing environments and how to grow up a little bit more. I wasn t around all my comforts and all of the things that I understood. but it showed me I could do it. While it was hard, it was also extremely worthwhile. I think it has helped me be where I am today because I was able to get through that experience in a positive way. Similarly, another interviewee described her study abroad as the most formative year in the below: I just think it was so formative. I think the age, going and studying abroad in college, is the right time to do it because I think that s when your mind is open to these experiences. I really do think that was the most formative year, probably of my entire education. Because you re exposed to so many things so fast and it really makes you evaluate things from the core. Your language is being questioned when you re learning a new language and then all of the study. The methodologies are completely changed because people learn differently. It really just makes you reevaluate everything, the way of doing everything. It makes you think differently, makes you think more globally. Strong advocate of study abroad As the interviewee in the previous quote continued to explain how strongly she became to encourage other students to study abroad, many interviewees became strong advocates of study abroad after return. She became the president of the study abroad organization. Another interviewee, a principal at high school and an archeologist, has led trips to Italy and organized trips to Mexico and France with students. Samantha, who will be discussed as a case study later, explained the benefit of study abroad for all students especially by being in the country. In addition, it was impressive that many participants concluded their interviews by expressing their hope that as many college students study abroad, and if they have children, that that they want their children to study abroad as well. 97

110 Vague articulation and difficulty to pinpoint relationships between study abroad and their subsequent life choices and global engagement behaviors On the other hand, however, interviewees also expressed difficulty in explaining the way study abroad influenced their behaviors and perspectives on global engagement. For example, Carrie noted that she cannot pinpoint how her volunteering helping a local community build with landscaping, mentoring students in an inner city school, and donating for international communities, is specifically related to her study abroad experience. A couple of interviewees described a roundabout way that study abroad experience influenced their career paths. Several interviewees had multiple international experiences and could not pinpoint which one may have influenced their specific global engagement behavior or their current career. Some interviewees said that study abroad experience rather reinforced what they were already practicing or believed in, like an interviewee as expressed in the following quote: It s hard to say what comes from that particular experience of studying abroad and what comes from other life experiences that I ve had. At least part of it is not because of the study abroad program, I don t think it s because of it, but I think that reinforced it. It was already inside me. The experience of being in Brazil, of seeing how peasants live in parts of Brazil, that don t have access to very much in terms of technology, or and they seem like they live very meaningful lives. Happiness is not just about accumulating material possessions. That is something I ve always believed, but I think the experience in Brazil really did reinforce that. In addition, many who described their global engagement behaviors did not necessarily associate those with their study abroad experience, unless they were explicitly asked about relationship between study abroad and their behaviors. This may indicate that study abroad experience can be indirectly related to participants global engagement through other important international or life experiences. Or study abroad could have simply reinforced what they were already doing and believed in. It is also possible that study abroad has no relationship to their global engagement. What this means to this study is that it acknowledges factors other than study abroad which can influence participants global engagement, and does not attempt to conclude that study abroad always necessarily leads to global engagement. In addition, this may also explain minimal size effects found when examining the relationship between study abroad program characteristics and global engagement in our quantitative results. C. Individual Case Studies As a major part of our mixed methods strategy and our goal to triangulate our data as much as possible, we are also reporting on eight individual case studies that were purposively selected because of their richness in showing how study abroad influences global engagement (Yin, 2009). Also using Merriam s (2009) principle of maximum variation sampling, these cases were selected from our random sample of 63 qualitative interviews. We also purposively selected two additional cases which provided particularly rich insights. These individuals were not in the original random sample and are from ethnic groups inadequately represented in our sample. 98

111 Case Study of Gruia Badescu Personal background and pre-collegiate life Gruia grew up in Bucharest, Romania, and so represents the international students in our study. In secondary school he excelled in geography and participated in world Olympiads on this subject. To participate in the geography competitions, he traveled to South Africa (where his Romanian team won the gold medal), South Korea, and within Europe. He found it exciting to see and meet people from other parts of the world, as he had little exposure to international influences living in Romania. Experiences as a student His first study abroad experience was in the U.S. He won a scholarship to attend Middlebury College in Middlebury, Vermont. He attributes most of his voluntary simplicity to the small town life in Vermont and to his Quaker host family, whom he would visit regularly. While an undergraduate, Gruia studied abroad in three European countries: France, Germany, and Italy. Because he was proficient or fluent in these languages, he enrolled directly in courses with host country students in each location. Two unexpected outcomes were to discover his European identity and to serve as a cultural interpreter of the U.S. for the Europeans he met. Global Engagement Gruia s program in Germany was most impactful on his future education and career plans. There he studied and researched national identity and how a country maintains or changes its identity as it reconstructs after war. He is currently enrolled in an architectural design and social science program in the U.K. In the future he would like to continue in a doctoral program and ultimately be involved in policy toward protecting the sociology and history of war-torn cities by preserving their architectural heritage. Gruia noted that he practices voluntary simplicity to a large degree and that his study abroad in Germany, where environmental and recycling practices are widespread, was somewhat influential in his current practice. His life in Vermont, though, and the Quaker influences there were the most impactful in the choices he now makes to live a simpler lifestyle. Implications of the case Early interest in geography sparked international study in U.S. and Europe Study abroad contributes to internationally-oriented graduate study and career Lived experience of global engagement is simple (recycling) and complex (learning from other countries experiences of war and reconstruction in order to preserve national identity) He has clear aspirations to become a knowledge producer related to how war-torn cities preserve their architectural heritage. 99

112 Case Study of Kathy Buzza Personal background and pre-collegiate life Kathy grew up in Rochester, Minnesota and defines her early years as sheltered with little international influences. Still, she had a desire to explore the world beyond and applied to the AFS exchange program in high school. Since she was not selected that made her more determined to study abroad in college. Thus, she chose to attend St. Olaf College for its international reputation. Experiences as a student As an undergraduate at St. Olaf in the early 1970s, Kathy participated in two, five-week study abroad programs in Europe and in Mexico. She said her experience in Cuernavaca, Mexico, at Ivan Illich s Center for Intercultural Documentation (CIDOC) stands out the most and described it at length. In Cuernavaca she and her fellow students walked through the barrio to attend classes. There was poverty and disability that she had never seen before. That, as well as the opportunity for cultural immersion, is a vivid memory for her. She continues to make connections to people of other cultures as a result: I don t know how I can say certain things were cause and effect, but I know I became more sensitive to other things in the world because of those experiences that I have had. Global Engagement Kathy described the impact of that study abroad experience in terms of her desire to be sensitive to other people and their needs and to seek to understand other cultures. Most of her life since graduating from St. Olaf has been devoted to reaching out to people of other cultures in her community and to lifting the human spirit through the arts. Her first job was at a social service agency, where she worked with Hmong families settling in Minnesota. After leaving social service, Kathy continued her work as a volunteer for Hmong refugees by helping them find healthcare and social agencies, registering their children at school, and finding furniture and items for their apartments. Her family became close to two Hmong families, and over time their children played together and they attended each others graduations and weddings. Reflecting on this volunteer work, Kathy said, I m sure that some of that experience that I had in Mexico made a difference to be sensitive to other people and their needs and be open to other cultures and feel like if you can assist in some way to give someone a different life, or a new life. [Becoming friends with] people that are from other cultures is really fascinating. I just remember getting a little taste of that in Cuernavaca. Kathy has also been engaged in community leadership and social entrepreneurship. She is a cofounder of the Lanesboro Arts Center which has fostered local artists and community theatre. The arts center has further spawned two successful organizations, the Commonweal Theatre and the Cornucopia Arts Center. She also has been active in fair trade sales through her church and in the establishment of the Root River Trail, a 60-mile biking, hiking, and skiing trail in southeastern Minnesota. She attributes her study abroad experiences as strong influences on her subsequent civic involvements and philanthropic activities. Of her interest in the arts, she muses, Maybe I saw some of that in Europe and wanted to have that in my own life, too. Her foundational experiences abroad also inspired both of her children to study abroad. 100

113 Implications of the case Memorable study abroad experiences can inspire a lifetime of civic commitments It can be challenging to attribute today s passion to an experience that occurred decades ago Overseas experiences can foster interest in and desire to assist new immigrant communities in the U.S. such as that of the Hmong. Case Study of Adrienne Lotson Personal background and pre-collegiate life Adrienne grew up in Queens, New York, in the 1960s and 1970s. A vivid memory for her is watching airplanes take off from and land at John F. Kennedy Airport. She became fascinated with where the people were from and where they were going. She would read the name of the airline on the tail and then look it up in the encyclopedia. Her first trip on an airplane was to study abroad in Spain for a semester as a Dartmouth student. Experiences as a student During her study abroad program, Adrienne took classes with her fellow Dartmouth students but they were all in Spanish and held at the Universidad de Granada. She fondly recalls her home stay family and only speaking Spanish with them. A particularly impactful experience for her was seeing beggars for the first time. It made her appreciate how much Americans have and it influenced her to practice voluntary simplicity. Adrienne s early international inclinations and her semester abroad led her to make friends with two South Africans later in her college years. These friendships then inspired her to become actively involved in protests to push her law school to divest out of South Africa. Further, on a recent mission trip to South Africa, she began a friendship with a family there. She sponsored their daughters for their first year in college; since then their parents have paid the remainder of their studies and Adrienne has stayed in touch. About the lasting friendships she has made that connect her to crucial issues of social justice and education, Adrienne said, I cannot live an insulated world, an insulated life. It s impossible now. I just cannot do it I have friends all over the world: people I am extremely close to in South Africa, in Copenhagen, in England, all over the world. I would be less than true to who I am if I didn t have those people in my life. Global engagement Adrienne is committed to civic engagement in terms of the protests described above, leadership, and voting. In support of Barack Obama s 2008 presidential campaign, she canvassed her neighborhood and worked in voter registration drives. She also leads a life of voluntary simplicity by choosing to live in a small home and using public transportation. She attributes her commitments to some degree to her study abroad experience. Further, Adrienne is active in philanthropic activities. She is active in her church and has donated her time and money to causes such as Dress for Success, senior citizen housing, a local soup kitchen, and local economic development. 101

114 Education and Career Adrienne has pursued graduate study in law school and now a doctorate in anthropology. She said that to a large degree, study abroad influenced her educational decisions and has helped her career. Her first airplane trip to Spain sparked further international travel to Zimbabwe, Egypt, Israel, Jamaica, and South Africa. I m a global citizen travel and anthropology help me to understand people and where they re coming from and help me to understand myself and my place in the world. Thinking back on the impact of study abroad on her life, Adrienne says: I can t separate out from who I am from my study abroad program. It s contributed to the woman I am today. Every time I get on a plane, I m reminded it all began because of study abroad. My dream started to come true. My dream when I watched those planes come in and land. My dream of wanting to know what is it like out there? What do those people do? It all began because of a study abroad program. Implications of the case The case illustrates how the study abroad can help African-Americans overcome isolation and significantly extend their social and cultural horizons. Study abroad certainly influenced her decision to pursue a doctorate in anthropology. Her committed efforts to have her law school to divest their holdings in South Africa reflects her active global engagement. Case Study of Bondo Nyembwe Personal background Bondo is an alumnus of the University of Minnesota. Currently, Bondo works in the Department of Education in Minneapolis, MN, and is pursuing his doctoral degree in Educational Leadership. Bondo has unique international experiences since he lived in several countries during his formative years. He spent the first portion of his life in Zaire. When he was about 13 years old, his family left Zaire and lived in Zambia for about two years, after which they came to the United States where Bondo started his junior year in a US high school. After high school, he enrolled in the University of Minnesota. Study abroad experience Bondo studied abroad in Spain during the Fall semester of 1999 taking classes alongside host country students. While taking Spanish classes at the University of Minnesota, his close friend shared her decision to study abroad. That was the first time Bondo became aware of this opportunity. His friend shared details of her program, which intrigued him, and he enrolled in the same program in Spain. While the decision was unexpected, Bondo tied this program to his major in International Relations. After his study abroad experience he realized that he needed only two more classes to declare a major in Spanish and he registered for those classes graduating with a double major. 102

115 The program was a full Spanish immersion program, where students took classes in Spanish. The program as a whole had about 175 students from both private and public universities throughout the United States. Classes ranged from language classes to philosophy and politics classes. Bondo chose to stay with a host family while in Spain, looking for a full immersion into the culture through day-to-day activities. Impact of study abroad and global engagement Bondo identified three most important aspects of his study abroad experience: First, the experience involved language development, which represents an important component in his goal of having a diplomatic career. Secondly, the program met the requirements of his major for a language component. Lastly, study abroad experience provided opportunity to also have field experience. While in Spain, Bondo had the opportunity to intern at the Chamber of Commerce of Toledo. Partially due to his experiences in Spain and in the US, both developed countries, and seeing the structure and the way of life in these two societies, Bondo engaged in the.work to assist people on the other end of the spectrum, in the developing world. Led by his initial career goal of becoming a diplomat, Bondo engaged in the international development field and became a social entrepreneur, creating a non-profit organization named the Cilongo Foundation. Bondo notes that the Cilongo Foundation is a product of his entire family. The foundation focuses on supporting educational initiatives in Africa and in the U.S. The focus in Africa is to work in partner with existing schools and providing them with the assistance of different types, while also working on helping them become self-sustainable. In the US, the focus is on increasing the number of students who are attending college by assisting the students in the process of finding and applying for various scholarships. In addition, Bondo engaged in the activities of influencing organizations from within to be more socially responsible. As a board member of an organization Youth Care that works with the youth in Twin Cities urban area develop leadership skills, Bondo uses his international experiences, and knowledge and skills gained in those to inform and influence the programs organized for these youth. Working with the teachers and administrators, the organization attempts to create the environment or that promotes social justice outside of the school setting. Bondo said that his experience in Spain comes up often in his conversations due to its overwhelmingly positive outcomes. Moreover, he encourages other people to study abroad while in college. Implications of the case His case shows the importance of significant others since, it was a classmate who introduced to him the opportunity for study abroad. His case illustrates the relevance of study abroad to recent immigrant groups. His case also is an excellent example of what Appiah (2006) has termed the cosmopolitan ethic. 103

116 Case Study of Caitlin Stanton Personal background Caitlin Stanton is a 29 years old alumna of Beloit College. She grew up and currently works in San Francisco Bay area in California. Her first travel abroad without her parents included the summer exchange program for cultural understanding when she was in high school she spent a week in Okinawa, Japan. Study abroad experience During her senior year at college Caitlin studied for a semester in South Africa through the School for International Training (SIT )program in While searching for a study abroad program, Caitlin looked for a program that aligned with her major and has selected Arts and Social Change program in South Africa. She explained this decision as wanting to understand a little bit more about the relationship between arts and progressive social change movements. The choice of South Africa was twofold. Her father had worked in South Africa, which led to earlier exposure to this country through close family member. However, Caitlin noted the thematic focus of the program as a more significant factor - the SIT approach of immersion in a country, the prioritization of language learning, and being able to have emphasis on experiential learning. A great deal of our time was out in the field, talking with people, traveling to different places, meeting with community organizations and leaders. I think that opportunity to be on the ground and talking with people instead of the once removed learning in a classroom was invaluable. This type of program provided the best learning environment for Caitlin. Caitlin also noted the particular social component of the program as very important for her learning. She has spent the first third of the program with a host family, the second third on the road with the other students in the program, while the last third was the individual research project component that is traditionally a part of SIT programs. During this last period Caitlin stayed in an apartment. Caitlin used this learning experience to complement her major by using final research project of the program as her final thesis for her major for that undergraduate degree. Impact of study abroad and global engagement Looking back at her experience, she identified three aspects that stand out the most for her. The first is personal growth and development that was gained through the encouragement of the students to take on the responsibilities about and in the program, starting from pre-departure organizational tasks, to the learning experience itself during the program. The second aspect is language learning component, which was important to breaking down barriers between us, as foreigners, and the people we met. She has identified this effort as opening doors and creating more respectful relationships with the people she has met during her experience. Lastly, the multi-faceted nature of the program allowed for studying a number of issues from diverse perspectives. The experience abroad prompted Caitlin to have better understanding of the struggles people face in different communities, which was complementing her earlier involvement in urban community development activities of her own community. 104

117 Caitlin noted frequently engaging in several civic activities. On the issues of domestic importance, Caitlin frequently engages in voting and making purchasing decision based on social or political values of the company. In terms of issues of international importance, she frequently engages in related talks. While she noted that study abroad had very little impact on her civic engagement on the issues of domestic importance, she identified study abroad as having a large degree of impact on her civic engagement on the issues of international importance. Caitlin explained this difference in the impact of study abroad on her civic engagement as coming from a family that was very involved in the domestic issues; her parents were educators as well we activists. Therefore, she found involvement in civic engagements on domestic issues as natural and was primarily due to her family background. However, she found her study abroad experience opening up a new viewpoint on the international issues though a way of seeing the world that I never had before. Caitlin explains this experience the best through following words: I think the experience of being outside your own country and looking back at it from another country, is very profoundly different from how you see your country when you are living inside it and reading your own media every day instead of reading the media viewpoints that you might read in another country. That really profoundly changed how I thought about international issues and the focus of my professional life after college, as well. Caitlin works for an internationally focused public foundation that provides grants to grassroots organizations that provide various community services outside of the US. While she has worked throughout her college career focusing on domestic community development issues, after graduating from college, influenced by her experience in South Africa, Caitlin specifically looked for organizations that focus on international work. Caitlin noted study abroad having had a large degree of impact on her career decisions, as well as having helped that career. Study abroad experience helped Caitlin realize that coming from the US she can engage in activities that can help people in other parts of the world. Even in her current work, she helps raise money that assists community workers in other countries, or simply increase awareness about these issues among the Americans as well as try to impact US policies that affect other countries. She shared that she didn t really understand much before how the US, our own foreign policies impact people s daily, daily lives I think realizing that there was a responsibility that I had as an American to have a voice in these issues. Caitlin has shared that she sometimes engages in several volunteering activities, such as work in the volunteer work related to arts, education, youth, and her community, as well as volunteering activities focusing on international development, human rights, and social justice. She has noted that study abroad had impacted these activities to a large degree. In terms of donations, study abroad has to some degree impacted these activities. She frequently donates for several causes, such as international development, human rights, and social justice. Caitlin noted that study abroad experience provided a better sense of how I could fit in the volunteering activities focusing on international issues. Prior to her study abroad experience she was unsure how to identify these issues or get in touch with people who would guide her how to volunteer her skills and time. Even in her professional career, her organization is looking for people who will go advise and help out different constituencies across the world. Yet, living in urban California she did not know how to get engaged in international issues. Caitlin shares that It was the study abroad experience that gave me some real concrete ideas that felt comfortable to me about ways that I might 105

118 actually might be able engage on those issues by myself or with those organizations that had worked there. Both of her international experiences have helped her develop her sense of identity, as well as lead to political awakening about the issues she otherwise would have never heard about in her education or life experiences. Implications of the case: Her case illustrates well the 1+1 =3 phenomenon. Her SIT program provided her the opportunity to have a multi-faceted study abroad program that went well beyond study in a classroom. Her case also illustrates the importance of family influences on their children s values and opportunities. Her emphasis on making purchasing decisions based on the values and responsibility of the company reflects an important of dimension of global engagement identified in our project. Case Study of Harold Washington Personal background and pre- collegiate life Harold grew up in New York City and worked at Columbia University while in high school, which familiarized him being on campus, but had international experiences prior to college. Experience as a student While at Dartmouth College, Harold studied abroad twice in Spain and Sierra Leone during the period. During his four months in Salamanca, Spain, he lived with a family and took classes in Spanish. He did not feel alone with other students from Dartmouth, but they tried not to speak in English in order to have an immersion experience. Two years later Harold did a ten-week study abroad experience in Sierra Leone, West Africa. He made this decision following receipt of the honor of becoming a member of a fraternity at Dartmouth. He lived with a family and worked on an independent research project interviewing students from various African countries at the university. Harold evaluated his study abroad experiences in Spain and Sierra Leone as equally important but in different terms. In his first experience in Spain, he gained linguistic and cultural empathy especially for those struggling with English in the U.S. His experiences in West Africa contributed to his firsthand understanding of the issues in Africa as a government major. He even met with the country s president and enjoyed the beautiful landscape, but he also observed different levels of poverty and its contrast in a society. Harold described that many things stood out for him which are the quick and the thick. Above all, he had a very profound experience as an African American. While he saw the genetic link to people, their life was very different. He explained that he could have a good understanding of African Americans concerns in the U.S. about self-awareness and pride in themselves. My experience from Sierra Leone was very profound on me as an African American having gone to a very competitive and elite school I then realized how easy it would be for me to do damage in the world if I wasn t sensitive to all the dynamics going on. 106

119 That really shaped my paradigm as far as how I should treat and view other people s color. It wasn t necessarily me being superior as opposed to me being lucky in my circumstances; as opposed to someone who may have grown up in the backcountry of Africa. Global engagement after college Philanthropy- Volunteering: Harold has been extensively involved in volunteering in many areas, including his alma mater, troubled youth, homeless, and mental illness. For his alma mater, Harold has volunteered to interview prospective students for the last 25 years. He has particularly tried to help students of color understand the potential challenges they may have as a person of color, especially coming from an urban environment to rural New Hampshire. He added that he brings to these interviews the different perspectives and power dynamics of the world that he learned from his international experiences. Harold has also volunteered with youth formerly in trouble with the law who are reentering their communities. As an example, he used his photographic skills and took 1500 pictures of them participating in events that documented their transition back to city life. He took pictures of them going to amusement parks and participating in different community clean-up events. This photographic display made him feel very powerful, and he could see from the pictures the effect that recording this would have. Additionally, he had provided people being released from penitentiaries with a place to do a transition, and helped those with mental health issues to manage finances. Harold explained the influence of his experiences in Spain and Sierra Leone on his volunteer work as follows: Having seen Spain and having seen Sierra Leone I realized how wealthy and lucky I am to be here in the United States. So with that paradigm, with that understanding of how bountiful my plate is, I ve always been able to easily volunteer to assist others with their issues I can share more of myself with the world and I have the time and the ability to do that Social Entrepreneurship: Harold explained one example of his engagement in social entrepreneurship. He was a founding member of an organization for troubled youth in NYC, Achieving Leadership, which helps high school students of color to gain a global view of different issues in the society and excel at school in order to go to top universities. Currently, as a senior member of the organization, Harold also influenced it to be socially responsible. He reminded the group of its initial goal to do socially important things with a clear mind not to do harm in the world, but make it to do good. Career: Harold said that his experiences in Spain and understanding how we re in a global village as opposed to just being in the U.S. helped his career as a Protocol Officer in the Air Force. He felt comfortable interfacing with the Israelis and the Spanish, as well as with collaborating with individuals in the Netherlands, Denmark, and Norway. He further explained that if one is brave enough to study abroad, because it takes a lot of courage, because there s so much you don t have, be they language or cultural skills, one is going to be able to feel comfortable in learning anything. Overall, Harold s interview showed that he is constantly conscious of what he learned from study abroad experiences, power dynamics in the world, different levels and lifestyles in different cultures, and how these can be reflected in the U.S. especially to people of color. 107

120 Lastly, Harold emphasized his belief in the value of study abroad by saying: I always say to any undergraduate, if you re going to get your money s worth out of your education nowadays, you need to travel. You need to understand where you fit in the world, or what the world looks like. Implications of the case Harold s extensive and long-term involvement in volunteering demonstrates persistent effect of study abroad experiences on a participant s subsequent life. On the other hand, due to timeframe 30 years back, he may difficulty in relating his various kinds of global engagement to study abroad experiences at college. Nevertheless, he has been constantly aware of what he learned from study abroad experiences in many aspects of his life and what he does. His ethnic background as an African American brought a profound impact on him especially from studying abroad in West Africa. This needs to be considered with the fact that he studied abroad in 1970s while attending an elite school. Some of his volunteer work has focused on people of color or African Americans. He became an advocate of study abroad for undergraduate students. Case Study of Samantha Schnee Personal background and pre- collegiate life Samantha was born in the UK and lived for four years. She also studied abroad in Spain during high school in 1987, which she described as a fantastic experience and influential in her life. Experience as a student Samantha studied abroad three times for seven months from Dartmouth College during period. As she knew that she wanted to study abroad, she pursued an opportunity via her German class. She studied abroad at the end of her sophomore year and did the advanced German studies program in her senior year. She also took summer classes in Spain, which was not a Dartmouth program. She started as a Spanish major, considered doing a comparative literature with German, but chose an English major concentrating on creative writing. During her stay in Germany, Samantha took classes with other Dartmouth students and did not have professors from German universities. She lived with friends of her family in Mainz. She said that her host mother was disappointed that Samantha was not socializing with German students nor was her German was improving. She added that her German friends wanted to practice English with her. Global engagement after college Career: Aspiration for international dimension: After study abroad in high school in particular, Samantha wanted to work with people from different countries. For example, when she was in investment banking, she asked for projects working with foreign companies. Her Spanish skills were very useful working with the National Development Bank of Mexico, and her German skills in working with a German client. 108

121 Similarly, when Samantha changed her career to publishing in 1995, she sought out the work of writers outside the U.S. using other languages. She shared an example, After many years working for a magazine that focused on American writers, I helped to found a web-based magazine that focuses exclusively on international writers. Knowledge Production: Samantha was engaged in various kinds of knowledge production, traditional and non-traditional, as a writer. For example, as a graduate student in literature, she started to do translations, working with writers from Mexico and other Spanish speaking countries. She published on the website of Words Without Borders, including blog commentary on her experiences at international writers conferences, Dividers and Literary Translators International Congress in Stockholm. Social Entrepreneurship: In conjunction with her knowledge production, Samantha helped found the organization, Words Without Borders ( It promotes publishing recent translated works by international writers so that American readers who don t speak another language are able to explore literature of another culture that is being written today. They particularly try to address countries and languages which do not have national organizations in order to promote the export of their literature, such as North Korea. Samantha has a strong belief in the importance of Americans learning modern literature from different cultures. She said: A lot of Americans have read something in translation. They ve read, maybe, part of Don Quixote, or Magic Mountain by Thomas Mann, or Hans Christian Anderson s fairy tales, Brother Grimm from German, so many different things that are very common here in translation. The thing that we don t have access to is the literature that is being produced today, which is a window into those cultures, the issues that concern the citizens, and the problems that the nations are dealing with. She also does not believe the conventional wisdom that Americans do not like to read translated work. She rather said that after September 11, 2001, people have been increasingly interested in what is going on outside the US and this will be important for young people. I think that as new generations of students come to maturity and into the work force, I think that we ll see more of an outward perspective as opposed to a traditionally inward perspective that the US could be characterized as having. As another example of her social entrepreneurship, Samantha helped to establish a program in Houston for the Cities of Refugee in North America. They tried to provide a writer from another country who was persecuted for their writing with a safe harbor for a couple of years. Although this work has been on hold due to their financial constraints, she met with a Chinese writer, Yu Hong Bin. She believes that such international writers involvement in a city like Houston by writing a newspaper article would be valuable in providing a different perspective. She believes that in a large, multicultural city like Houston, international journalists provide valuable perspectives by writing for the local newspaper. Civic Engagement: With regard to her civic engagement in voting and using internet for awareness, Samantha said that she was highly motivated by the U.S. foreign policy decisions when she voted in elections. She also believes in the usefulness of internet as a better medium for publishing in terms of cost and addressing a wider audience. 109

122 Philanthropy: She has made charitable contributions to the arts, which she believes has been underfunded compared to other areas. Voluntary Simplicity: Samantha is a strong advocate of public transportation. She was very impressed by the great public transportation network in Germany and walked around all the time in Spain. She extended the value of public transportation to building a strong community and its sense of belonging as cultural glue. She compared New York City and Houston. Although both are large and have great international populations, the contact between people of different backgrounds is fundamentally different. She used the example of the subway: in a New York City subway you may be sitting between a person speaking in Russian and the other speaking in Polish. She continued: and you have an opportunity to interact with other people, whereas [in Houston] when you are driving a car by yourself, you never interact with anybody else. You are in your own bubble. I think that s not good for a community like Houston where everything is really spread out. There is no overlap, or very little overlap, between the Caucasian community, and the Hispanic community, and Asian community. It ends up being very separate and I think it s important for all of those communities to be mixing and sharing with each other the best of what they have to offer. Samantha also values recycling and added that it was active in Germany when she was there in the late 1980s and early 90s. She said that such a habit should be formed while young or traveling abroad. In addition, similar to other participants, Samantha also expressed that study abroad would benefit every single student. She described its value as following: I feel very strongly, based on my experience doing study abroad, that every single student would benefit from this kind of exposure. You can experience a little bit of a language sitting in a classroom in Houston, or in Minnesota, but it can t begin to compare with the experience of going and living with a family, and experiencing a different culture for 24 hours a day, for a month or two months, or whatever a year. There is just no comparison. Implications of the case Samantha s case demonstrates the impact of pre-college international experience on future career paths. She had strong aspiration to have international dimensions in her work. Her language skills enhanced from study abroad experiences helped her career. Samantha s case also shows how her study abroad experience closely related to academic major has been aligned with her global engagement in various areas, social entrepreneurship and philanthropic donations. She majored in literature for both undergraduate and graduate education, used her language skills for international banking career, and has been actively involved in introducing literature from different cultures through Words without Borders. She became a strong advocate for study abroad. 110

123 Case Study of Andrew Renken Personal background and pre-collegiate life While Andrew s family had not done extensive travel abroad, they hosted an exchange student from Switzerland for a year. He explained that this experience was somewhat influential in his decision to study abroad. Experience as a student Andrew studied abroad for three and half months in 2001 through the Semester-at-Sea program. His decision to study abroad was very accidental. In his last year as an economics major at the University of Missouri, Kansas City, he happened to read an advertisement about the Semester-at-Sea program on a bulletin board at the library. Having been admitted to law school, he had only elective credit left, and decided to pursue the last semester abroad. Among many countries Andrew visited from the Semester-at-Sea program, his experiences in Cuba and South Africa stood out most for him. In Cuba, he enjoyed experiences that many Americans may not be able to do, including talking to local people and learning their perspectives, for example, on the trade embargo. In South Africa, he described the striking discrepancy of poverty and wealth in Cape Town as well as rich history, culture, and beautiful nature as memorable. He also said that he enjoyed academic rigor of classes from renowned faculty members and how classed were well tied with countries they visited. He described: I took a lot of economics classes. We studied a lot of the currencies and their exchange rates and if they ve got social, economic diversity in their country. How does that play out with the government? We would analyze those things for each country before we ever got there. It was a very unique experience. It s probably different than a lot of the other abroad programs but well worth every penny I spent to do it. The physical experiences that were there that went along with the books made it a whole different level of understanding. Global engagement after college Global Values: After his return, Andrew emphasized how his Semester-at-Sea experience has had influenced his life on a daily basis. For example, he relates his study abroad experience to what he hears from the media daily. As he recollects his experiences in a country on the news or online media, Andrew takes their report critically and analyzes it more instead of taking the information at face value. It makes me think in different terms than I did before regarding different international tensions that are going now throughout the world. Most of those places I ve been to. When I hear something that s on the news or read something online about what s going on, I stop and think more in terms of what was it like when I was there People slant a lot of news There s a lot of stuff that I see on television that I can tell 111

124 has a western spin to it. That s probably the biggest thing. I don t necessarily look at information I m given at face value. Educational Choices: While attending law school at the University of Missouri, Columbia, Andrew decided to take courses with international legal perspectives Additionally, as Andrew enjoyed interacting with local people while at the Semester-at-Sea program, he seeks out meeting with local people whether he is in a different country or city in the U.S. He said that he does not want to be seen as the tourist. Civic Engagement and Knowledge Production: After his return from study abroad Andrew gave numerous presentations about his experiences for international economics classes, different universities, civic organizations, and churches. For this purpose, he made a DVD and PowerPoint with video and photos. Voluntary Simplicity-Job Choice: After law school, Andrew decided to work for a two-lawyer office in a small town instead of working for a well-paying law firm in a large city. After his study abroad experience, he decided not to pursue a high-paced, billable hour-drive type of lifestyle. He weighed his nature-oriented, outdoors lifestyle and desire to interact with and work for people in the community. He said: I know the individuals in the community. Somebody has a problem, they ask for me by name. They know who I am. They know what I do on the weekends. It s much more of a community. The assistance that I m able to provide to people through my practice is much more rewarding. I can see the outcome. They can see the individual results and I can see the impact that has on people. Those are all factors that when I was trying to decide do I want to go to the big firm. Currently Andrew runs an office as a single lawyer in a town with 800 people in central Missouri. It is impressive that he has clients in South Africa, who referred him also to other South Africans in the U.S. Andrew explained that his experiences visiting different countries and listening to various tones in speech helped him have effective communication with his clients regardless of their strong accents. He helped Brazilian immigrant family in the community with their legal issues as they had difficulty adjusting to the local culture and enrolling their children in school. Andrew believed that the cultural knowledge he picked up from the Semester-at-Sea program could make them feel more comfortable. While his local town has rare opportunities for international activities, he joined the international committee of the local Rotary Club. Philanthropy: In a similar context, he has made philanthropic donations, especially for the regions he travelled to. For example, Andrew helped to coordinate disaster relief for tsunami victims in Malaysia and India. 112

125 Finally, Andrew reflected on his experience of living with an exchange student from Switzerland, and hoped his children would have the opportunity to study abroad. I ll probably do everything in my power to make sure that my children will at least have the opportunity to do that if they want to do it. It was a pretty powerful experience and I would recommend it to anyone. Implications of the case Andrew s example showed the strong influence of study abroad experience on job choice, his decision to work for a small law firm in the local community instead of a well-paying firm in large cities. This was also related to this realization of what he really wants for his life. His experiences in multiple countries from the Semester-at-Sea program let him feel strong and continuing connections to those regions after return, which led to his critical take of the Western media report, philanthropic donations, and working with people from different countries. Based on his influential experiences of study abroad, Andrew became an advocate for his children as well as many others. Case Study of Maiyia Yang* Personal background and pre-collegiate life Maiyia is part of the rapidly growing Hmong diaspora in the U.S. Her Hmong family was originally from Laos and she was born in a Thai refugee camp. She came to the US at age three and, thus, had no memories of her early Asian childhood. She grew up in the Twin Cities area of Minnesota, the state that along with Wisconsin has our nation s largest Hmong population. As a child Maiyia did not have any international experiences, though she heard many stories about Southeast Asia from her parents and relatives. Maiyia attended a high school in Oakdale, Minnesota, which was not ethnically diverse, with relatively few non-white students. In thinking about college, Maiyia considered international opportunities offered as an important criterion. A major reason for choosing the University of Minnesota was because of the many and diverse international opportunities it offers to its students. Experiences as a student Maiyia, because of her Hmong-Lao ethnic background and all the stories she heard about Southeast Asia while growing up, decided to do an individualized undergraduate major with a focus on three areas: 1) Global Studies, 2) Cultural Studies, and 3) Comparative Literature and Linguistics. Under this program students design their own majors. Primarily because she wanted a chance to experience independence in her life and to see the places her parents had been describing in their stories, she decided to do a semester long study abroad program at Keimyung University in Daegu, Korea arranged through ISEP. Also a strong influence on her decision to study abroad was her cousin, Kao Kalia Yang, who had had a positive study abroad experience in Thailand on the CIEE program there. Later, related to the knowledge production theme of this study, Yang (2008) published an important book on the Hmong diaspora titled The Late 113

126 Homecomer: A Hmong Family Memoir. Yang earlier had studied abroad on the CIEE program in Khon Kaen, Thailand, as a Carlton undergraduate. While in Korea, Maiyia lived in a dorm with other international students and Korean students interested in enhancing their English skills. She studied with a group of 30 such individuals. The curricular content was highly relevant to the Global Studies component of her individualized BA program and could be transferred back to campus. She studied Korean 4.5 hours per week, which she felt was inadequate for developing any kind of real communicative competence in Korean. This kind of survival Korean enabled her to take taxis and order food, but did not enable her to be capable of having meaningful discussions or dialogue. She did have a Korean roommate and most of her friends were Koreans and other international students. Upon returning to the US, Maiyia suffered from culture shock. Her family and friends noticed how much she had changed. She had become more independent and outspoken. She also had come to realize that she should not complain about small matters in life. Partially to deal with her culture shock, Maiyia decided to go on another study abroad program as part of the University of Minnesota s Global Seminar program. She chose the short-term (three weeks) seminar, Understanding Southeast Asia, based in the northeast of Thailand, with a major field trip to Laos (Nam, 2009). Joining this program, Maiyia clearly was seeking her cultural roots as reflected in this quotation: I guess actually the experience itself was powerful in that I was back to the place where I ve heard all these stories about and had no idea what it looked like Crossing into Laos on the Friendship Bridge across the Mekong River was particularly moving for Maiyia as this river had been seen as the dividing line between life and death for her family. Maiyia s experiences in both Korea and Southeast Asia certainly strengthened her application for graduate school. She was accepted into the University of San Diego s Peace and Social Justice Program. As part of her graduate program, she and some of her classmates through their own initiative worked out an internship working in a refugee camp for a month in Kigoma in the western part of Tanzania. Having been born in a refugee camp herself and lived there for three years, staying in the refugee camp in Tanzania was a particularly moving experience for Maiyia. After completing her MA, Maiyia returned to the Twin Cities and worked with the Minnesota Literacy Council, primarily working with students originally from East Africa and also some recent refugees from Burma. Being back in the Twin Cities, Maiyia decided to apply for the interdisciplinary doctoral program in Comparative and International Development Education at the University of Minnesota. Her application was certainly strengthened by her international/intercultural experiences in three different regions of the world, East Asia, Southeast Asia, and East Africa. Financial support from her older siblings has enabled her to pursue her doctoral studies. As part of her doctoral cohort at Minnesota, she wrote a successful proposal ($50,000) to establish an innovative program on Perspectives on International Development, including a student journal on development and series of guest speakers on development. This has been a highly successful initiative. During the summer of 2010, Maiyia spent time in Karen refugee camps in northern Thailand as the first stage of her important doctoral research on Karen refugees and their resettlement. Eventually Maiyia will become the first Hmong to earn a doctorate in international development education. With completion of her doctoral program, she will have considerable leadership potential in connecting the Hmong diaspora in the US with contemporary development issues in mainland Southeast Asia. 114

127 Reflecting on her overseas experiences, Maiyia concludes: The international experience for me is something that s very powerful because it really does show the importance of living with other people and this world is not only my world but everyone else s world. Implications of the case Choice of university was significantly influenced by international opportunities offered. Heritage seeking may be a major motivation for students of color to study abroad. Significant others may have an important influence on the decision to study abroad. She certainly illustrates the 1+1=3 principle. Her multiple and diverse international experiences have had contributed markedly to her personal and professional development. She also represents the precious circle phenomenon, where one positive international experiences leads to another and then to another This is a clear example of how study abroad contributes to pursuing internationally oriented graduate studies and careers. Even though she only recently graduated from college, Maiyia has already demonstrated considerable global engagement through her work in a refugee camp in Tanzania, her work with the Minnesota Literacy Council, and her contributions to the innovative program on Perspectives on Development. *Note regarding the Maiyia case: Maiyia is from an institution participating in our study, but did not fall into our sample. She was purposively selected because she represents a new genre of potential study abroad student in terms of diversity goals. There are many new recent immigrant groups in the United States such as the Hmong, Karen, Somali, Ethiopians, Eritreans, and Liberians often fleeing as refugees from political repression or turbulence. They represent a new kind of heritage study (see Kasravi, 2009) and her case and that of her cousin mentioned in the case are inspiring ones for members of such communities. Case Study of Julius Coles* Julius Coles, an African American male, recently retired after serving for five years as the head of Africare, a not for profit organization promoting African development. Pre-collegiate experience Julius grew up in the Atlanta area. His mother was a school teacher and his father a postal worker. He attended segregated Booker T. Washington High School. As a high school student he was involved with international exchange students and the organization, Moral Rearmament. This provided him some awareness of international issues and provided some contact and friendships with those from other countries. But he basically grew up in a highly segregated Atlanta community. 115

128 Undergraduate and study abroad experiences While an undergraduate Morehouse College, he did a volunteer work project in Senegal on Operations Crossroads and was selected as a Merrill scholar, with which he intensively studied, travelled, and worked throughout Europe and North Africa for 15 months. In the French part of Switzerland he was directly enrolled in a local university, which contributed importantly to his French language competency. He also participated in work camps in Finland and the former Yugoslavia as well as hitch hiked across North Africa, visiting numerous Muslim countries. He described his study abroad experiences as follows: My experience was to become a human being. And I say that because I had grown up in a racially segregated society and not attended school with whites except for one or two exchange students who came to Morehouse during the civil rights period. I had not really gone to school with white people and people from other countries. By this experience of traveling, living abroad and studying abroad, I came to realize that I was a human being; that I was not an inferior being that I had been told all my life that I was black and inferior. I had built up self-confidence in myself and I felt that I could compete not only with people who were white in the United States, but people from all over the world whatever their ethnicity was. I found that it wasn t important to be judged by the color of their skin or their ethnicity; it was because of the person. I learned to have confidence in myself and that I was a human being. I was no different from anyone else. Peter Bell, former Director of CARE International and an alumnus (1964) of the Woodrow Wilson School at Princeton played a role in encouraging Julius to do a MPA at that school and institution. Clearly Julius international experiences strengthen in an important way his application to Princeton. As part of his MPA program he did field research in Central America. Career and Global Engagement In addition, he explained that his international experiences at college prepared him well for a later career in international affairs. He was a senior official with the United States Agency of International Development, working in various countries for 28 years. He was a Mission Director in Swaziland and Senegal and the countries where he served include Congo, Vietnam, Liberia, and Nepal. In his career, he also worked for Howard University and Morehouse College for eight years, developing and directing their International Centers, reflecting his academic entrepreneurship. He played a major role in the development of the Andrew Young Center for International Affairs at Morehouse. During the past five years as Director of Africare, he has raised $350 million on behalf of African development, reflecting his deep and enduring commitment to global engagement. In 2007, he was granted the James Madison Award, the highest award given by Princeton to alumni, for his contributions to public service and the public good. In his interview, he said, Without study abroad, I never would have gotten there My life and career. Implications of the Case: Intensity of study abroad positively influences level of global engagement. Study abroad contributed to the development of important language proficiency (French in this case). 116

129 The importance of involvement in non-traditional settings (North Africa and Yugoslavia in this case). Study abroad as a force for social contact (Allport, Pettigrew) and breaking out of a segregated world. Role of philanthropy in facilitating opportunities for students of color to have study abroad experiences (relevant to the current work of organizations such as Diversity Abroad, the Turkish Coalition of America, and the Foundation established by Ann Kerr). Role of significant others (Peter Bell, later became Director of CARE International) in identifying and supporting talent. *It was our original intention to include several historically black colleges and universities such as Morehouse and/or Spellman in our survey sample. For a variety of reasons, that did not work out. However, we became aware of a Morehouse alumnus whose life and experiences exemplify in so many ways what this study is all about, that we interviewed him as a special case. He is clearly an outlier in Gladwell s sense (2008). But outliers and extreme cases such as Julius can provide insights and inspiration as we seek to diversity study abroad opportunities (Comp, 2003; Kasravi, 2009). X. Conclusions, Discussion, and Implications "Global student mobility is one of the fastest growing phenomena in higher education in the twenty-first century. Over three million students are currently mobile, crossing geographic, cultural, digital, and educational borders in the pursuit of an international education - a movement that has significant consequences for higher education institutions and nations worldwide... Bhandari & Blumenthal (2011) IX. Conclusions, Discussion, and Implications Our major quantitative findings can be summarized in two primary categories, descriptive and analytical. A. Quantitative and Qualitative Findings Descriptive Quantitative Findings In the field of higher education, increasing attention is being given to the nature of the undergraduate experience (Kuh 2005a, 2005b; Pascarella, 2005; Foster, 2007; Hu, et al., 2008; Harper & Quaye, 2009; Healy, Pawson, & Solem, 2010). The most dramatic SAGE descriptive finding related to this important issue was that 83.3% of respondents indicated that study abroad had had a strong impact on their lives. Interaction with faculty in contrast was indicated as having strong impact by only 37.8%. Study abroad was seen as the most impactful aspect of their undergraduate 117

130 experiences, perceived as being far more important than any other aspect of their undergraduate experience. Participants were asked directly to assess how study abroad had influenced their global engagement. In one of the most important findings of this study, 70.3% indicated that study abroad had influenced to a large or some degree their practice of voluntary simplicity (cf. Roy & Anderson, 2010). Given the serious problem of global warming and overconsumption, this is an encouraging finding. Also related to environmental consciousness and issues of social justice, study abroad participants compared to the comparison group were much more likely to make purchasing decisions based on the values of the companies or corporations involved. On six of our eight major dimensions of global engagement, over 50% of the sample indicated that study abroad has influenced their involvement in these domains to a large or some degree. In addition, 59.7% indicated that study abroad had influenced their future education decisions and 56.2% said study abroad had influenced their occupational choices to a large or some degree. With regard to education and career paths, the results show that 58.7%, more than half of study abroad alumni, attained at least one graduate degree. Moreover, out of those pursuing graduate education, 35 % of the participants indicated having an internationally oriented graduate degree. The graduate completion rate of participants in the SAGE project is particularly striking compared to that in national data. In 2006, the percentage of the U.S. population age 18 and over whose highest degree attained was a Bachelors degree was 25.5%. Further, among those with a Bachelors degree, 33.4% have gone on to receive a post-baccalaureate degree. (U.S. Census Bureau, 2007). This is an extremely important finding, given concerns about US national competitiveness in the age of the knowledge economy (Friedman, 2005). The caveat is, however, that those who study abroad may be already a more motivated group and therefore more likely to attempt graduate education. This remains unknown, but the other results from the SAGE survey particularly the global engagement results point to study abroad in the undergraduate years as likely having a significant influence on later accomplishments and engagements that we measured. Analytical Quantitative Findings A major element in the SAGE study and contribution to the field was the development of a number of scales related to both study abroad itself and global engagement. Related to the nature of the study abroad experience itself, we developed the four Ds of study abroad, namely, 1) demography, that is, who goes?, 2) duration, how long do they stay? 3) destination, where do they go and what is the nature of that destination? and 4) depth, to what extent is their program deep versus shallow in terms of cultural immersion and language learning, and thus having the potential for a transformative learning experience (Mezirow, 2000; Fry, 2007). We developed psychometrically sound and robust scales for assessing for both destination and depth of study abroad programs. Interestingly, a strong correlation was found between destination and depth (r=.50). Thus, programs in non-traditional destinations such as the Middle East, Africa, or Asia were more likely to be in-depth than programs in traditional destinations such as England and Mexico (see Conlin, 2010). This provides strong empirical support for the goal of the Simon Study Abroad Foundation Act to diversify study abroad opportunities. We also developed a psychometrically sound and robust multidimensional scale for assessing individuals global engagement. Having developed these sound scales, we then examined analytically the relationship among background, demographic (exogenous), the four Ds of study abroad (endogenous), and our global engagement outcomes variables, using various multivariate statistical techniques such as regression analysis, path analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis (see Appendix F). Given the extremely large sample of this study and associated statistical power, we found many 118

131 highly significant statistical relationships. However, size effects in most cases were modest. The variable that consistently had the highest explanatory power and by far the greatest size effects was program depth. This has important implications for the field and is highly consistent with both the Georgetown (Vande Berg, et al., 2009) and MAXSA (Cohen, et al., 2005) findings which emphasize the importance of intervention to ensure genuine and impactful learning experiences. Interpretation of the unexpected results related to duration are complex. This is the wonderful surprise aspect of research. The basic finding that duration of study abroad per se does not matter in terms of impact on global engagement was a finding that generated considerable discussion in the field (see Appendix B). Many other studies have indicated that duration does positively affect other outcomes such as language learning, but we were not assessing those outcomes. Actually our finding can be interpreted in a rather positive way. What really counts is not how long you stay or where you go, but the quality of the program and the nature of deep cultural and learning experiences provided. This is consistent with the recently concluded major Georgetown research on study abroad (Vande Berg, et al., 2009) which indicates the critical need for intervention to ensure impact and genuine learning. This finding related to duration also has important implications for the field given the dramatic growth in short-term study abroad and its having become the most common genre of study abroad. If done in the right way, short-term study abroad can have impact (see Nam & Fry, 2010). Qualitative findings Our qualitative findings derive from three primary data sources: 1) two open-ended questions at the end of the large electronic survey, 2) in-depth interviews of 63 individuals randomly selected from those participating in the electronic survey who indicated that they were willing to be interviewed, and 3) detailed case studies of individuals purposively selected because of the richness (Yin, 2009) of their experiences and how those help us to understand more deeply how study abroad influences global engagement and concrete examples of the nature of that global engagement and its impact on the common good The major qualitative finding is that overwhelmingly, the study abroad experience was among the most influential experiences in participants lives, or was the most impactful experience. A number of key themes and patterns emerged from analysis of the qualitative interviews related to the impact of study abroad on participants lives. These themes were as follows: Personal learning and development Refined language and cultural abilities Development of cultural empathy Impact on education and educational decisions and shift in educational choices Impact on career and professional development and shift in career choices; Nonpecuniary job choice Increased understanding of the world issues and relations Changes in worldview and values Global engagement activities 119

132 One vivid example of impact was a former study abroad student who had a much more open attitude toward recent immigrants, stating that they were not just faceless people who work in a processing plant. Related to the last global engagement theme, the major focus of the study, several key patterns emerged: Wanting to make a difference Actively engaged in working for the common good Seeking a more balanced life Changing lifestyles Taking action to influence purchasing decisions to enhance social justice and environmental preservation Changing world views and values was another major outcomes, illustrated by the following patterns: Tolerance and seeing multiple perspectives Generational multiplier effect; this is an interesting phenomenon illustrated by parents, for example, who had been Peace Corps volunteers who encouraged their children to study abroad, who in turn encouraged their children to become engaged internationally. Becoming international and developing comparative thinking Cumulative persistent influence throughout lives Realization and negotiation of identity and values Critical consciousness related to media, for example. Prior to study abroad many had accepted media presentations of other countries and cultures as the truth. Related to the first theme of the need to be aware of multiple perspectives, the following quotation by one of our interviewees elegantly expresses this sentiment: A lot of Americans have read something in translation. They ve read, maybe, part of Don Quixote, or Magic Mountain by Thomas Mann, or Hans Christian Anderson s fairy tales, Brother Grimm from German, so many different things that are very common here in translation. The thing that we don t have access to is the literature that is being produced today, which is a window into those cultures, the issues that concern the citizens, and the problems that the nations are dealing with. Also a number of key themes and patterns emerged related to the study abroad experience itself. These themes were as follows Choice of college influenced by study abroad opportunities offered 1+1=3 (distinctive impact of multiple study abroad experiences) Importance of intensity and depth of experience Value of carefully designed field trips and experiential learning (non-classroom) 120

133 The first theme has important implications for colleges and universities around the country as they compete for the best and most talented students. It suggests that the policy of Princeton University to encourage a gap year for their entering students may be a visionary policy in many regards (Tilgman, 2008). The second theme was somewhat unexpected and supports the comparative perspective emphasized by international educators such as Josef Mestenhauser (1998). Multiple experiences seem to have more than increased linear impact, but exponential influence in what might be termed the precious circle of study abroad reflected well in the individual case study of Maiyia Yang above. The 1+1=3 theme suggests that the IE 3 innovative approach to study abroad funded initially by the federal government was visionary (IE 3 ; Lahr, 2010). The IE 3 concept emphasized the integration of study abroad and work/internships overseas with the three Es being education, experience, and employment. Related to the final theme many study abroad reflected positively on the value of carefully planned field trips that required critical reflection. Integrated findings from the three stages of the qualitative research In terms of the nature of the study abroad experience, the following were the key themes identified: Value of intensity Benefit of multifaceted experiences Cumulative nature of experiences Importance of program intervention (ex. Maximizing Study Abroad, Cohen, et al., ; the Georgetown Study, Vande Berg, et al., 2009) In terms of the global engagement outcomes, the two major themes that emerged were: The multidimensional nature of global engagement The long-term nature of impact B. Dissemination and Outreach We have considered it extremely important to share these important SAGE findings at different stages of the research process with diverse scholarly and public audiences. There have been two international presentations (one in Germany and one in Canada). In the U.S. we have presented twice in Washington, D.C., twice in Oregon, twice at the University of Minnesota, and also in Wisconsin, Hawai i, California, South Carolina, and Tennessee. A total of 13 presentations have made over a period of three years ( ) (see Appendix A). Results have been presented at the conferences of the major organizations in the field of international/intercultural education, namely, the Council on International Education and Exchange, the Forum on Education Abroad, NAFSA: The Association of International Educators, the Comparative and International Education Society, the International Academy on Intercultural Research, and the Pacific Circle Consortium. As can be seen in Appendix A, the actual presenters have varied to give all members of the research team opportunities to present various aspects of the research. As the result of these many presentations, the project has attracted considerable media attention. A reporter from the Chronicle of Higher Education covered our February presentation at the conference of the Forum on Education Abroad and wrote an article about SAGE and its basic findings (Fischer, 2009). That led in turn to a number of newspaper articles around the country (see Appendix B). 121

134 The initial findings of the SAGE study were published in a prominent European journal, Intercultural Education (Paige, et al, 2009). (See Appendix G). A paper with more extensive findings was accepted by the Association for the Study of Higher Education (ASHE) and presented in Vancouver, Canada in November, 2009 (Jon & Fry, 2009) (See Appendix H). We have developed a strategic plan for the preparation of a series of papers for submission to key journals in the field over the next two years. After this period, we will then make the data set publically available for scholars and students around the nation and world to use with permission and acknowledgment for further research analysis. Finally, in the age of the Internet, early on we developed a project Web-site open to the public which contains detailed information on the SAGE project and our research processes and outcomes. The Web-site includes copies of all our formal presentations on SAGE research. One of our team members had the responsibility to maintain the Web-site and to respond to queries about the project. The url for the site is: C. Limitations of the Study Our study has several major limitations. First, initially, given our preoccupation with the challenges of conducting a national sample going back five decades, we did not have a control or comparison group. Second, though our response rate is considered quite respectable for an electronic survey of this type, there is the selection bias in that those electing to participate in our study were more likely to have had more positive and impactful study abroad experiences. Unfortunately we were not able to track down non-respondents to ascertain explicitly the extent of this bias. Third, with our huge sample, we have exceptionally good statistical power. However, we must therefore be mindful not to exaggerate the impact of highly statistically significant findings but where size effects are minimal. At numerous presentations of the SAGE research, individuals raised the question about whether we had a comparison/control group or not. Given the seriousness of this issue, during the fourth year of the project, we conducted a large comparison group (similar) in size to address the first limitation. D. Directions for Future Research The ideal future study would be a genuine longitudinal tracer study, with a carefully selected control group, to follow study abroad alumni into the future over many decades. Our cross-sectional retrospective tracer study going back 50 years was an attempt to replicate a genuine longitudinal tracer study. Because of the enormous costs involved, such a dream study may never be feasible. In September, 2009, the University of Wisconsin invited us to their campus to discuss our SAGE project and its methodology. Inspired by our work, they are carrying out their own Wisconsin study of that universities study abroad alumni, drawing on the SAGE instruments and methodology. A scholar at Nagoya University is interested in doing a study, inspired by SAGE, of what has happened to Thai alumni of study abroad in Japan. Earlier research by Fry (1984) found study abroad in Japan particularly impactful. Thus, we anticipate that the SAGE study will inspire numerous other institutions to assess systematically the impact of study abroad for their alumni. We have given authorization for each participating institution in our own project to do their own analyses of data from their own institutions if they choose to do so. Thus, we anticipate a valuable multiplier effect from SAGE, with the generation of a number of future studies of the impact of study abroad as an increasingly important of the undergraduate experience. Given our international education perspective, it would be particularly gratifying to see institutions in other nations carry out SAGE type studies. 122

135 E. Concluding Thoughts and Reflections This research demonstrates the long-term impact of study abroad experience during undergraduate education, by examining the undergraduate experiences of study abroad alumni between 1960 and This study provides strong empirical evidence that undergraduate students who study abroad during their college years become globally engaged in a variety of ways in subsequent years. Moreover, many of them attribute their global engagement to their having studied abroad. An investment in study abroad then, at the federal and state levels, is a much broader investment in the long term well-being of society and the globe: socially, environmentally, and politically. This investment already has a platform in the Paul Simon Foundation Study Abroad Act and the Lincoln Commission Report, which calls for a vast expansion of study abroad opportunities, destinations, and participation to a million U.S. students abroad annually. The long term purpose of the act is to create a more globally informed and involved American citizenry. SAGE provides strong empirical evidence suggesting that this goal will be realized. A major finding related to the impact of study abroad on global values (environmentally mindful behaviors, for example, voluntary simplicity) contributes to the global imperative for more sustainable development. This research also has important implications for the field of higher education. Given the powerful and transformative impact of study abroad that we have demonstrated empirically, study abroad should be seen as central to having a genuine liberal education. The University of Minnesota s Carlson School of Management is now requiring all undergraduates to have a study abroad experience. It is even more important that liberal arts graduates have this experience. Given the findings of this study, ways need to be found to increase the number of students having this kind of opportunity. This research shows that undergraduate study abroad experiences promote participants long-term global engagement in a multifaceted way. It also provides strong empirical evidence that study abroad experiences can profoundly influence individuals pursuit of further graduate studies and career paths. Given the current imperative for a more sustainable global environment, the finding that study abroad has contributed significantly to the practice of voluntary simplicity is particularly salient (see Roy & Anderson, 2000). Moreover, this research also has significant implications for policy makers and practitioners in the field. It is extremely timely from a policy perspective, given the Simon Study Abroad Foundation Act (2007) which has received strong bipartisan support in Congress. This study and its data can inform policy thinking about the goals of the Act to democratize, diversify, and expand study abroad. Also the finding that study participants viewed study abroad as the most impactful of their undergraduate experiences should be welcomed by international educators across the globe. With regard to research implications, it is meaningful that this study has examined the behavioral patterns of global engagement, going beyond previous studies which have concentrated on attitudinal or only short-term outcomes of international education. Also this research has important theoretical implications in that it has resulted in a reliable scale for assessing global engagement in a multifaceted way. Reliable scales have also been developed for assessing the depth of the study abroad experience and the diversified nature of study abroad destinations. Nationally and internationally, there has been increasing emphasis on the internationalization of higher education. Study abroad is an important aspect of this process. Previous to this major study of 123

136 the impact of study abroad on global engagement there has been much anecdotal information on this topic. It is meaningful that this research has documented empirically and systematically how study abroad has positively influenced global engagement in multifaceted ways. Also for many participants, study abroad is transformational in its influence on their later educational and occupational choices. Prior to this project, there seemed to be considerable empirical evidence related to the individual and personal gains from study abroad (private benefits and returns). From an economic societal perspective, if those were the only outcomes, then the argument for subsidizing study abroad may not be particularly compelling. However, our findings suggest that investing in study abroad has both major social and individual benefits, and, thus contributes to the development of not only human capital but social capital, and, thus contributes to the common good, above and beyond the personal private benefits. Thus, we have solid empirical evidence justifying public support for the expansion, diversification, and democratization of study abroad as called for in the visionary Lincoln Commission Report and Simon Study Abroad Foundation Act. 124

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147 Trahar, S. (2011). Developing cultural capability in international higher education: A narrative inquiry. New York: Routledge Wallace, D. H. (1999). Academic study abroad: The long-term impact on alumni careers, volunteer activities, world, and personal perspectives. Unpublished manuscript, Claremont Graduate University, Claremont, CA. UCLA Higher Education Research Institute college student survey. Retrieved August 1, 2007, from UCLA Higher Education Research Institute CIRP freshman survey. Retrieved August 1, 2007, from UCLA Higher Education Research Institute. Life after college: A survey of former undergraduates. Retrieved August 1, 2007, from U.S. Census Bureau. (2007). Educational attainment in the United States: Retrieved from University of Minnesota Foundation. (2007). Connecting with our alumni. Unpublished manuscript. Vande Berg, M., Connor-Linton, J., & Paige, R. M.. (2009, Fall) The Georgetown Consortium Project: Interventions for Student Learning Abroad Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad 18, Wagle, U. R. (2006). Political participation and civic engagement in kathinandu: An empirical analysis with structural equations. International Political Science Review, 27(3), Wallace, D. H. (1999). Academic study abroad: The long-term impact on alumni careers, volunteer activities, world, and personal perspectives. Unpublished Claremont Graduate University, Claremont, CA. Wallraff, B. (2000, November). What global language? The Atlantic Monthly 286, Walton, W. (2010). Internationalism, national identities, and study abroad: France and the United States, Stanford, Calif: Stanford University Press. Whalen, B. (2000, November). What global language? The Atlantic Monthly, 286, Whalen, B. (November 28, 2001). Dickinson College: Summary of study abroad alumni research. Retrieved November 4, 2004, from alumni_study.html Whalen, B., Pillemer, D., & Chromiak, W. (2006). Summary of study abroad alumni research. Unpublished manuscript. Wickham, J., & Collins, G. (2006). Involving users in social science research - a new European paradigm? European Journal of Education, 41(2), Woodruff, G. A. (2009). Curriculum integration: Where we have been and where we are going. Minneapolis, MN: Learning Abroad Center. 135

148 Wuthnow, R. (2005). Democratic renewal and cultural inertia: Why our best efforts fall short. Sociological Forum, 20(3), Yang, K. K. (2008). The late homecomer: A Hmong family memoir. Minneapolis: Coffee House Press. Yin, R.K. (2009a). Applications of case study research (3 rd ed). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE. Yin, R. K. (2009b). Case study research: Design and methods (4 th ed.). Los Angeles, CA: SAGE. Zorn, C. R., Ponick, D. A., & Peck, S. (1995). An analysis of the impact of participation in an international study program on the cognitive development of senior baccalaureate nursing students. Journal of Nursing Education, 34,

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150 XI. Appendices Appendix A: Presentations Given on SAGE Research at Diverse Conferences and Settings Paige, R.M., Stallman, E. & Josić, J. (2008, May 27). Study abroad for global engagement: A preliminary report on the SAGE research project. Annual meeting of NAFSA: Association of International Educators, Washington, D.C. Paige, R. M. (June 9-11, 2008). From research to application: Lessons from MAXSA, Georgetown, and SAGE. Presented at a workshop for the European Association of International Education, Study Abroad and Foreign Student Advisors section. Copenhagen, Denmark. Paige, R.M., & Fry, G. (2008, September 30). Study abroad for global engagement: A preliminary report on the SAGE Research Project. Saturday Scholars Conference, University of Minnesota. Paige, R. M. & Fry, G. (2008, October 14). Beyond immediate impact: A presentation on the SAGE Research Project. Special conference, Moving Beyond Mobility, sponsored by the EU and AFS, Berlin, Germany. Paige, R.M. & Fry, G. (2008, November 14). Beyond immediate impact: Study abroad for global engagement. Annual conference of the Council on International Education and Exchange (CIEE), Nashville, Tennessee. Paige, R. M., Fry, G., LaBrack, B., Stallman, E., Josić, J., Jon, J. (2009, February 19). Study abroad for global engagement: Results that inform research and policy agendas. Forum on Education Abroad Conference, Portland, Oregon. Paige, R. M. (2009, March 13). Study abroad for global engagement. Intercultural Management Institute. Washington D.C. Paige, R. M. & Fry, G. (2009, March 19). Internationalizing higher education; The neglected link between area studies and study abroad. Title VI 50 th Anniversary Conference, Washington, D.C. Fry, G. & Jon, J. (2009, March 23). Study abroad for global engagement: A qualitative study of longterm impact. Comparative and International Education Society (CIES) Annual Conference, Charleston, South Carolina. Paige, R.M, Stallman, E., Jon, J., & LaBrack, B. (2009, May 29). Study abroad for global engagement: The long-term impact of international experiences. Annual conference of NAFSA: Association of International Educators, Los Angeles. Fry, G., Paige, R.M., Stallman, E. (2009, August 16). Beyond immediate impact: Study abroad for global engagement. Biannual Conference of the International Academy for Intercultural Research, University of Hawai i, Honolulu. Fry, G. (2009, September 30). The long-term impact of study abroad on global engagement. Special presentation at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. 138

151 Paige, R. M. (October 5-7, 2009). Lessons from Three Research Projects: Maximizing Study Abroad, Georgetown, and Study Abroad for Global Engagement (SAGE). Presented at a workshop for the European Association of International Education, Study Abroad and Foreign Student Advisors section. Copenhagen, Denmark. Jon, J. & Fry, G. (2009, November). The long-term impact of the undergraduate study abroad experience: Implications for higher education. Annual conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education (ASHE), Vancouver, Canada. Jon, J., Fry, G., & Stallman, E. (2010, January 31). Beyond immediate impact: Study abroad for global engagement. Conference on Internationalizing the Campus, University of Minnesota. Paige, R. M. (2010, February 20). Study abroad for global engagement. 12 th annual ION conference. Portland, Oregon. Nam, K. & Fry, G. (2010, May 6). Innovative short-term study abroad: Transformative learning for global engagement. Pacific Circle Consortium Conference, Southern Oregon University, Ashland, Oregon Paige, R. M. (2010, June 1). From Intercultural Experiences to Global Engagement: Lessons from the SAGE Project. NAFSA: Association of International Educators. Kansas City, Missouri. 139

152 Appendix B: Examples of Media Attention to SAGE and its Findings (2007, September). UW-Eau Claire selected to be part of SAGE Research Project. International Educator 5, 1. (2008). Expanding students world views. Mention of SAGE, its findings, and participation of Carlton and St. Olaf in the study, Minnesota s Private Colleges Newsletter Fischer, K. (2009, February 20). Short study-abroad trips can have lasting effect research shows. The Chronicle of Higher Education. Cox, T. (2009, February 22). Effects of duration abroad minimal. The Badger Herald. Solis, E. (2009, February 24). Students: Longer study abroad programs may be more effective. Daily Texan. Richardson, J. W. (2009, March). Toward developing global 21 st century leadership skills. Education Week Leader Talk. SAGE and its findings were mentioned in a MSNBC report on March 2, Kline, H. (2009, March 5). Study abroad heightens global engagement. Minnesota Daily. (2009). Sage Advice. Sidebar with basic findings and direct quotations from SAGE participants as part of Study abroad at Indiana University: From summer tramps to service learning. IU International. Stallman, E. (2010). SAGE research to extend through May, Article on the IHEC blog of David Comp, University of Chicago. This is one of the most popular study abroad and international education blogs. 140

153 Appendix C: The Electronic Survey Instrument Welcome to the Study Abroad for Global Engagement (SAGE) survey and thank you for participating in it. The purpose of the SAGE research project is to discover how study abroad influences civic commitments, i.e., contributions made for the common good. We will be asking you about your study abroad experiences as an undergraduate and about your subsequent life experiences related to civic involvement and global engagement. This is the first study of its kind. Most studies to date have examined the personal benefits and the short term impact of study abroad. Few if any have explored global engagement. We anticipate that there is a very important story to tell about the contributions made by former study abroad participants like you. To do that, we are surveying 2,000 alumni who studied abroad between 1960 and This research project is being funded by the U.S. Department of Education s Title VI International Research and Studies program. The research investigators and staff are at the University of Minnesota. Navigating the SAGE Survey The following are some helpful tips for completing this survey: 1. To go forward and backward, please click the Next Page and Previous Page buttons at the bottom of each page. This allows you to view and edit your previous responses. Each time you click Next Page, your responses are automatically saved. 2. At any time before submitting your responses at the end, you can exit and return to the survey (just close your browser page). You can view and edit your previous responses - as long as you use the same computer each time. 3. To be sure your responses are saved and submitted, please do not use your browser buttons. 141

154 1) From which institution/organization listed below did you receive the invitation to complete this survey? Arcadia University Austin College Beloit College Carleton College Carnegie Mellon University Dartmouth College Dickinson College Indiana University Institute for Shipboard Education (Semester-at-Sea) Iowa State University James Madison University Kalamazoo College Middlebury College Santa Clara University School for International Training (SIT)/World Learning St. Norbert College St. Olaf College Tulane University University of California, Davis University of California, San Diego University of California, Santa Barbara University of Colorado, Boulder University of Minnesota, Twin Cities University of Wisconsin, Eau Claire Worcester Polytechnic Institute 2) Thinking back to the years you spent in college and the activities you were involved in, what impact has each of the following had on your life? Strong Impact Some Impact Little Impact No Impact Not Applicable Athletics/intramural sports Community service/volunteer work Coursework Fraternity/Sorority Friendships/student-peer interactions Interaction with faculty Internship (in the U.S.) 142

155 Religious organization Student clubs Student government Study abroad Work/employment during college 3) How many times did you study abroad as an undergraduate? time(s) 4) As an undergraduate, how many total months did you spend studying abroad (all programs)? month(s) Your Most Significant Study Abroad Experience We would now like to know about your most significant study abroad experience as an undergraduate. Please indicate below the year, type of program, destination(s), and the duration of your study abroad experience. 5) When did you study abroad? Please choose the timespan that includes the year(s) you studied abroad ) What was the predominant nature of your study abroad program? Please select one from the list below. Regular courses alongside host country students Classes designed for study abroad students Field study: research and/or internship Campus of a U.S. institution in another country 143

156 Travel seminar or shipboard education program A significant mixture of two or more of the above program types 7) How would you describe your study abroad program? Please select all that apply. Language instruction (non-english) Area studies (for example, Japanese studies or Latin American studies) Theme-based (for example, a focus on the arts or international development) Research Internship Work abroad Service-learning (classroom instruction combined with, for example, volunteering in an AIDS orphanage or engagement in reforestation) 8) What was the duration of this study abroad experience? Please type in the number of months in the box below. months 9) The list below is of the common destinations for American students who have studied abroad. In what country or countries did you study abroad? You may select more than one if that applies. If the country name(s) is not listed, please check "Other" and write the name(s) in the textbox provided. Australia Austria Belgium Chile China Costa Rica Czech Republic Ecuador France Germany Greece Ireland Italy Japan Mexico New Zealand Russia South Africa Spain Switzerland United Kingdom Other (please specify) 144

157 If you selected other, please specify Study Abroad and Civic Engagement In this section we want to know, in terms of domestic (local, state, or national) issues and international issues, what kinds of civic activity you may have been involved in and how you have identified and addressed issues of public concern. Also, we are interested in the degree to which your civic activities have been influenced by your study abroad experience. 10) Civic Engagement On issues of domestic (local, state, or national) and international importance I have: (for each statement select one answer for Domestic and one answer for International) Domestic International Frequently Sometimes Rarely Never Frequently Sometimes Rarely Never given formal talks or demonstrations. organized or signed petitions. written letter(s) to the editor. been involved in protests, demonstrations. voted in an election. played a leadership role in improving quality of life. used the internet to raise awareness about social and political issues. made a purchasing decision because of the social or political values of a company. 145

158 contacted or visited a public official. 146

159 11) My level of involvement in the above domestic activities was influenced by my study abroad experience: To a large degree To some degree Very little Not at all 12) My level of involvement in the above international activities was influenced by my study abroad experience: To a large degree To some degree Very little Not at all Study Abroad and Civic Engagement Voluntary Simplicity We define voluntary simplicity as the effort to lead a more modest, simple lifestyle. Examples are riding a bike to work, taking a job that pays less but contributes more to the common good, or being motivated to use recycled products and to practice active recycling. 13) Please complete the following statement: "I practice voluntary simplicity: To a large degree To some degree Very little Not at all Study Abroad and Civic Engagement Voluntary Simplicity 14) To what degree did your study abroad experience influence you to practice voluntary simplicity? To a large degree To some degree Very little 147

160 Not at all Study Abroad and Knowledge Production 15) During the course of your life and career (after study abroad) have you ever had something formally published? For example, have you had your work published as a fiction or non-fiction book; journal, magazine, or newspaper article; governmental or non-governmental organization report; or patent? Yes No Study Abroad and Knowledge Production 16) What have you published? Yes No Novels/works of fiction Magazine articles Academic journal articles Newspaper articles Report (non-governmental or governmental agencies) Nonfiction book (scholarly) Nonfiction book (trade) Translated work Educational materials, including curricula Patent awards Works published in another language Publications translated into another language Works published with a co-author of another culture or ethnic group Publications with an international or intercultural orientation Publications that draw upon research using a language gained in study abroad 17) Please complete this statement: "My level of involvement in the above knowledge production activities was influenced by my study abroad experience: To a large degree To some degree 148

161 Very little Not at all 149

162 Study Abroad and Knowledge Production 18) During the course of your life and career (after study abroad) have you engaged in other types of knowledge production? For example, artistic work, online publishing, multimedia, or films? Yes No Study Abroad and Knowledge Production 19) What have you published or created? Yes No Web-published articles Blogs Websites Dramatic productions Films Musical productions Artworks (sculptures, paintings, etc.) Digital media 20) Please complete this statement: "My level of involvement in the above knowledge production activities was influenced by my study abroad experience: To a large degree To some degree Very little Not at all Study Abroad and Philanthropy In this section we ask about philanthropy, or donations of your time and money to charitable organizations for the common good, both domestic and international. Charitable organizations include religious or non-profit organizations that serve a variety of purposes for the common good, such as helping people in need, health care and medical research, education, arts, environment, and international aid. 150

163 Volunteer work means time spent doing unpaid work for a charitable cause. Monetary donation includes any gift of money, assets, or property made directly to the organization. 21) Please check how often you have volunteered for or donated money, assets, or property to the following organization types: (for each statement select one answer for Volunteer Work and one answer for Monetary Donation) Volunteer Work Monetary Donations Frequently Sometimes Rarely Never Frequently Sometime s Rarely Never Arts Community (e.g., board service) Education Environment Health Human Rights (includes women, minority groups, and GLBT) International Development Poverty (e.g., food bank, construction and repair) Religion Social Justice Youth Organizations (e.g., Scouts, athletic teams) 22) Please complete this statement: "Overall, my level of volunteer work for the above organization(s) was influenced by my study abroad experience: To a large degree To some degree Very little Not at all 151

164 23) Please complete this statement: "Overall, my level of monetary donations to the above organization(s) was influenced by my study abroad experience: To a large degree To some degree Very little Not at all Study Abroad and Social Entrepreneurship This section concerns patterns of social entrepreneurship. We define social entrepreneurship as involvement in creating a new organization (for-profit or not-for-profit) which has social objectives as its primary goal. Moreover, it could involve influencing a for-profit organization, from within, to channel an increasing portion of its surpluses and/or profits for the good of the community. Creating New Social Entrepreneurship Organizations 24) Have you ever been a social entrepreneur? Yes No Study Abroad and Social Entrepreneurship Creating New Social Entrepreneurship Organizations 25) What types of organizations have you created? Choose all that apply. Arts Community (e.g., board service) Education Environment 152

165 Health Human Rights (includes women, minority groups, and GLBT) International Development Poverty (e.g., food bank, construction and repair) Religion Social Justice Youth Organizations (e.g., Scouts, athletic teams) Other (please specify) If you selected other, please specify 26) How many organizations have you created? organizations 27) Approximately what percentage of your profits or surpluses do you reinvest for the good of the community? percent Study Abroad and Social Entrepreneurship Influencing Organizations from Within 28) In a substantive way, have you ever influenced from within a for-profit organization to be socially responsible? Yes No Study Abroad and Social Entrepreneurship Influencing Organizations from Within 29) To what extent have you influenced an organization from within to be more socially responsible? 153

166 To a large degree To some degree Very little Not at all 30) To what extent did your study abroad experience influence your commitment to promote social responsibility in that organization? To a large degree To some degree Very little Not at all Demographic Questions This is not your ordinary demographic section. The questions below are asked in ways you may not have seen before. We want to know about you from your own perspective, not ours or a predetermined list. This section is just as important as the previous ones and the questions are, we hope, as interesting to complete. 31) What is your gender? Male Female 32) How old are you? 33) Where were you born? United States Other (please specify) If you selected other, please specify 154

167 34) Did you live outside of your home country as a child? Yes No Childhood Abroad 35) How long did you live abroad as a child? Even if you left and returned to your home country more than one time, please provide the total amount of years abroad from birth to age 18. If less than one year, type 0 (zero) in box below. years 36) In what country or countries did you live? Please write the name(s) in the box below. Ethnicity 37) What is your ethnicity (based on census categories)? If you are biethnic or multiethnic, please select all that apply. African American or Black Asian Caucasian or White Hispanic or Latino Native American or Native Alaskan Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander Other (please specify) If you selected other, please specify Ethnic Identity 155

168 Now, we would like to give you the opportunity to elaborate on your ethnic identity beyond the census categories. We recognize that people in the United States come from, and identify with, many different countries and cultures and that there are many terms to describe such backgrounds. In responding to the questions below, please be as specific as possible and use the terms with which you feel most comfortable as representing your genuine ethnic identity(ies). Examples of answers are: African-American, Cuban-American, Hmong-American, Afro-Caribbean, Jewish, Italian-American, Latino, or Chinese-American. In the first block below, please indicate your primary ethnic identity. The subsequent blocks allow for up to four additional ethnicities. In addition, you are allotted ten points to distribute among the identities you indicate. Please split the ten points according to the degree to which you identify with that part of your ethnicity where 10 is the highest and 1 is the lowest. You may select a primary identity and up to four additional identities, but the total points should add up to 10. For example, someone may identify primarily as Polish-American and may allot 7 points to this part of their ethnicity; in addition they identify as Jewish and may allot the 3 remaining points here. Polish-American 7 Jewish 3 38) What ethnic group do you consider yourself to be? Ethnic group: Points (1-10): 39) What additional ethnic group do you consider yourself to be (if any)? Ethnic group: Points (1-10): 40) What additional ethnic group do you consider yourself to be (if any)? 156

169 Ethnic group: Points (1-10): 41) What additional ethnic group do you consider yourself to be (if any)? Ethnic group: Points (1-10): Your Parents 42) What is your father s highest level of education? 8th grade or less Some high school High school graduate Some college, no degree Associate or technical degree Bachelor's degree Master's degree Professional or Doctorate degree 43) What is your mother's highest level of education? 8th grade or less Some high school High school graduate Some college, no degree Associate or technical degree Bachelor's degree Master's degree Professional or Doctorate degree Education 44) Have you enrolled in one or more advanced degree programs since completing your Bachelors 157

170 degree? Yes No Education 45) What degree(s) have you completed? Please select all that apply. Master's (M.A., M.S., Ed.M., MBA, MPA, LL.M., etc.) J.D. M.D. or other medical doctorate Ph.D., Ed.D., Psy.D., etc. 46) Did your study abroad experience influence your decision to continue for an advanced degree(s)? Yes, to a large degree Yes, to some degree Very little No, not at all 47) In what field(s) did you earn your advanced degree(s)? Check all that apply. Humanities (e.g. arts, languages, literature) Natural Sciences (e.g. biology, physics, environmental science) Professional School (e.g. business, education, law, medicine) Social Sciences (e.g. political science, psychology, sociology) 48) Were any of your advanced degrees internationally oriented? Yes No Career 158

171 49) What is your current occupation? If your occupation is not listed below, please check "Other" and type the name of your occupation. Architecture, Arts, and Design Civil Service Community and Social Services Computer, Mathematical, and Information Sciences Construction Economics and Finance Education, Higher Education, pre-k to 12 Engineering Entertainment, Sports, and Media Farming, Fishing, and Forestry Food Services and Preparation Foreign Service and Diplomacy Healthcare Legal Life, Physical, and Social Sciences Management and Human Resources Marketing and Public Relations Military Office and Administrative Support Personal Care and Service Sales Stay-at-home Parent Student Telecommunications Transportation 50) To what degree did your study abroad experience influence your career choice? To a large degree Somewhat Very little Not at all 51) To what degree has your study abroad experience helped your career? To a great degree Somewhat Very little Not at all 159

172 52) Is (was) your career internationally oriented? Yes No Language 53) In addition to your mother tongue, how many languages do you speak fluently? language(s) 54) If other than your first language, to what extent do you currently use the language you spoke while studying abroad? To a large degree (i.e., daily) To some degree (i.e., monthly) Very little (i.e., a few times per year) Not at all Overall Impact of Study Abroad 55) In your own words, please describe the impact that study abroad has had on your life. Follow-up Interviews The SAGE team will contact selected respondents for follow-up interviews. Are you interested in participating in such an interview? It will last approximately one hour and will be by telephone. We will contact you by to make the interview appointment. Note that these details will not be attached to your survey responses and will only be available to the SAGE principal investigators. The interview data will be reported as aggregated responses and no individuals will 160

173 be identified in any way. 56) Please provide your contact information below if you are interested in participating in a follow-up interview. Name: address: Telephone number: Congratulations! You have reached the end of the SAGE survey. Thank you for completing it. Please click the "Submit Survey" button below to submit your answers. At that point you may no longer view or edit your survey submission. The next page will open the SAGE website. You can periodically check this site for progress on the SAGE research project and, ultimately, the findings and report based on the survey and interview results. 161

174 Appendix D: Interview Guide for Qualitative Case Studies 1. Please describe in detail the nature of your study abroad experience(s). What were the highlights? What were the low lights? What aspect(s) of the experience had the most impact on you? How did you study abroad relate to the rest of your undergraduate experience? 2. Could you please talk about how your study abroad experiences may have affected your career path and the kinds of jobs you have had and what you are doing now? 3. How would you describe your current value system and basic beliefs? What things are most important to you? Give concrete examples of current or past activities and engagements which reflect major elements of your belief system. How has your current life style and belief system been influenced (if at all) by your prior study abroad experience(s)? 4. If you have children, what is your view on their studying abroad? 5. If you were to do it all over, is there anything which you would have done differently in terms of your study abroad experience(s)? 6. Could you give us some examples of what you consider to have been your most creative contributions (in any arena) in your life thus far? 7. Also could you describe an area in which you think you have made a real difference in the lives of others. If you were asked to make recommendations to colleges and universities about their study abroad programs, what would be your major suggestions? 9. How do you see the importance of study abroad today, compared to the time when you were a student? 10. What international travel (for study, work, service, or leisure) has been the most valuable and rewarding for you? Please elaborate and explain. 11. Do you think you have more than one operating culture? If so, please explain and elaborate. 162

175 12. How would rate yourself in terms of cultural competence and global literacy? What are your strongest and weakest points? How would you compare yourself to your peers at work and in your community? 163

176 Appendix E: Technical Notes: Missing Values Profiling study abroad participants who are missing on Global Engagement Indices greater than 10% From the study abroad group, those who were missing greater than 10% on Global Engagement Indices were examined to check whether their being missing was related to other variables. Table 58 shows that those who were missing on Knowledge Production had more males than the entire dataset of study abroad group (37.9% > 32.8%), but this difference was small. Table 58. Means and standard deviations of explanatory variables for those missing on Global Engagement Indices greater than 10%: Duration, Destination Index, Depth Index, age, SES, and gender Duration Destination Index Depth Index Age SES Gender M SD M SD M SD M SD M SD F M Entire SA dataset % 32.8% GE1 PH Donation % 31.4% GE3 CE Int l Pol % 33.8% KP-GE % 38.2% *M indicates mean, and SD indicates standard deviation. F indicates female, and M indicates male. However, as shown in Table 59, consistently those who were missing on Knowledge Production were 5% higher in having pursued an advanced degree as well as an internationally-oriented degree than overall representation (65.7 > 60.4), and they were also 7% higher in having an internationally-oriented career. This may indicate that those who went to graduate school and pursued an internationally-oriented degree did not answer a survey item on Knowledge Production as they were not productive in producing knowledge and felt embarrassed about it. In other words, their being missing may have been affected by social desirability. This may have led to the underestimation of those who did not do knowledge production as they did not check no to the question. However, it should be noted they may not have answered due to their lack of knowledge production; therefore, it does not affect the results of this study, which counts those who did knowledge production only. Similarly, ethnicity was also cross-checked, but differences between those who were missing on three Global Engagement Indices and the entire study abroad dataset were minimal. 164

177 Table 59 Means and standard deviations of education and career related variables for those missing on Global Engagement Indices greater than 10%: Pursued an advanced degree, an internationally-oriented degree, and career is internationally-oriented Graduate school Internationally-oriented degree Internationally-oriented career Entire SA dataset GE1 PH Donation GE3 CE Int l Pol KP-GE Note. All numbers are those who answered yes to the questions, and they are in %. Profiling comparison group participants who are missing on Global Engagement survey items greater than 8% From the non-study abroad comparison group, those who were missing greater than 8% on Global Engagement related survey items were examined to check whether this was related to other variables. Table 60 shows that those who are missing global engagement survey items in the table are generally six years older than the average of the entire comparison group. They were also 5% higher in pursuing an advanced degree at graduate and professional schools than overall sample. This may indicate that those who went to graduate school could have felt embarrassed about their passive and less active involvement in civic engagement. Similarly to the study abroad group, this may reflect social desirability. Table 60 Means and standard deviations of variables for those missing on Global Engagement survey items greater than 8%: Age, SES, gender, and education, career related variables Age SES Gender Graduate school Internati onally oriented degree Internat ionallyoriente d career M SD M SD F M Entire SA dataset % 55.5% 65.2% 6.8% 19.3% Civic Engagement (Domestic): % 165

178 Leadership role Civic Engagement (Int l): Formal talks or demonstrations Civic Engagement (Int l): Wrote letter(s) to the editor Civic Engagement (Int l): Voted in an election Civic Engagement (Int l): Used the internet to raise awareness about social and political issues Civic Engagement (Int l): Contacted or visited a public official Taken together, profiling those who are missing on Global Engagement Indices or survey items from the study group and the comparison group, respectively, reveal that social desirability may have been related to the missing data. However, the SAGE survey was constructed to represent behavioral facts, and is not an attitudinal survey. Therefore, there was limitation in addressing the issue of social desirability in the survey. Nevertheless, in constructing a survey, several preemptive methods were used to reduce social desirability. They include using branching questions so that those who have not done knowledge production or have not been a social entrepreneur can be directed to the next parts of questions, instead of answering sub-questions for knowledge production and social entrepreneurship. The SAGE research team also tried to make statements as neutral as possible. In addition, multiple rounds of focus groups in building a survey and its pilot study were performed, which could have helped to address the issue of social desirability prior to its administration as a main study. Moreover, it needs to be considered that the SAGE survey was a rather long one and there can be a fatigue factor. 166

179 Appendix F: Confirmatory Factor Analyses: Global Engagement, Depth Index, and Destination Index As mentioned in VIII. H. Regression and Path Analyses, confirmatory factor analyses were conducted for explanatory variables, Depth and Destination Indices, separately. In addition, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was also performed to examine whether nine Global Engagement Indices and variables, including Global Engagement- Knowledge Production and Social Entrepreneurship have an underlying latent variable. Various models were constructed for the composition of variables for latent variables for each CFA model of the Depth Index, the Destination Index, and Global Engagement Indices and variables. However, the results of all tested CFA models showed that the models for the Depth Index and Global Engagement Indices and variables had poor model fit, and the model for the Destination Index was not identified in the beginning; therefore Depth Index, the Destination Index, and Global Engagement Indices and variables are regarded not to have latent variables. Some examples of models tested are illustrated below. e1 e2 GE 1 e3 GE 2 e4 GE 3 e5 GE 4 GE 5 GE e6 GE 6 e7 GE 7 e8 KP e9 SE Figure 12. Example of a confirmatory factor analysis for the Global Engagement Construct 167

180 Multiple SA Genre e1 Multiple Destinations e2 F1 Number of Times SA e3 F2 Work, Internship, Research, Service Learning Non-Eng Speaking Destination e4 e5 Non-traditional Destination e6 Figure 13. Example of a confirmatory factor analysis for the Depth Index 168

181 Appendix G: Copy of Paper Published in Intercultural Education 169

182 170

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187 Appendix H: Paper Presented at the American Society for the Study of Higher Education (ASHE) The long-term impact of the undergraduate study abroad experience: Implications for higher education Jae-Eun Jon and Gerald W. Fry University of Minnesota I. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The purpose of this research is to investigate the ways in which participants in U.S. higher education study abroad programs have become globally engaged during their lives since their overseas sojourns, and the degree to which they attribute these contributions to their having studied abroad. This research employs a two-phase mixed methods design, involving 6,391 former study abroad participants (spanning a 50 year time period) from 22 colleges, universities, and education abroad providers throughout the United States. Global engagement, as conceptualized by the Study Abroad for Global Engagement (SAGE) project 4, is expressed by civic commitments in domestic and international arenas; knowledge production of print, artistic, online, and digital media; philanthropy in terms of volunteer time and monetary donations; social entrepreneurship, meaning involvement in organizations whose 4 To enable us to implement this study a grant of $500,000 was awarded by the U.S. Department of Education, Title VI International Research Program

188 purpose and/or profits are to benefit the community, and the practice of voluntary simplicity 5 in one s lifestyle. As study abroad continues to gain popularity throughout much of the world, it is time for a major study to assess the long term impact of this kind of program. Colleges and universities in the U.S. invest heavily in study abroad as a major element in their efforts to internationalize their campuses. In the academic year , there was a record number of U.S. students studying abroad, 241,791, up 8.2% from the previous year and up 143% from the levels ten years earlier (Institute for International Education, 2008). However, the literature on outcomes of study abroad has had an overwhelming focus on immediate and short-term outcomes. In this realm, there has been important recent work on the impact of study abroad on college student intellectual development (McKeown, 2009) and its impact on the acquisition of sociolinguistic competence (Regan, Howard, & Lemée, 2009). Even the literature pertaining to intermediate or long-term outcomes has focused primarily on only one outcome: job history and trajectory (Abrams, 1979; Alred & Byram, 2002; American Institute for Foreign Study, 1988; Browne, 2005; Burn, 1982; Carlson, Burn, et al., 1990; McMillan & Opem, 2004; Starr, 1994; Whalen, 2001). A handful of studies which have undertaken a long-term analysis of study abroad participants suggest long-term impact such as increase in educational attainment, general attitudinal outcomes related to global perspective and personal growth (Akande & Slawson, 2000; Carlson, et al., 1990; Dukes et al., 1994; Dwyer & Peters; 2004; McMillan & Opem 2004). However, they have limitations in the small size of sample and, as Akande & Slawson (2000, p. 8) call for a larger scale, more comprehensive 5 Voluntary simplicity in this research is defined as the effort to lead a more modest, simple life style. Examples include riding a bike to work, taking a job that pays less but contributes more to the common good, or being motivated to use recycled products and to practice active recycling. 176

189 survey based on a more representative sample of all study abroad students. Reflective of the growing interest in the global engagement aspects of study abroad is the new anthology edited by Lewin (2009). The SAGE project is designed to build on the existing body of knowledge regarding personal and professional impact of study abroad and to expand upon it by assessing global engagement contributions. For example, SAGE was inspired by the breakthrough study, The Shape of the River (Bowen & Bok, 1998), a compelling account of the long-term effects of affirmative action policies on American higher education and society. The researchers contacted selected beneficiaries of affirmative action American people of color who were granted admission to elite U.S. higher education institutions to inquire about their life paths after college graduation. The SAGE project has a similar design for study abroad alumni. Given these research considerations, this study addresses the overarching research question: What is the near-term (1-5 years post study abroad) and long-term (6+ years post study abroad) impact of study abroad on alumni s global engagement contributions and professional development, as perceived by the alumni themselves and as assessed by external measures? II. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORKS The theoretical framework for this study is social capital theory. Social capital is the network of relationships that are built within and between communities that serve as resources for the members of those communities (Coleman, 1988; Coleman, 1994; Putnam, 2000). As opposed to 177

190 rational choice theory which purports that members make choices solely for individual gain, social capital theory defends that members make choices primarily to benefit their community. This research project, therefore, aims to illuminate the social capital networks of global engagement that study abroad alumni create as they make commitments and sacrifices for the common good in terms of civic engagements, philanthropy, knowledge production, social entrepreneurship, and voluntary simplicity. III. METHODS and DATA Mixed Methods Design: Sequential Explanatory The research design for this study is a sequential mixed methods design (Creswell, 2009), comprised of a single, cross-sectional, online survey instrument administered to a large sample followed by a series of individual interviews with randomly selected survey respondents. This combination of methods aims to yield a baseline dataset of study abroad alumni and their impact on society post graduation as well as informative insights from selected participants. The methodology in this study also employed a retrospective tracer study, an approach developed by Fry and Paige (2001). This methodology is inspired by Pang s tracer studies of alumni of Singapore education institutions (Pang & Leong, 1976; Pang & Seah, 1976) and Bowen and Bok s assessment of the long-term effects of affirmative action on university graduates of color in the United States (1998). 178

191 Sample The study population consisted of 24,019 alumni who had studied abroad as undergraduates from the twenty-two partner institutions between 1960 and All contact was made by with the alumni from their alma mater; 2,450 s were returned and a final population totaled 21,569. We received 6,391 responses at a 29.6 percent response rate. Partner institutions were recruited through announcements submitted to two listservs known to have wide membership across the education abroad field: the Forum on Education Abroad listserv and the SECUSS-L listserv. A total of 22 institutions participated in this study in the following categories 6 (see Table 1): Doctoral-granting (9), Masters-granting (4), Bachelorsgranting (7), and Education Abroad Provider (2). All partners were selected based on two criteria: the number of alumni they could contact by and the ability to survey alumni at least as far back as 1985 and preferably to The partners were the primary contact with the study abroad alumni. Table 1. SAGE partner institutions and type Type Doctoral-granting (9) Institution Carnegie Mellon University Dartmouth College Indiana University Tulane University University of California, Davis 6 classification. Except education abroad providers, all institutions are categorized based on their Carnegie 179

192 University of California, San Diego University of Colorado, Boulder University of Minnesota, Twin Cities Worcester Polytechnic Institute Masters-granting (4) Arcadia University James Madison University Santa Clara University University of Wisconsin, Eau Claire Bachelors-granting (7) Austin College Beloit College Carleton College Kalamazoo College Middlebury College Saint Norbert College Saint Olaf College Education Abroad Provider (2) Institute for Shipboard Education (Semester-at-Sea) School for International Training/World Learning Instruments 180

193 For the purpose of this study, a new instrument was developed, the Global Engagement Survey (Paige, Fry, Stallman, Horn & Josić, 2007), to examine individuals undergraduate education abroad experiences and their subsequent participation in global engagement activities. In developing this survey, the research team incorporated literature and previous instruments that pertain to the independent and dependent variables. It also involved two focus groups with researchers and professionals selected for their experience in and knowledge about education abroad, as well as a pilot test. The conceptual model of global engagement developed for this study included five principal dimensions: civic engagement, knowledge production, philanthropy, social entrepreneurship, and voluntary simplicity. In addition, the survey looked at two secondary outcomes: future education and occupation experiences, as well as a set of five demographic variables (gender, age, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, and prior intercultural/international experience) and four study abroad program specific variables (program genre, location, duration and U.S. institutional classification). 181

194 Figure 1. Original conceptual model of global engagement Interview Guide Following completion of the quantitative portion of this study, qualitative interviews were conducted, guided by a sequential mixed methods design (Creswell, 2009). The purpose of the interviews was to explore the global engagement dimensions in greater depth, with a particular focus on the nature of their later global commitments and what meaning it had for them. The interview also sought to understand in greater detail the link between education abroad and global engagement. 182

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