1 Risk Assessment and Management Allen L. Burgenson Manager, Regulatory Affairs Lonza Walkersville Inc.
2 Standard Disclaimer Standard Disclaimer: This presentation is the opinion of the presenter, and does not necessarily represent the opinions or practices of Lonza Inc. or its subsidiaries.
3 Overview Concepts Definitions Specific Applications
4 What is Risk
5 Risk and Consequences
6 Definitions Hazard: The potential source of harm (ISO/IEC Guide 51) Risk: The combination of the probability of occurrence of harm, and the severity of that harm (ISO/IEC Guide 51) Quality: The degree to which a set of inherent properties of a product, system, or process fulfills requirements. (ICH Q9)
7 Definitions Risk Acceptence: The decision to accept risk (ISO Guide 73) Risk Analysis: The estimation of the risk associated with the identified hazards (ICH Q9) Risk Assessment: A systematic process of organizing information to support a risk decision to be made within a risk management process. It consists of the identification of the hazards, and the analysis and evaluation of risks associated with the exposure to these hazards (ICH O9)
8 Definitions Risk Communication: The sharing of information about risk and risk management between the decision maker and the stakeholder Risk evaluation: The comparison of the estimated risk to given risk criteria using a quantitative or qualitative scale to determine the significance of the risk Risk identification: The systematic use of informaton to identify potential sources of harm (hazards) referring to the risk question or problem description.
9 Definitions Risk management: The systematic application of quality management policies, procedures and practices to the tasks of assessing, controlling, communicating, and reviewing risk. Risk reduction: Actions taken to lessen the probability of occurrence of harm and the severity of that harm. Risk review: Review or monitoring of output/results of the risk management process considering (if appropriate) new knowledge and experience about the risk.
10 Definitions Severity: A measure of the possible consequences of a hazard Stakeholder: Any individual, group, or organization that can affect, be affected by, or perceive itself to be affected by a risk. Decision makers might also be stakeholders.
11 Hazard A real or potential condition, situation, or agent that could cause immediate or long-term harm to people or an organization; damage or loss of a system, equipment, property, or the environment, or other things of value James L. Vesper Risk Assessment and Risk Management in the Pharmaceutical Industry (2006) PDA/DHI
12 Risk Risk is the possibility that human activities or natural events will lead to consequences that affect what people value. It is a measure of the potential ability to achieve overall program objectives within defined costs, schedule, and performance criteria. Risk has three components: What could go wrong? What is the probability of failing to achieve a particular outcome? What is the impact of failing to achieve a particular outcome?
13 The Risk Management Process System Definition Hazard Identification Risk Estimation Risk Evaluation Risk Control Risk Monitoring and Re-evaluation evaluation Risk Communication
14 The Risk Management Process System, Product, or Process Definition Risk Assessment Risk Analysis System Description Hazard Identification Risk Estimation Risk Management Risk Analysis Tools: - PRA - FMEA - FTA - HAZOPS - HACCP - ETC. Risk Acceptable? YES NO Monitoring and Re-evaluation Control and Mitigation Communication Vesper, 2006
15 Risk Management Process Establish overall structure, goals Establish team Define the scope for the process/product Identify the potential hazards Identify how risk can be expressed and criticality Determine if the risk is acceptable If risk is to be controlled, identify appropriate methods
16 Risk Management Process Re-evaluate evaluate the controlled risk to determine if risk is now acceptable Implement risk control methods Compile records to document activities Monitor the process for effectiveness Actively communicate with stakeholders throughout the process!
17 System Definition What is to be evaluated? What stage of production is being evaluated? Why is this being evaluated? Assemble cross-functional team for assessment
18 Hazard Identification Is there an intrinsic hazard? Are there multiple hazards? Are the hazards immediately detectable, or are they long-term? Does the hazard trigger a chain reaction of events? Who or what do the hazards effect?
19 Risk Estimation What is the probability that the risk is expressed? Qualitative Semi-quantitative Quantitative What is the impact of the resulting effects? Local effects End effects
20 Risk Evaluation Is the risk acceptable? Do the risks need to be mitigated or controlled? ALARA As Low As Reasonably Achievable ALARP As low As Reasonably Practicable
21 Risk Control How can the risk be controlled? Substitution Uncoupling Process simplification Isolation Elimination Changing conditions Providing more information
22 Risk Control How can the risk be controlled? Decreasing the frequency of an event happening Decreasing the consequences Duplicating assets Changing the source Implementing standard procedures Engineering controls Training and preparedness
23 Risk Monitoring and Re-evaluation evaluation Collect data on the process Have any unpredicted risks appeared? Risk environment changes Company expectations Regulatory environment Societal expectations
24 Risk Communication Effective communication should take place throughout the entire risk management process. Include ALL stakeholders!
25 Risk Assessment Tools FMEA and FMECA Fault Tree Analysis Event Tree Analysis Hazard Operability Studies HACCP Preliminary Risk Analysis etc.
26 FMEA and FMECA Failure Mode Effects Analysis Failure Mode Effects & Criticality Analysis Adds criticality analysis to FMEA Structured inductive tools to identify known or potential failure modes
27 FMEA and FMECA Benefits: Used to examine high-level systems or small components Scalable Quantitative or semi-quantitative Limitations Each event is a separate occurrence Does not show interactions
28 FMEA and FMECA 1. Define what is being analyzed 2. Identify the potential failure modes 3. Identify the effects of each failure mode 4. Rate each effect for: Probability of occurrence Severity Detectability Calculate Risk Priority Number RPN = probability x severity x detectability*
29 FMEA and FMECA 5. Prioritize the effects based on RPN and determine risk acceptability 6. If risk acceptable, continue monitoring 7. If risk must be modified or eliminated, consider appropriate control or mitigation strategies 8. Prepare report and retain documentation
30 The PROBABILITY of Occurrence Probability Rating Amount of Data significant data on the same activity significant data on similar activities limited data on similar activities significant data on similar activities limited data on similar activities significant data on dissimilar activities limited data on dissimilar activities no prior data on similar activities limited prior data on similar activities significant data on similar activities Probability of Occurrence of Adverse Event virtually no likelihood very low likelihood low likelihood fair likelihood fair likelihood fair likelihood good likelihood good likelihood significant likelihood near certain
31 IMPACT OF RISK ON THE PERFORMANCE OF THE PRODUCT OR SERVICE Impact Rating Product or Service Quality Impact Process Changes no measurable impact some negative impact some negative impact impact negatively impact negatively significant, negative impact significant, negative impact significant, negative impact critically negative impact critically negative impact none remains well within acceptable tolerances remains within acceptable tolerances requires very minor changes in production requires modest changes in production requires work-arounds to meet acceptable tolerances extensive work-arounds may be necessary extensive work-arounds are necessary even the work-arounds present significant risk there is no alternative or solution
32 Impact and Probability The Severity Index Severity P r o b a b I l I t y Highest Impact of the Risk Event
33 Risk Level Definition High 60 & above Because concerted and continual emphasis and coordination may not be sufficient to overcome major difficulties, these events must be placed in the program and fully funded. They are likely to cause significant disruption in the schedule, increase in cost (relative to the total production cost of the product), and/or degradation of technical performance. Medium Special emphasis and close coordination will be required to mitigate this risk. Should this risk occur significant disruption of schedule, increase in cost (relative to the production cost of the product) and/or degradation of technical performance is likely. Low Below 20 Normal emphasis and close coordination should be sufficient to mitigate major difficulties. However, should this risk occur, there is potential for disruption of schedule, increase in cost (relative to the production cost of the product), and/or degradation of technical performance. Fund at the risk-adjusted value.
34 Risk in Project Management When everything is a priority, nothing is a priority!
35 The PROBABILITY of Occurrence Probability Rating Amount of Data significant data on the same activity significant data on similar activities limited data on similar activities significant data on similar activities limited data on similar activities significant data on dissimilar activities limited data on dissimilar activities no prior data on similar activities limited prior data on similar activities significant data on similar activities Probability of Occurrence of Adverse Event virtually no likelihood very low likelihood low likelihood fair likelihood fair likelihood fair likelihood good likelihood good likelihood significant likelihood near certain
36 IMPACT ON THE ACTIVITY SCHEDULE SHOULD A RISK EVENT OCCUR 1. A risk event occurs, and has a small, immeasurable impact on the activity under assessment. 2. A risk event occurs, and the time to complete the activity under assessment has been extended by 1 month. 3. A risk event occurs, extending the activity schedule by 2 to 3 months. 4. A risk event occurs, extending the activity schedule by 3 to 6 months. 5. A risk event occurs and extends the activity schedule by 6 to 9 months. 6. A risk event occurs and extends the activity schedule by 9 to 12 months. 7. A risk event occurs and extends the activity schedule by 12 to 18 months. 8. A risk event occurs and extends the activity schedule by 18 to 24 months. 9. A risk event occurs and delays the activity schedule by more than two years. 10. A risk event occurs and it stops the program!
37 Risk Effects on Timelines Project "A" Timelines Optomistic 1 Realistic Pessimistic
38 HACCP Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points Originally established for use in the food industry A system of hazard control pioneered by the Pillsbury Co. Now accepted internationally as a system of food risk assessment. Can easily be adapted to other industries
39 HACCP Preliminary Activities 1. Assemble the HACCP team 2. Describe the product and its distribution 3. Describe the intended use and consumers of the product 4. Develop a process flow diagram 5. Verify the flow diagram
40 HACCP Principles 1. Conduct a Hazard Analysis 2. Identify the Critical Control Points in the Process 3. Establish critical limits associated with each identified control point 4. Establish CCP monitoring requirements
41 HACCP Principles 5. Establish corrective action when deviation occurs 6. Establish effective recordkeeping to document HACCP system 7. Establish procedures to verify HACCP system is working 8. Establish procedures to verify HACCP system is working
42 Conduct a Hazard Analysis Team uses the process flow diagram to identify any risks that may occur at a given process step. Assess the risks for probability of occurrence and impact Assess potential preventative measures
43 Identify the Critical Control Points in the Process A critical Control Point is a step or procedure that can be applied, and a food hazard prevented, eliminated, or reduced to an acceptable level. Example: a specified heat process, at a given time and temperature to destroy a specified microbial pathogen, is a CCP.
44 Establish Critical Limits Associated With Each Identified Control Point A critical limit is defined as a criterion that must be met for each preventative measure associated with a CCP. Each CCP may have one or more preventative measures for the CCP
45 Establish CCP Monitoring Requirements Monitoring is a planned sequence of observations to assess if a CCP is under control, and produce an accurate record. If monitoring shows the process to begin to lose control, the process can be modified to bring it into control.
46 Establish Corrective Action When Develop a plan to: Deviation Occurs Dispose of non-compliant product fix or correct the cause of the deviation maintain records documenting the corrective actions The data must demonstrate that the CCP can be brought into control
47 Establish Effective Recordkeeping To Document HACCP System The HACCP records should: List the HACCP team and responsibilities Describe the product and intended use Contain a flow diagram indicating the CCPs Identify hazards associated with each CCP and preventative measures Critical limits Describe the monitoring system Describe corrective action plans Describe recordkeeping procedures Describe procedures for verification of HACCP system
48 HACCP Flowchart
49 Risk and Consequences
50 Risk and Consequences "Red on yellow, kill a fellow. Red on black, won't hurt Jack."
51 For Additional Information Vesper, James Risk Assessment and Risk Management in the Pharmaceutical Industry Clear and Simple PDA/DHI ICH Q9 Quality Risk Management (2006) U.S. Food & Drug Administration. HACCP: Establishing Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point Programs (1993) Food Processors Institute ISO/IEC Guide 73:2002 Risk Management Vocabulary- Guidelines for use in standards Stamatis, D.H. Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (1995) ASQ Quality Press
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