1 Final Report Acknowledgements 1 ICEM - The International Centre for Environmental Management Department of Water Resources Management, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment December 2007 DAY/NHUE RIVER BASIN POLLUTION SOURCES STUDY Improving Water Quality in the Day/Nhue River Basin, Vietnam: Capacity Building and Pollution Sources Inventory
2 Acknowledgements 2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This Study for Improving Water Quality in the Day River Basin - Capacity Building and Pollution Sources Inventory was undertaken through the DWRM Red River Basin Sector Project: Water Resources Management, ADB/MARD/MONRE Project 3892 VIE. The study was overseen and guided by Nguyen Thai Lai - Director of the Department of Water Resources Management, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, and National Project Director. Dave Hebblethwaite, Senior Technical Advisor to the Project and Trinh Thi Thanh, Senior Project Expert played significant roles in initiating the study and throughout its implementation with technical contributions and facilitation. The DWRM study team members were Phan Mai Linh, Trinh Xuan Quang, Nguyen Viet Hong and Vu Hoai Thu of the Water Quality Division, Phan Que Nga Water Resources Investigation Division, Bui Duy Tung Centre of Water Resources Assessment Technology, Truong Mai Hoa Surface Water Division, Do Thi Bich Ngoc Water Law Division and Giang Thanh Binh of the Water Law Division. This study report was prepared by ICEM - the International Centre for Environmental Management. The ICEM technical team consisted of Craig Meisner - Team Leader, Jeremy Carew-Reid, Do Thi Nham, Tran Quang Lam, Ben Cole, Le Thi Hong Anh, Jeffery Spickett, Dean Bertolatti, Bruce Dunn, Nguyen Thu Ha, Nguyen Thi Kim Dung and Ho Sy Hiep.
3 Contents 3 CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS... 2 CONTENTS... 3 ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS... 6 SUMMARY INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND TO OVERALL PROJECT AMBIENT WATER QUALITY STUDY CONTEXT GOALS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY STRUCTURE AND APPROACH OF THE STUDY THE OVERALL DESIGN OF THE STUDY THE TEAM APPROACH THE CAPACITY BUILDING APPROACH AN AREA-BASED POLLUTION IDENTIFICATION TOOL DESCRIPTION OF THE DAY/NHUE RIVER SUB-BASIN CLIMATIC AND HYDROLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND INSTITUTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS Demographic and settlement patterns Economic sectors in the sub-basin Administrative arrangements for water quality management MANAGEMENT ARRANGEMENTS FOR WATER SUPPLY AND USE Drainage and irrigation system WATER QUALITY AND POLLUTION MANAGEMENT Water quality monitoring Water pollution sources State of surface water pollution SUMMARY ANNEX 4.1: SIZE OF MAIN DRAINAGE WORKS IN THE DAU-NHUE RIVER BASIN ANNEX 4.2: WATER QUALITY MONITORING POINTS IN THE DAY/NHUE RIVER BASIN ANNEX 4.3: DATA FROM AMBIENT WATER QUALITY SAMPLING IN THE DAY/NHUE RIVER BASIN ANNEX 4.4 WASTEWATER QUALITY IN SELECTED CRAFT VILLAGES AND INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES METHODS, MODELS AND ASSUMPTIONS POLLUTION LOAD MODELS The Industrial Pollution Projection System (IPPS) Methods for assessing industrial pollution hazard The Agricultural Pollution Projection System (APPS) The Domestic Pollution Projection System (DPPS) The Craft-village Pollution Projection System (CVPPS) Summary of the pollution models DISPERSION MODELS AND ASSUMPTIONS Equation for general dispersion for pollutant Classes 1 & Equation for river BOD River coliform count Summary of the dispersion models WATERBORNE POLLUTION AND HEALTH IMPACTS Health impacts and pollution in the Day/Nhue River Basin... 51
4 Contents Waterborne diseases Sensitive sub-populations ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT ISSUE IDENTIFICATION Risk matrix Qualitative measures of likelihood of exposure to waterborne pollutants Qualitative measures of health consequences of waterborne pollutants Risk matrix Identifying significant pollutants ANNEX 5.1: METHODOLOGY FOR IPPS ANNEX 5.2: METHODOLOGICAL REVIEW OF DATA COLLECTION AND ACTIVITIES ON THE GSO ANALYSIS OF CROP SURVEYS POLLUTION LOAD IN THE DAY/NHUE RIVER BASIN CONTRIBUTIONS TO DAY/NHUE RIVER BASIN INDUSTRY RANKING BY HAZARD CLASS AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC POLLUTION CRAFT VILLAGES OVERALL AREAS OF SIGNIFICANCE ANNEX 6.1: POLLUTION LOADS BY SECTOR AND INDUSTRIAL COMPOSITION ANNEX 6.2: MAPS OF POLLUTION ESTIMATES DISPERSION OF POLLUTANTS IN THE DAY/NHUE RIVER BASIN OPPORTUNITIES AND LIMITATIONS ANNEX 7.1: DISPERSION OF BOD5 AND SS BY RIVER SEGMENT AND FUTURE DISPERSION MODELING AMBIENT BOD5 AND SS FOR SELECTED RIVER SEGMENTS PROSPECTS FOR FUTURE POLLUTION DISPERSION MODELING IN THE RIVER BASIN WATER POLLUTION AND PUBLIC HEALTH HAZARD ASSESSMENT Biological pollutants Chemical pollutants Emerging issues in chemical exposure and health effects EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT Drinking water Consumption of vegetables and fruit Consumption of fish and shellfish Soil intake Occupational exposure Recreational exposure Inhalation RISK CHARACTERISATION Biological pollutants Chemical pollutants Uncertainties and limitations THE HEALTH STUDY Introduction Results and discussion Uncertainties and limitations Conclusions ANNEX 8.1 RISK MATRIX OF TOP 30 CHEMICAL POLLUTANTS BY HAZARD RANKING IN THE DAY-NHUE RIVER BASIN ANNEX INTERNATIONAL TREATIES ON HAZARDOUS CHEMICALS ANNEX 8.3 BENEFICIAL USERS AND EXPOSURE PATHWAYS IN THE DAY/NHUE RIVER BASIN...143
5 Acronyms and Abbreviations 5 9 FINAL PRIORITIES & NEXT STEPS SUMMARY OF MAIN FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS RECOMMENDATIONS Areas of interest in terms of estimated pollution load FUTURE EFFORTS FOR DISPERSION MODELING AREAS OF INTEREST RELATING TO POLLUTION AND PUBLIC HEALTH RECOMMENDED NEXT STEPS IN THE BASIN RECOMMENDED NEXT STEPS IN TAKING THE MODELING TO OTHER BASINS REFERENCES
6 Acronyms and Abbreviations 6 ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ACC Aquaculture Certification Council ADB Asian Development Bank APPS Agricultural Pollution Projection System ALEP Amended Law on Environmental Protection (2005) ASEAN Association of South East Asian Nations BAP Best Aquaculture Practices CEA Country Environmental Analysis CEFR Central Economic Focal Region CIDA Canada International Development Agency CIEM Central Institute for Economic Management CP Cleaner Production CPRGS Comprehensive Poverty Reduction and Growth Strategy DANIDA Danish International Development Agency DOE Department of Environment DPPS Domestic Pollution Projection System DONRE Department of Natural Resource and Environment DOST Department of Science and Technology DWRM Department of Water Resources Management EIA Environmental Impact Assessment EFR Economic Focal Region EMS Environmental Management System EPA Environmental Protection Activities EPZ Export Processing Zones GIS Geographic Information System GSO General Statistics Office IEMB Industrial Estate Management Board ICEM International Centre for Environmental Management ICZM Integrated Coastal Zone Management IPM Industrial Pollution Management IPPS Industrial Pollution Projections System LEP Law on Environmental Protection (1993) LL Law on Land (2003) LMR Law on Mineral Resources (2005) LWRM Law on Water Resources Management (1998) MARD Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development MOC Ministry of Construction MOF Ministry of Finance MOFI Ministry of Fisheries MOI Ministry of Industry MONRE Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment MOT Ministry of Transport MPI Ministry of Planning and Investment NEFR Northern Economic Focal Region NGO Non-Governmental Organization NRE 5YP Five Year Plan for Natural Resources and Environment, NRM Natural Resource Management NSEP National Strategy for Environmental Protection, ODA Overseas Development Assistance
7 Acronyms and Abbreviations 7 PAC Pollution Abatement and Control Politburo Political Bureau of the Communist Party of Vietnam PPS Pollution Projection System NGO Non-Government Organisation PPC Provincial People's Committee SEA Strategic Environmental Assessment SEDP Five-Year Socio-Economic Development Plan, SOE State Owned Enterprise SOER State of Environment Report TOR Terms of Reference VEPA Vietnam Environment Protection Agency VNCPC Vietnam Cleaner Production Center VND Vietnamese Dong VNEPF Vietnam Environmental Protection Fund VSIC Vietnam Standard Industrial Classification WB The World Bank
8 Summary 8 SUMMARY Findings on pollution load The estimates derived from each of the pollution models suggest several areas in which to focus attention: At the basin level domestic sources of water pollution are the most significant contributor to estimated BOD5 pollution loads. On the other hand, industrial sources are the largest in terms of Suspended Solid (SS) water pollution loads. At the provincial and district level estimated industrial BOD5, SS and hazardous substance water pollution loads are largely confined to selected districts in Hanoi and Ha Tay (e.g. Hai ba Trung, Phu Xuyen, Dong Da, Tu Liem, Hoan Kiem and Hoang Mai). Among manufacturing sectors the most significant in terms of estimated water pollution load include: Pulp, paper and paperboard (VSIC ) (BOD5, SS) Distilling (VSIC ) (BOD5, SS) Dairy products (VSIC ) (BOD5, SS) Basic iron and steel sector (VSIC ) (SS) Basic chemicals, except fertilizers (VSIC ) (BOD5, SS) Preparation and spinning of textile fibres (VSIC ) (HCS) 1 Fertilizers and nitrogen compounds (VSIC ) (HCS) Sawmilling and planing of wood (VSIC ) (HCS) Agricultural pesticide and fertilizer-related pollution are most intensive in the districts of Ha Tay (Ba Vi, Chuong My, Phu Xuyen, Ung Hoa, Thuong Tin, H. Thanh Oai, My Duc and Phuc Tho) and selected districts in Nam Dinh (Y Yen, Nghia Hung and Hai Hau). Domestic BOD5, SS and solid waste loads are primarily concentrated in the highly populated districts of Hanoi (Hai ba Trung, Dong Da, Ba Dinh, Tu Liem, Hoan Kiem, Thanh Xuan, Thanh Tri, Cau Giay and Tay Ho), with a few exceptions for rural solid waste in Nam Dinh (Hai Hau and Y Yen) and Ha Tay (Chuong My). The water pollution situation in craft-villages is very clear. The results show that focusing resources in the province of Ha Tay would serve to target well over 75% of estimated craftvillage wastewater pollution for each of the selected indicators covered in this study (BOD5, COD, SS, Total N, Total P, Total Fe, Oil and Coliform). Summarizing, estimates at the basin level suggest that domestic sources of BOD5 are the most significant contributor compared to industry and craft village sources and industrial sources are the most significant contributor with respect to suspended solids. At the provincial and district level, very clear synergies exist in giving the provinces of Hanoi and Ha Tay special attention, as districts in these provinces rank consistently in the first or second quartile of estimated water pollution load. Findings relating to public health risk 1 Hazardous Chemicals and Substances listed in Table A5.4.
9 Summary 9 A basin-wide collation of the top 30 chemicals by hazard ranking derived from the PPS model were classified using a risk matrix to classify the chemicals into low, moderate, high and extreme risk to public health. Chemicals identified as posing an extreme risk to human health were ammonium nitrate (solution), formaldehyde, phenol, chloroform, lead, ethylene oxide and mercury Cryptosporidium oocysts are resistant to chlorination and therefore may be capable of passing through the water supply systems that source their intake water from the Day and Nhue River. The risk of exposure to Cryptosporidium is insignificant in households that boil their water prior to consumption Collated health data did not support the hypothesis that proximity to the Day and Nhue River was associated with higher incidence rates of waterborne illnesses in the surrounding populations Further research is required to determine the health impact of exposure to biological and chemical pollutants in the Day and Nhue River upon sensitive sub-populations including young children, the elderly and people with impaired immune systems
10 Introduction 10 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUND TO OVERALL PROJECT The water resources management studies carried out by Project TA 3892-VIE for the Cau and Day/Nhue River Sub-basins found pollution loads from many sources, some of which were well above national standards and negatively impacting local economies and the health of affected communities. 2 The studies of both rivers called for a comprehensive inventory of pollution sources so that priorities can be set for taking quick action to manage the most important sources while adopting a more systematic and long term approach to controlling others. This study of pollution load, disbursement and links with public health in the Day/Nhue River Subbasin is to help in identifying the most important sources and areas requiring urgent management attention. Government policy requires all wastewater discharges greater than 10m 3 /day to be licensed. Yet, there has been no formal determination of the timing, process and priorities to meet this requirement. Limited resources and capacity in the DARDs, DoNREs and central Departments involved in managing and licensing discharges requires a realistic and staged approach that maximises efficiencies and strengthens capacity. Effective licensing (e.g. licensing that leads to cost-effective environmental improvement) will be possible only if licensing efforts are prioritised across the thousands of diverse discharges from industrial, agricultural and domestic sectors. This prioritisation should identify the most important discharges requiring immediate attention, and allow effective licensing to be applied to all significant discharges in a systematic and step-by-step way. 1.2 AMBIENT WATER QUALITY STUDY CONTEXT Under the Second Red River Basin Sector Project (SRRBSP), Part A, Subcomponent 3: Ambient Water Quality (AWQ) Management in the Day River Sub-basin, a team was mobilised under Phase 3 to develop and improve the capacity of MoNRE s Department of Water Resources Management (DWRM) and provincial departments to monitor and manage water quality in the Day/Nhue River Sub-basin. The Day River has many serious pollution problems but Project TA resources are limited and Phase 2 found the available AWQ data to be deficient to set priorities for action in a logical, transparent and systematic way. Rapid and replicable methods for assessment and estimation of pollution are needed to support management while more systematic and reliable information gathering is set in place. This AWQ Study undertaken in Phase 3 develops tools and a process for setting priorities for high-risk pollutants and polluting activities on a comprehensive and systematic basis for targeting management responses such as licensing. 2 GOALS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The AWQ study aims to assess likely pollution loads and AWQ from secondary data, such as the number, size and type of industry, as well as from existing primary AWQ data which is available on an anecdotal and case basis. This is the first step in AWQ management. It is an input to the process of setting priorities for pollutants, and for selecting enterprises and polluting activities for pilot licensing with local stakeholders. The AWQ Study provides the information to enable the TA to prioritise efforts to meet its key outcomes. Its purpose is to systematically identify the most serious sources of pollution in the 2 (i) Second Red River Basin Sector Project (TA 3892 VIE), February 2006, Component 1: IWRM in the Cau Basin, Final Report Phase 2, ADB, MARD, MONRE. (ii) Second Red River Basin Sector Project (TA 3892 VIE), October 2005, Component 4: IWRM in the Day/Nhue Sub-Basin, Draft Final Report Phase 2, ADB, MARD, MONRE.
11 Structure and approach of the study 11 Day/Nhue River Sub-basin and link these to associated risks to public health in basin communities. The Study will enable the DWRM to target and tailor its management responses to the most critical water quality issues in the Day/Nhue River Sub-basin and to apply these methods and skills to other seriously polluted river systems in the future. 3 STRUCTURE AND APPROACH OF THE STUDY 3.1 THE OVERALL DESIGN OF THE STUDY The study is designed in three broad components: (i) Estimating Pollution Releases: a) Provide a comprehensive and accurate description of each pollution source (industry, agriculture, domestic and craft-village) and their water pollution loads, using the best practically available data; b) Provide a comprehensive and accurate description of the basin s demographic context, including the distribution of population, households and activities, as well as the various uses and sources of water. (ii) Modelling the Dispersion of Pollutants and Estimating Ambient Water Quality: a) Develop pollutant dispersal models of the major pollutants from each pollution source, considering seasonal river flow rates and estimating the relative contribution of pollution from each sector to overall ambient conditions. (iii) Assessing Environmental Health Risks associated with industrial, agricultural and domestic pollutants: a) Identify the pollutants of most concern to the health of specific communities in the Day/Nhue River Basin, based on the above modelling work and on assessments of hazard, dose response and exposure; b) Construct human health indicators in priority areas of the basin, and assess the association between priority pollutants and available health data in the basin. 3.2 THE TEAM APPROACH The AWQ Team from ICEM the International Centre for Environmental Management comprised of both international and local expertise in environmental modeling, water hydrology and engineering and environmental health and toxicology. This ICEM team worked with experts from DWRM on all stages and activities of the study. The ICEM and DWRM experts were divided into three sub-component groups: (i) socio-economic, (ii) water quality and (iii) health. Each sub-team was responsible for the data collection and ground-truthing of the preliminary results in the field with respect to their sub-component. Cross-cutting issues were discussed and shared where necessary. 3.3 THE CAPACITY BUILDING APPROACH The capacity building approach was used to strengthen the capacity of the DWRM to prioritise water quality management responses based on the most serious risks to human health. The aim was to enhance the ability of the DWRM to provide accurate and practical advice to the regional DoNREs to assist them in prioritizing and targeting their own water quality management responses.
12 Structure and approach of the study 12 The formal and on-the-job training was a critical step towards ensuring that the DWRM possesses the skills to input effectively to the development and completion of TA outputs, including: the preparation of a Framework Plan for AWQ and its management; the establishment of a monitoring framework for AWQ; and the establishment of a wastewater discharge licensing framework targeted at high-risk enterprises and locations. 3.4 AN AREA-BASED POLLUTION IDENTIFICATION TOOL The resulting pollution estimates and models are part of an overall picture of the pollution situation in a specific area. This is called an area-based approach since pollution from various sources can be analyzed in a specific geographic area defined by the investigator. The area can be delimited by physical, economic, or administrative boundaries. In this study the area is physically-defined as the Day/Nhue River Sub-basin and pollution sources include industry, agriculture, domestic and craft-villages. Developing an objective area-based tool such as the one used in this study is useful for policymakers in the decision making process. When combined with other economic and political considerations, the results from this study can act as a key input when defining which pollution sources are relatively more important in terms of their overall contribution to the pollution situation in the River Sub-basin. The study helps focus on the sources and areas that warrant attention for further research or pilot programs such as discharge licensing.
13 Description of the Day/Nhue River Sub-basin 13 4 DESCRIPTION OF THE DAY/NHUE RIVER SUB-BASIN 4.1 CLIMATIC AND HYDROLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS The Day/Nhue sub-basin is located to the south-west of the Red River Delta (Figure 4.1). The sub-basin has a wet-hot monsoon-tropical climate with dry-cold winter and rainy-hot summer. Annual average temperatures range from C. Annual average rainfall is mm, with peak rainfall occurring at Ba Vi Mountain in the upper catchment of the Tich River. Figure 4.1: Location of the Day/Nhue Sub-basin within the Red River Basin The Day/Nhue Sub-basin has eight main tributaries and four main distributaries and has a rather complicated hydrology due to the many diversions and flow alterations (Table 4.1). Over many hundreds of years but especially during the past 80 years the natural systems have been fundamentally altered and controlled by engineering interventions and management regimes. It is a system with an annual flow of approximately 28.8 billion m % or 25.7 billion m 3 coming from the Nam Dinh River, 0.68 billion m 3 (2.4%) from the Hoang Long River at Hung Thi and 1.35 billion m 3 (4.7%) from the Tich and Day Rivers at Ba Tha (Table 4.2). The flood season (from June to October) contributes 80% of the total annual flow, while the dry season (from November to May) contributes only 20% of the annual water volume. The drought season s water source for the Day River is mainly from the Dao River of Nam Dinh Province, which feeds water from the Red River, with an average of m 3 /s during the dry season. The Nhue River also takes water from Red River through the Lien Mac sluice. Table 4.1: River characteristics in the Day/Nhue Sub-basin. River Name Length / Catchment Area Location & Further Details Tributaries
14 Description of the Day/Nhue River Sub-basin 14 Tich River: 91 km / 1,330 km 2 Originates from Tan Vien mountain of Ba Vi mountain range, flows to Northwest- Southeast direction and runs in Day River at Ba Tha. Thanh Ha River 40 km / 271 km 2 Originates from limestone range nearby Kim Boi district of Hoa Binh province, runs in to the plain from Dong Chiem T-junction to Duc Khe, separated by the plain and connected by My Ha canal, runs to Day River. Hoang Long River 12.5 km / 1,550 km 2 Originates from mountain range of South of Hoa Binh town. From downstream of joining of Boi River and Dap and Lang River, runs in to Day River at Gian Khau, Ninh Binh. Nhue River 74 km, 1,070km 2 Takes water from the Red River through Lien Mac sluice, supplies water for Dan Hoai irrigation system, drains waste water for Hanoi city, Ha Dong town, and joins with Day River at Phu Ly town. To Lich river discharges regularly in to Nhue river with average flow m 3 /s, maximum flow 30 m 3 /s. Four tributaries drained from Hanoi: To Lich river: 14.6 km Start from Buoi sewer, run through area of Tu Liem, Thanh Tri districts, Thanh Liet Dam and discharge in to Nhue river. Downstream of To Lich river is received water from Lu, Kim Nguu rivers, collected whole waste water of Hanoi City. Set river: 5.9 km Starts from Ba Trieu sewer at Bay Mau Lake, then discharges to Kim Nguu at Giap Nhi. Kim Nguu river: 11.8 km Start from outlet of Lo Duc sewer, receives Set river water at Giap Nhi and joins with To Lich at Thanh Liet. Lu river: 5.6 km Receives water from Trinh Hoai Duc, Trang sewers (Kham Thien), flow through Trung Tu, Truong Chinh roads and discharges to To Lich river. Distributaries Chau River: 27 / 368km 2 Formerly was a distributary of the Red River at Hung Yen, joined with Day River at Phu Ly town. Nowadays, the river mouth is silted by water taken from the Red River, so the Chau River has now become a drainage river for pumping stations from six zones in Ha Nam, Nam Dinh provinces. Dao River 32 km A distributary of the Red River at Phu Long in the North of Nam Dinh city, joins into the Day River at Doc Bo. Dao River takes water from Red River to Day River and has an average annual volume of about 25.7 billion m 3 ). The discharge is about m 3 /s in dry season. This is the main fresh water source for downstream areas of the Day River. Ninh Co River A distributary of Red River, takes water from Red River at Mom Ro, flows and discharges water to the sea at Lach Giang Estuary. The Ninh Co river is connected to Day River by Quan Lieu Canal and water from Day River is diverted to Ninh Co River through Quan Lieu canal all year round and is strongly affected by tide. Day River 240 km A distributary of the Red River, starts from Hat Mon and runs in a Southwest Northeast direction and discharges to the sea at Day Estuary. The river is narrow and shallow due to siltation. Since 1937 when the Day Dam was completed, Red River water didn t flow to the Day River, unless flood waters were diverted. Thus, the upstream course (from km 0 to Ba Tha about 71 km), the Day River is considered as a dead river. River bed siltation and transgression for cultivation obstructed flood drainage. Day River is feed by tributaries, mainly the Tich, Boi, and Dao tributaries. Table 4.2: Flow characteristics in Day/Nhue River Basin River Name Catchment area Annual Average Annual Average Dry Months Dry flow/ total flow Diverted from
15 Description of the Day/Nhue River Sub-basin 15 Water volume flow rate Water volume Km m 3 m 3 /s 10 9 m 3 % Total Day River (without Ninh Co) Tich+Day at Ba Tha Right tributary Thanh Ha Right tributary Hoang Long at Hung Thi Dao River Red river Ninh Co River Red river Hoang Long Right tributary Nhue River Red River through Lien Mac Intake Chau River 6 20 Red River 4.2 SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND INSTITUTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS DEMOGRAPHIC AND SETTLEMENT PATTERNS The Day/Nhue sub-basin has a total area of 6, km 2 and covers six provinces - in whole or in part - in northern Vietnam. Its total area is (Figure 4.2): 1. Ha Tay, 2. Ha Nam, 3. Nam Dinh, 4. Ninh Binh, 5. Hanoi (four districts of Tu Liem, Thanh Xuan, Thanh tri, Thanh Xuan) and 6. Hoa Binh (four districts of Luong Son, Kim Boi, Yen Son, Lac Thuy), There are 996 precincts and communes in the sub-basin. In 2006, the total population in the subbasin was 7,915,304 persons (2,268,500 in Hanoi, 2,266,771 in Ha Tay, 824,335 in Ha Nam, 1,295,559 in Nam Dinh, 922,582 in Ninh Binh and 337,557 in Hoa Binh). Population density is 1,136 persons/km 2 - four times higher than the average national population density (Figure 4.3). Urban population in the sub-basin is relatively high at 35% of the total population, with 2.8 million urban dwellers in The urban network consists of Hanoi city with 2.1 million persons, Nam Dinh City with 243,000, Ha Dong City and Son Tay Town with 138,000 and 119,000 respectively, Phu Ly Town with 76,000, and Ninh Binh and Tam Diep Towns with 102,000 and 52,500 persons respectively (Figure 4.4). 3 Source: Day/Nhue Environmental Protection-Hanoi, DONRE, 2007 and Day/Nhue River Sub-basin s Integrated Water Resources Planning, 2003, Institute of Water Resource Planning. 4 Estimated from Hung Thi Hydrology Station and annual rainfall. 5 Through Day/Nhue Environmental Protection-Hanoi DONRE, 2007 & Day/Nhue: To Lich River discharges regularly in to Nhue river with average flow m3/s. 6 Chau River is the drainage river for drainage pumping stations six zones in Ha Nam.
16 Description of the Day/Nhue River Sub-basin ECONOMIC SECTORS IN THE SUB-BASIN Economic structures vary considerably among the provinces in the river basin. While agriculture still plays an important role in all provinces except Hanoi (Table 4.3), the contribution of the sector in terms of GDP has been gradually reducing with industry and services growing in importance. Even so, about 80% of the population is employed in the agriculture sector and it remains the most significant source of income for most families. Agricultural crops cover around 87% of the sub-basin, with rice making up 70% of agricultural area. Table 4.3: Sector contributions to GDP per province in 2005 Province Sector (% of GDP) Agriculture Industry Service Hanoi Ha Tay Ha Nam Nam Dinh Ninh Binh Hoa Binh Within the sub-basin, there are a total of 156,269 industry, commerce and service establishments, with 13,837 (9%) in Hanoi, 60,656 or 39% in Ha Tay, 22,699 or 14% in Ha Nam, 36,007 or 23% in Nam Dinh, 21,466 or 14% in Ninh Binh and 1,604 or 1%in Hoa Binh. The main industries in Hanoi are electronics-informatics, mechanics, textile, shoes, food processing and new materials. Cement, construction materials, food processing and textiles are main industries in Ha Nam. In Nam Dinh there are two main industries: textile and food processing. Cement and construction materials are major industrial products in Ninh Binh. Industrial products in Hoa Binh include tea, textile, sugar and cement, however technology development involved in product manufacturing is limited. The number of craft villages in the sub-basin is increasing in all provinces. This is likely due to their promotion by government as an alternative livelihood activity and the relatively high income returns for the sector in comparison. The largest number of craft villages in the sub-basin is in Ha Tay Province. The main products are textile-dyeing, food processing, metal recycling, wood products, construction materials, bamboo and lacquer ware. In general, production technologies used in craft villages are simple and labour inputs seasonal. In recent years, the tourism sector has been developing rapidly and this trend is expected to continue. The tourism sector is particularly important for Ha Tay and Ninh Binh provinces, with principle tourism locations including Hoa Lu, Cuc Phuong National Park and Van Long ADMINISTRATIVE ARRANGEMENTS FOR WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT The administration of the river sub-basin is undertaken by national ministries and the administrative units of the five provinces and Hanoi City. There is an overlapping division of responsibilities between these administrative authorities for water resource management and environmental protection in the basin. This makes coordination between provinces difficult, leading to ineffective basin wide management and regulation of water use and waste water discharges and licensing.
17 Description of the Day/Nhue River Sub-basin 17 Within each province, management is complicated by a lack of coordination and cooperative action between government departments, each of which has overlapping planning and management responsibilities that influence water resources (Table 4.4). Two important innovations to address the difficulties of coordination and integration of management within the sub-basin are the preparation of a Day/Nhue environmental plan and the drafting by the MONRE DWRM of a Decree for integrated river basin planning and management, a responsibility which now rests definitively with MONRE. Table 4.4. Administrative responsibilities of provincial departments Department Roles related to river basin management. Department of Natural Resources and Overall responsibility for water resource management. Environment (DONRE) Land use planning, environmental assessment and monitoring. Planning for mining activities. Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (DARD) Department of Industry (DOI) Department of Construction (DOC) Department of Transport (DOT) Department of Fisheries (DOFi) Department of Health (DOH) Department of Finance (DOF) Department of Planning & Investment (DPI) Development and promotion of agricultural programs and rural development, planning and management of irrigation, rural water supply and sanitation. Management of hydraulic structures. Flood and typhoon protection and management. Industry and trade promotion and development. Planning and management of hydropower. Urban planning, infrastructure planning and construction, management of solid waste. Road planning and development. Planning and construction of water way transport systems. Planning and management of fisheries including aquaculture. Management of drinking water quality. Development of policies for taxes and fees for water resources. Overall responsibility for socio-economic planning coordination A comprehensive plan for environmental protection in the Day/Nhue River Sub-basin is being jointly developed by the provincial people s committee s of the six provinces in the subbasin. The Hanoi DONRE is the main coordinating body for the plan. A standing committee for the Day/Nhue river management will be established to manage and coordinate all activities relating to water resource and environment management in the sub-basin. The Minister of MONRE is proposed as the committee s chair, with the vice-chair being a provincial people s committee chairman, appointed on a two year rotational basis. Committee members will include the chairman of the other five provinces and leaders of Ministry of Planning and Investment, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Ministry of Industry and Trade, Ministry of Science and Technology, Ministry of Construction, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Transportation and the Government Office. Members of the committees will work on a parttime basis and will meet every six months. A permanent office in MONRE will be established to coordinate the committee s activities. It is expected that the plan will be approved by the Prime Minister in Once formally established, the committee will be to promote and coordinate activities to help the people s committees in the river basin to develop policies and regulations for effective use and protection of water resources and the environment. This will include the development and implementation of inter-provincial projects and programs. The legal mandate of the committee will include powers to:
18 Description of the Day/Nhue River Sub-basin Request the provinces to provide information on water resource and the environmental situation as well as activities/programs relating to exploitation and environmental protection. 2. Request the provinces to provide the necessary manpower and resources to carry out projects/programs for overall benefits of all the provinces. 3. Establish a scientific consultation committee to consult, consider and assess projects/programs that exploit water resource and possibly cause pollution to river water. 4. Make formal recommendations on effective exploitation and environmental protection concerning projects which may cause water pollution.
19 Description of the Day/Nhue River Sub-basin 19 Figure 4.2: Administrative boundaries in the Day/Nhue River Sub-basin
20 Description of the Day/Nhue River Sub-basin 20 Figure 4.3: Population Density in the Day/Nhue River Sub-basin (2003)