1 Process Layout Chapter 8 L L M M D D L L M M D D L L M M G G L L A A G G A A G G
2 How Process Layout fits the Operations Management Philosophy Operations As a Competitive Weapon Operations Strategy Project Management Process Strategy Process Analysis Process Performance and Quality Constraint Management Process Layout Lean Systems Supply Chain Strategy Location Inventory Management Forecasting Sales and Operations Planning Resource Planning Scheduling
3 Layout Planning Layout planning is planning that involves decisions about the physical arrangement of economic activity centers needed by a facility s various processes. Layout plans translate the broader decisions about the competitive priorities, process strategy, quality, and capacity of its processes into actual physical arrangements. Economic activity center: Anything that consumes space -- a person or a group of people, a customer reception area, a teller window, a machine, a workstation, a department, an aisle, or a storage room.
4 Layout Planning Questions Before a manager can make decisions regarding physical arrangement, four questions must be addressed. 1. What centers should the layout include? 2. How much space and capacity does each center need? 3. How should each center s space be configured? 4. Where should each center be located?
5 Location Dimensions The location of a center has two dimensions: 1. Relative location: The placement of a center relative to other centers. 2. Absolute location: The particular space that the center occupies within the facility.
6 Absolute Locations vs. Relative Locations Original layout Frozen foods Dry groceries Meats Bread Vegetables Revised layout Meats Vegetables Dry groceries Frozen foods Bread Four of the absolute locations have changed but not the relative locations.
7 Strategic Issues Layout choices can help communicate an organization s product plans and competitive priorities. Altering a layout can affect an organization and how well it meets its competitive priorities in the following ways: 1. Increasing customer satisfaction and sales at a retail store. 2. Facilitating the flow of materials and information. 3. Increasing the efficient utilization of labor and equipment. 4. Reducing hazards to workers. 5. Improving employee morale. 6. Improving communication.
8 Performance Criteria Customer satisfaction Level of capital investment Requirements for materials handling Ease of stockpicking Work environment and atmosphere Ease of equipment maintenance Employee and internal customer attitudes Amount of flexibility needed Customer convenience and levels of sales
9 Types of Layouts Flexible-flow layout: A layout that organizes resources (employees) and equipment by function rather than by service or product. Line-flow layout: A layout in which workstations or departments are arranged in a linear path. Hybrid layout: An arrangement in which some portions of the facility have a flexible-flow and others have a line-flow layout. Fixed-position layout: An arrangement in which service or manufacturing site is fixed in place; employees along with their equipment, come to the site to do their work.
10 A Flexible Flow Layout A job shop has a flexible-flow layout. Grinding Forging Lathes Painting Welding Drills Office Milling machines Foundry
11 Line Flow Layout A production line has a line-flow layout. Station 1 Station 2 Station 3 Station 4
12 Creating Hybrid Layouts Layout flexibility is the property of a facility to remain desirable after significant changes occur or to be easily and inexpensively adopted in response to changes. A One-worker, multiple-machines (OWMM) cell is a one-person cell in which a worker operates several different machines simultaneously to achieve a line flow. A Cell is two or more dissimilar workstations located close together through which a limited number of parts or models are processed with line flows.
13 One Worker, Multiple Machines Machine 2 Machine 1 Machine 3 Materials in Finished goods out Machine 5 Machine 4
14 Group Technology (GT) Group Technology (GT) is an option for achieving line-flow layouts with low-volume processes; this technique creates cells not limited to just one worker and has a unique way of selecting work to be done by the cell. The GT method groups parts or products with similar characteristics into families and sets aside groups of machines for their production.
15 Before Group Technology Jumbled flows in a job shop without GT cells Lathing Milling Drilling L L M M D D L L M M D D Grinding L L M M G G L L A Assembly A G G Receiving and shipping A A G G
16 Applied Group Technology Line flows in a job shop with three GT cells L L M D Cell 1 Cell 2 G A Assembly area A Receiving L M G G Cell 3 L M D Shipping
17 Designing Flexible-Flow Layouts Step 1: Gather information Space requirements by center Available space Closeness factors: which centers need to be located close to one another. Closeness matrix: A table that gives a measure of the relative importance of each pair of centers being located close together. Step 2: Develop a Block plan: A plan that allocates space and indicates placement of each department. Step 3: Design a detailed layout.
18 Gather Information Example 8.1 Office of Budget Management Space Requirements Current Block Plan Department Area Needed (ft 2 ) 1. Administration 3, Social services 2, Institutions 2, Accounting 1, Education 1, Internal audit 3,400 Total 15, ' 100'
19 Closeness 150' 100' Matrix Example 8.1 Office of Budget Management Trips between Departments Department Administration Social services Institutions Accounting 2 5. Education 1 6. Internal audit Departments 1 and 6 have the most interaction. Departments 3 and 5 have the next highest. Departments 2 and 3 have next priority.
20 Proposed 150' 100' Block Plan First put departments 1 and 6 close together Next put departments 3 and 5 close together Then put departments 2 and 3 close together ' '
21 Applying the Weighted- Distance Method Weighted-distance method: A mathematical model used to evaluate flexible-flow layouts based on proximity factors. Euclidean distance is the straight-line distance, or shortest possible path, between two points. Rectilinear distance: The distance between two points with a series of 90 degree turns, as along city blocks.
22 Distance Measures Euclidian Distance d AB = (x( A x B ) 2 + (y( A y B ) 2 Rectilinear Distance d AB = x A x B + y A y B
23 Application 8.1 What is the distance between (20,10) and (80,60)? Euclidian Distance d AB = (20 80) 2 + (10 60) 2 = 78.1 Rectilinear Distance d AB = = 110
24 Example 8.2 Calculating the WD Score Load Distance Analysis Current Plan Proposed Plan Dept Closeness Distance Distance Pair Factor, w d wd Score d wd Score 1, , , , , , , , , , , , ld = 112 ld = 82
25 First Proposed Plan Excel Solver evaluation of solution
26 Second Proposed Plan Excel Solver improved solution
27 Application 8.2
28 Application 8.2
29 Application 8.2
30 Other Decision Support Tools Automated layout design program (ALDEP): A computer software package that constructs a good layout from scratch, adding one department at a time. Computerized relative allocation of facilities technique (CRAFT): A heuristic method that begins with the closeness matrix and an initial block layout, and makes a series of paired exchanges of departments to find a better block plan.
31 Warehouse Layouts Out-and-back Pattern The most basic warehouse layout is the out-and-back pattern. The numbers indicate storage areas for same or similar items. Storage area Dock Aisle Storage area
32 Warehouse Layouts Zone System Zones Zones Control station Click to add title Shipping doors Tractor trailer Feeder lines Feeder lines Overflow Tractor trailer
33 Office Layouts Most formal procedures for designing office layouts try to maximize the proximity of workers whose jobs require frequent interaction. Privacy is another key factor in office design. Four common office layouts: 1. Traditional layouts 2. Office landscaping (cubicles/movable partitions) 3. Activity settings 4. Electronic cottages (Telecommuting)
34 Designing Line-Flow Layouts Line balancing is the assignment of work to stations in a line so as to achieve the desired output rate with the smallest number of workstations. Work elements are the smallest units of work that can be performed independently. Immediate predecessors are work elements that must be done before the next element can begin. Precedence diagram allows one to visualize immediate predecessors better; work elements are denoted by circles, with the time required to perform the work shown below each circle.
35 Line Balancing Example 8.3 Green Grass, Inc., a manufacturer of lawn & garden equipment, is designing an assembly line to produce a new fertilizer spreader, the Big Broadcaster. Using the following information, construct a precedence diagram for the Big Broadcaster.
36 Work Element A B C D E F G H I Time Immediate Description (sec) Predecessor(s) Bolt leg frame to hopper 40 None Insert impeller shaft 30 A Attach axle 50 A Attach agitator 40 B Attach drive wheel 6 B Attach free wheel 25 C Mount lower post 15 C Attach controls 20 D, E Mount nameplate 18 F, G Total 244 A 40 C 50 Line Balancing Green Grass, Inc. B 30 F 25 D 40 G 15 E 6 H 20 I 18
37 Desired Output and Cycle Time Desired output rate, r must be matched to the staffing or production plan. Cycle time, c is the maximum time allowed for work on a unit at each station: 1 c = r
38 Theoretical Minimum Theoretical minimum (TM ) is a benchmark or goal for the smallest number of stations possible, where total time required to assemble each unit (the sum of all work-element standard times) is divided by the cycle time. It must be rounded up Idle time is the total unproductive time for all stations in the assembly of each unit. Efficiency (%) is the ratio of productive time to total time. Balance Delay is the amount by which efficiency falls short of 100%.
39 Output Rate and Cycle Time Example 8.4 Green Grass, Inc. Desired output rate, r = 2400/week Plant operates 40 hours/week r = 2400/40 = 60 units/hour Cycle time, c = 1/60 = 1 minute/unit = 60 seconds/unit 1 r
40 Calculations for Example 8.4 continued Theoretical minimum (TM ) - sum of all work-element standard times divided by the cycle time. TM = 244 seconds/60 seconds = It must be rounded up to 5 stations Cycle time: c = 1/60 = 1 minute/unit = 60 seconds/unit Efficiency (%) - ratio of productive time to total time. Efficiency = [244/5(60)]100 = 81.3% Balance Delay - amount by which efficiency falls short of 100%. ( ) = 18.7%
41 The goal is to cluster the work elements into 5 workstations so that the number of work-stations is minimized, and the cycle time of 60 seconds is not violated. Here we use the trial-and-error method to find a solution, although commercial software packages are also available. c = 60 seconds/unit TM = 5 stations Efficiency = 81.3% S1 A 40 S2 C 50 Green Grass, Inc. Line Balancing Solution B 30 S3 F 25 D 40 E S4 6 G 15 S5 H 20 I 18
42 Application 8.3
43 Application 8.3
44 Application 8.3
45 Application 8.4 Finding a Solution
46 Other Considerations In addition to balancing a line, managers must also consider four other options: 1. Pacing: The movement of product from one station to the next as soon as the cycle time has elapsed. 2. Behavioral factors of workers. 3. Number of models produced: A mixed-model line produces several items belonging to the same family. 4. Cycle times depend on the desired output rate, and efficiency varies considerably with the cycle time selected. Thus exploring a range of cycle times makes sense.
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