Green Mobile Networks: the operator view and 5GrEEn project

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1 GRUPPO TELECOM ITALIA Green Mobile Networks: the operator view and 5GrEEn project TREND PhD School in GREEN NETWORKING Politecnico di Torino, 1-5 July 2013 Dario Sabella Telecom Italia, Wireless Access Innovation dept.

2 Presentation outline Motivation Mobile Energy Efficiency The simple truth about mobile Energy Efficiency Telecom Italia commitment: EARTH project ETSI EE Other «green» activites 5GrEEn project (Toward Green 5G Mobile Networks) Conclusions Dario Sabella 2

3 Motivation Currently, 3% of the world-wide energy is consumed by ICT Which causes about 2% of the world-wide CO2 emissions. Comparable to airplanes 1/4 of CO 2 emissions by cars In few words: Today ICT CO 2 equals global air traffic contribution. and Wireless communication approx. 15% of total ICT sector. Dario Sabella 3

4 Motivation Mobile broadband data usage has experienced dramatic growth more capacity will be needed in 2020! Dario Sabella 4

5 Motivation Telecom Italia is the second largest user of electric power in Italy (2.2 TWh/year) (*).and the price of electricity is continuously increasing! (EU + 10% annually). Impose increasing operational cost for operators. (expected growth: 3x in 7 years) (*) S.Pileri, Energy and Communication: engine of the human progress, INTELEC 2007 keynote, Rome, Sep Dario Sabella 5

6 Motivation ARPU on the other hand is decreasing, and high bit rate services provide lower revenues. Current growth is not sustainable. Source: EARTH D2.1: Economic and Ecological Impact of ICT Economical operation of networks must be ensured. Dario Sabella 6

7 Mobile Energy Efficiency 1/3 Energy Efficiency (EE) express the relationship between consumed power (or energy) and the production of a certain selected KPI of interest. As an example considering KPI = Traffic, an EE metric can be expressed in the following manner: [W/bps] or [J/bit] and in this case it express the consumed watt of power per transferred traffic (in bps), or equivalently the energy per number of transferred bits. Depending on the purpose of the evaluation, also other KPI are possible. Dario Sabella 7

8 Mobile Energy Efficiency 2/3 In mobile communication networks, a large part of the carbon footprint stems from electricity consumption during operation and manufacturing. Breakdown of Carbon Footprint in Mobile Communications (2007) Mobile Devices Devices Manufacturing Manufacturing Mobile Devices Operation Mobile Devices Operation RAN sites manufact. & construction RAN operation sites manufact. & construction Operator activities RAN operation Data centers Operator activities Data centers Most of the today s power consumption comes from the RAN: high number of sites high and not scalable base station consumptions Dario Sabella 8

9 Mobile Energy Efficiency 3/3 Radio access network energy consumption is a considerable portion of the entire energy consumption of the mobile network, both considering already deployed network but also growth forecasts due to the increasing mobile ultrabroadband traffic demand. Areas of potential improvements: at component / node level: Hardware improvements can give in a first stage the most of the gains; in general each new HW generation is typically more energy efficient but will reside unchanged in the network for several years. at system and network level: New functions, network management mechanisms and RRM algorithms, features typically implemented in SW; potentially can be upgraded and introduced in the network over the lifetime of several HW generations. Dario Sabella 9

10 The simple truth about mobile Energy Efficiency Up to now conventional design of Mobile Networks is performed by considering full load (maximization of the capacity of the nodes; performances traditionally evaluated in terms of spectral efficiency). But in practical situations the problem is that: 1. most of the time the network is not loaded 2. in that period Base Stations still consume a lot Source: EARTH D2.3 Energy Efficiency analysis of the reference systems, areas of improvements and target breakdown Dario Sabella 10

11 Mobile Energy Efficiency: Telecom Italia commitment Due to the importance of the topic, Telecom Italia is involved in many activities: EU funded research projects: EARTH project (energy aware radio and networking technologies): an FP7 EU project, partially funded by EC. 5GrEEn project (Towards Green 5G Mobile Networks) ETSI normative (ETSI EE, sub-group EEPS, Eco Environmental Product Standards): TS : «Measurement Method for Energy Efficiency of Wireless Access Network Equipment» Other «green» activities: LTE auction in Italy, DREAM project, power consumption measurements, characterization of network nodes Dario Sabella 11

12 EARTH project Dario Sabella 12

13 EARTH target PST Internet Gateway (PDG, GGSN) Network Server (SGSN, HLR) Base Station Energy Consumption (CO 2 -contribution) Media Server (IMS) Mobile Core Network 10-20% Green Networks Access Network 70-80% reduce by 50% Green Radio Terminals 2-10% Focus on present and future mobile cellular networks (LTE-A, ) Dario Sabella 13

14 Telecom Italia involvement in EARTH project Design of innovative Packet Schedulingalgorithmsin orderto improvethe EE of the system QoS, Packet Scheduling Relay Nodes RelayNodesinvestigatedasa potentialtoolfor improvingee in network deployment Deployment and evolutionof the mobile network together with legacy systems AAS and BF Multi-RAT ETSI, E3F, power model Telecom Italia contributions to reference systems and scenarios, bringing in the views from an operator perspective Evaluation of Active Antennasin conjunctionto Beamformingfrom an EE perspective Test Plant Telecom Italia is WP leader of a workpackage dedicated to proof of concepts and demonstration of selected findings of the EARTH project Dario Sabella 14

15 Technical research in EARTH: our best technical result Design of innovative EE packet scheduler As a first step, the performances of various classical scheduling algorithms taken from the literature have been considered, as a basis for the assessment of further innovative energy aware algorithms. Gain in te rm s of PIN / T [W /M bps ] 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Relative gains up to 60% (for Max C/I algorithm) Number of average users per cell Proportional Fair Thus an MBSFN switching mechanism (based on Max C/I and taking into account fairness and QoS constraints) has been investigated in order to improve the Energy Efficiency atlowload. Energy savings can be achieved by means of the triggering of sleep mechanisms during the data region of MBSFN radio subframes (containing neither cell specific reference symbol (CRS) nor data). Max C/I Tradeoff between fairness and Energy Efficiency (Proportional 1,00 Fair algorithm is a compromise) Jain's fariness index 0,90 0,80 0,70 0,60 0,50 0,40 0,30 0,20 0,10 0,00 5 users 35 users Number of average users in the cell Round Robin Proportional Fair Max C/I EE gains of about 20-30% at low load (sleep mode during MBSFN subframes)

16 Testing activities in EARTH: our Test Plant Some of the innovative solutions developed by EARTH project have been integrated in the framework of WP5 activities, and showed at the Telecom Italia Test Plant. EE enablers Features Network mgmt methods Scheduling solutions in time and frequency: Micro-DTX Bandwidth / Capacity Adaptation Low Loss Antenna Interface Energy Adaptive components: Component Deactivation Operating Point Adjustment Validation Platforms build up and Test Scenarios setup ON-OFF scheme: Switch off-on LTE cellsof RBS

17 EARTH validations in Telecom Italia Test Plant Test Plant in Turin hosted a testbench for the validation of a Network Management algorithm based on a «ON/OFF scheme» implemented in a centralized way in a cluster of cells.

18 ON/OFF schemes basics ON/OFF schemes are well known in literature: M. Aimone Marsan; L. Chiaraviglio; D. Ciullo; M. Meo: Optimal Energy Savings in Cellular Access Networks, First International Workshop on Green Communications (GreenComm'09) (Dresda, Germany) June 2009 The basic concept: Switching ON-OFF a BS (or multiple BSs) when load conditions let, while maintaining the same QoS and QoE in the network Network deployments, calculated for peak traffic Minor quantity of network nodes in use Adjustment of power emitted by each BS

19 Validation in TI Test Plant of the ON/OFF scheme (I) UE1 Setup attenuations FTP Server Traffic generation endpoints UE2 OUT1 RF matrix RS485 SGW PDN-GW OUT2 Data calls are managed here UE3 Test Plant infrastructure Cell A DC power measurement OUT3 IN1 IN2 IN3 Cell B enb BS Power consumption is measured Cell C Computer equipped with the ON/OFF scheme Core Network LTE Capability to switch On/Off the Cell ON/OFF algorithms Data calls are managed here AMOS element manager for: Monitoring of data traffic inside each cell Sending the ON/OFF commands to enb for switching on-off the single cell

20 TREND PhD School in GREEN NETWORKING Politecnico di Torino, 1-5 July 2013 Validation in TI Test Plant of the ON/OFF scheme (II) Shielded box LTE data cards

21 A challenging target EARTH target is to reduce energy consumption of new nodes up to 50%: however this will affect only new nodes! The big challenge is the energy consumption of installed base stations. But if OPEX with new nodes are significantly lower, swapping to new nodes can become attractive Source: EARTH D2.1: Economic and Ecological Impact of ICT Dario Sabella 21

22 Key results from EARTH EU FP7 EARTH project ~75% energy savings vs 2012 state-of-the-art Received the Future Internet Award 2012 https://www.ict-earth.eu P/A [kw/km2] % -57% B: State-of-the-art 2012 H: Hardware solutions D: Discontinuous transmission A: Antenna muting S: Adaptive Sectorization -68% -74% 0 B BH BHD BHDA BHDAS Serie Dario Sabella 22

23 ETSI EE Dario Sabella 23

24 ETSI EE (Environmental Engineering) The Technical Committee EE (chairman B. Gorini, ALU) is responsible for defining the environmental and infrastructure aspects for all telecommunication equipment in different installations. The Environmental activity covers: Environmental conditions on the telecommunication equipment (mechanical, biological and climatic) Active substances (mechanical and chemical) Equipment acoustic noise emission Environmental tests for all telecommunication equipment and facilities, including customer premises. Observation of European environmental legislation, in terms of ecological aspects, and assessing its impact on Telecommunication infrastructure and equipment. Within ETSI EE is active the sub-group EEPS (Eco Environmental Product Standards Group, chairman P. Gemma, Huawei), which deals with aspects of Reduction of energy consumption in telecommunications equipment and related infrastructure. Renewable energy sources for powering telecom/datacom equipment Dario Sabella 24

25 ETSI EE (Environmental Engineering) In ETSI EE-EEPS a specification about Radio Base Stations energy efficiency measurements has been agreed and released (EEPS TS ). In October 2011 a new WI DTREE-EEPS002 was opened to study possible enhancements of TS wrt fading, dynamic GSM, multicarrier HSPA, At the same time another WI was opened (DTREE-EEPS004) about network level energy efficiency, led by Telecom Italia Dario Sabella 25

26 Other «green green» activities Dario Sabella 26

27 Other «green» activities LTE auction in Italy Obtainment of the discount of 3% foreseen by the Italian auction for the LTE license Dream project A modernization project with impacts on the energy efficiency of the mobile network EE measurements Measurements in laboratory Measurements in real network Dario Sabella 27

28 Other «green» activities: LTE auction in Italy Results of the acquisition of LTE frequency (closing date: 29/09/2011) 800 MHz 1800 MHz 2600 MHz 2600 TDD Final value: 1.260M 1.260M 1.120M 305M MHz specific block Dario Sabella 28

29 Other «green» activities: LTE auction in Italy The starting point: Obtainment of the discount of 3% foreseen by the Italian auction for the LTE license for the implementation of energy efficiency measures in the network Due to the overall cost of the LTE spectrum license, i.e M, this aspect has a strong economic impact for Telecom Italia. See web link to the Italian Ministry of Sviluppo Economico: linarevesrionedefinitiva.pdf Dario Sabella 29

30 Other «green» activities: LTE auction in Italy Telecom Italia commitment: Attainment of energy savings in 5 years of: 10 % in infrastructure parts (power systems, cooling, ) 20 % in transmission equipment (specifically radio access network) t A t B time Dario Sabella 30

31 Other «green» activities: the DREAM project Impacts on energy efficiency The modernization of RBS sites is expected to have a relevant impact in terms of energy savings (Telecom Italia internal test activities are still ongoing) upgrade Swapped BTS 2G/3G/LTE RBS multistandard Increased Hardware efficiency Reduced footprint in the site Dario Sabella 31

32 Other «green» activities: EE measurements EE measurements in laboratory A measurement campaign about EE on a RBS 3G took place end 2010 in TI Test Plant, also to support activities in ETSI and EARTH Measurements relevant to evaluate RBS consumption, both at node and at site level, and to assess the importance of dynamic measurements (w UEs) w.r.t. static measurements (w/o UEs) EE measurements in real network Motivation: for a valuable EE assessment RBS need to be in operational state and in (as much as possible) realistic conditions, in order to enable all features running onboard when the RBS is deployed. This method permits also to inglobe in the assessment an RBS implementing possible future features (e.g. studied by EARTH) Dario Sabella 32

33 5GrEEn project Dario Sabella 33

34 5GrEEn project (Toward Green 5G Mobile Networks) 5GrEEn is a project funded by EIT ICT Labs Partners: Telecom Italia (Trento node) KTH (Stockholm node) AALTO University (Helsinki node) Ericsson (Stockholm node) The project team will focus on designing Green 5G Mobile networks, a clean slate solution for environmentally friendly mobile networks of the future for a connected society. Dario Sabella 34

35 5GrEEn project: Challenges/Solutions No green incentive: currently networks are optimized based on nonenergy related objectives Results: <0.4% fluctuation in energy consumption compared to >3.5X fluctuation in traffic, due to 1. Non-scalable equipment 2. Lack of traffic adaptation at node & network level What is the solution: Holistic system approach in all levels of network Hardware design RRM techniques: Adaptation of radio transmission Network deployment: Power consumption modeling + impact of densification Network Management: Traffic adaptive BS activation Dario Sabella 35

36 5GrEEn: the starting point Lessons learned from EARTH project (task 3.4, Future Architecture) Looking further ahead in time and beyond today s existing system standards and typical deployments, there are several promising design options and technology solutions that may enable enhanced energy efficiency in future mobile radio systems. We have found that a revolutionary concept, where the transmissions of data and control information are decoupled from each other (see FIGURE 18), can open the possibilities to more efficient sleep modes by eliminating the high signaling overhead (especially in low load) and provide 85-90% energy saving potential compared to today's systems. Dario Sabella 36

37 Toward Green 5G Mobile Networks: 5GrEEn Activity Architecture Ericsson Telecom Italia KTH AALTO KTH Task 3: Mobility of Researchers Mobility Program Task 2: Standardization in 5Green Standards Booster Task 8: Energy efficiency assessment in 5GrEEn Task 4: Energy efficiency in mobile access with wireless-fiber integration Test Beds, Testing Platforms & Simulation Tools Task 1: A new clean slate system architecture Task 7: Energy and QoE trade-off Task 5: Techno-economic analysis of green wireless access networks Technology Transfer Program Task 6: Sharing and marketing of the results Meetings, Workshops and Conferences

38 5GrEEn Workplan and Goals Traffic adaptive solutions and deployment strategies in 5G. New physical layer signaling and higher layer protocols with minimizing energy consumption. Modeling of the cost structure of wireless access networks, including the backhaul, with particular focus on the energy cost. Optimizing the trade-off between QoE and energy-efficiency in converged mobile access networks Network level energy efficiency assessment to allow operators to apprehend their current status. Dario Sabella 38

39 Conclusions Dario Sabella 39

40 Conclusions Energy efficiency is crucial for a sustainable growth of the mobile network. Telecom Italia is actively involved in EU projects (EARTH, 5GrEEn), in normative (ETSI EE) and in internal «green» activities in order to: analyze all aspects related to the EE assessment evaluate innovative solutions quantify the associated EE gains In the view of an growing network the energy efficiency of new nodes is important. Also a big challenge is the energy consumption of installed base stations: swapping to new nodes can be a key point. The improvement of energy efficiency at every level is crucial for a sustainable growth of the mobile network. Dario Sabella 40

41 The role of ICT in a greener world Opportunity to reduce consumption: buildings automation and networks for lighting, heating, ventilation. Up to 1.68 GtCO 2 e saved. power sensors in grids monitor distribution of power (e.g In India tested with 15 % savings). Potential 2 GtCO 2 e a year saving. transport smart track logistics. In Europe 60% of fleet composed by small companies with less than 6 trucks. Can save 1.52 GtCO 2 e a year. manufacturing smart controls for more efficient motor systems in factory (e.g. China can save 200 MtCO 2 e a year). technological substitutions virtualization and dematerializing goods (CDs, DVDs, book, paper, magazine). 0.5 GtCO2e saved. Source: Smart 2020 report by Global e-sustainability Initiative (GeSI) Dario Sabella 41

42 GRUPPO TELECOM ITALIA Thank you! Dario Sabella TELECOM ITALIA Telecom Italia Lab (TILAB) Wireless Access Innovation

43 BACKUP SLIDES

44 BACKUP: energy efficiency in LTE Radio Base Stations Power consumption models for different kind of nodes (source EARTH). Dario Sabella 44

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