1 The Relationship between Transformational and Transactional Leadership Styles of School Principals and School Culture (The case of Izmir, Turkey) Semiha ÞAHÝN * Abstract This research aimed to determine the relationship between the leadership style of principals and school culture related to the perceptions of primary school principals and teachers. The research used irregular layer sampling method. Principals (5 female and 45 male) and teachers (646 females and 304 males) in 50 primary schools in Izmir filled out the Personal Data Form and the Scales of School Principals Leadership Styles and School Culture. The data were analyzed using mean, standard deviation, correlation coefficients and t-test. The findings can be summarized as follows: Both school principals and teachers perceive that school principals exhibit more transformational style than transactional style. The school principals consider the school culture more positive than the teachers. According to the school principals, there is a positive relationship between the transformational leadership and the dimensions of co-operative culture; educational development and the social-educational culture aspects of the school culture; and the transactional leadership style and the educational development dimension of the school culture. According to the teachers, there is a positive relationship between the transformational leadership and the overall concept and dimensions of the school culture and the transactional leadership with the overall concept, co-operative culture, educational development culture and the dimensions of the social-educational culture. Key Words Transformational Leadership, Transactional Leadership, School Culture. * Correspondence: Assis. Prof. Dr., Dokuz Eylul University, Faculty of Buca Education, Department of Educational Sciences, Buca, 35150, Izmir. Kuram ve Uygulamada Eðitim Bilimleri / Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice 4 (2) Kasým / November Eðitim Danýþmanlýðý ve Araþtýrmalarý Ýletiþim Hizmetleri Tic. Ltd. Þti. (EDAM)
2 388 EDUCATIONAL SCIENSES: THEORY&PRACTICE This research examines the relationship between the transformational and transactional leadership styles of school principals and school culture. Transformational leadership can be defined as increasing the interest of the staff to achieve higher performance and developing and revealing the commitment and the beliefs in the organization (Bass, 1985). Transactional leadership is based on the reciprocal changing of the duty and reward that are controlled by the principal. In this leadership, the sources, human skills, the financial sources, material, and technology are administered and the workers needs are covered (Koppang, 1996). The effects of transformational leadership on job-satisfaction, commitment, effectiveness, organizational learning, improvement, climate, culture, teacher morale, and student achievement in schools are well documented in the literature (Deal, 1995; Griffith, 2004; Hitt & Keats, 1992; Lawrence, 2000; Ross & Gray, 2004; Leithwood & Jantzi 1997; Leithwood, Jantzi, & Steinbach, 1999; Shivers, 1999). Transactional leaders focus on the basic needs of their staff (Bass, 1985; Leithwood et al., 1999; Slater, Goldring, Bolman, Thurston & Crow, 1994) but they do not have a characteristic providing high level motivation, job-satisfaction, and commitment. Moreover, the research focuses on more effective transformational leadership than transactional leadership (Bass, 1990; Ingram, 1997;). It is possible to define the culture of an organization as the belief that organize the thought and behavior patterns by affecting values, politics, expectations, traditions, the unity of perceptions, and sense. Studies indicate a positive relationship between commitment, motivation, job-satisfaction, communication, collaboration, effectiveness, and the organizational performance of staff and organizational culture (Doran, 1996; Jones, 1998; Nnadozie, 1993; Nystrom, 1993; Reames, 1997; Sarwono, 1990). However, according to Bonar (2000), Lock (2001), Lucas (2001), Lucas and Wayne (2003), Marks (2000), Miles (2002), and Sueki (1998), there is a positive relationship between transformational leadership and school culture. However, others found negative relationships between the two (Hall, 1999; Marks, 2000). Thus, the present study aimed to determine the most commonly used leadership styles exhibited by the principals, based on the perceptions of primary school principals and teachers. In addition, it also aimed to determine their perceptions concerning the culture in their schools and the relations between their styles of leadership and school culture. Finally, suggestions to practitioners and researchers are provided in the light of the findings.
3 SAHÝN / The Relationship between the Transformational and Transactional Leadership Styles of School Methods Populations and Sample The research was conducted on 50 school principals and 950 teachers working in 50 primary schools out of a total of 364 primary schools in Izmir in academic year. Irregular layer sampling method, which is suggested when the sample represents the population at varying ratios, is used to form the sample (Baloðlu, 2002). All the participants answered the Personal Data Form and the Scales of School Principals Leadership Styles and School Culture. Instruments The data were collected using the Personal Data Form distributed and the Scales of School Principals Leadership Styles and School Culture developed by the researcher. The first section of the scale consists of demographic information about teachers, principals, and schools. The second section consists of 24 items about transformational leadership and 12 items about transactional leadership. The Scale of Transactional Leadership indicates two dimensions as autocratic leader and status quo leader found by factor analysis. All scales are composed of 5-point Likerttype items. The final section consists of 48 items about school culture. The Scale of School Culture is composed of four dimensions as Co-operative Culture, Educational Development Culture, Social-Educational Culture and Traditional Culture. The reliability of the scales was tested through Cronbach Alpha reliability coefficient and found to be.96 for the Transformational Leadership;.79 for the Transactional Leadership; and.94 for the School Culture. Internal consistency coefficients of the scales were.60 and.83 for the subscales of transactional leadership and.94 to.59 for the subscales of school culture. The data were analyzed using the SPSS. The research was analyzed using means, standard deviations, correlation coefficients, and t-test statistics. Results Both school principals and teachers perceive that school principals exhibit more transformational style than transactional style. The school principals consider the school culture to be more positive than the teachers do. Both school principals and teachers perceive that schools exhibited more high-level co-operative culture, but less low-level social-educational culture. According to the school principals, there is a positive relationship between the transformational leadership style and the dimensions of cooperative culture; educational development culture and the social-educa-
4 390 EDUCATIONAL SCIENSES: THEORY&PRACTICE tional culture aspects of the school culture; and the transactional leadership style and the educational development dimension of the school culture. However, they do not see a relationship between school culture and transactional leadership style with overall concept. According to the teachers, there is a positive relationship between the transformational leadership style and the overall concept; the dimensions of the school culture and the transactional leadership style with the overall concept; cooperative culture and educational development culture and the dimensions of the social-educational culture. Discussion School principals were found to exhibit more transformational leadership style both by school principals and teachers. It was understood that schools change in time. For example, school principals were educated, some schools have implemented the Total Quality Management, and renewals are done as directed by the Europe Union. School principals have high perception regarding school culture. This may stem from their schools perceived positive features. Both school principals and teachers perceive that schools exhibited most high-level co-operative culture. The positive perception of co-operative culture in the schools may be related with Turkish social culture. There is effectiveness of shared behavior culture in Turkey (Çelik, 1999). But, this should be investigated via well designed research studies. According to the results, social-educational activities are neglected in the schools, even in courses designed to foster creativity, sports, and music. According to the school principals perception, there is a positive relationship between the transformational leadership and the school culture. However, there is no relationship between school culture and transactional leadership style with overall concept. But, there are a positive relationship between the transactional leadership style and the educational development dimension of the school culture. Similarly, the teachers view that there is a positive relationship between the transformational leadership, the transactional and the school culture. All findings are consistent with the previous literature.
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On the Importance and Measurement of Pre-Service Teachers' Efficacy to Teach Statistics: Results and Lessons Learned from the Development and Testing of a GAISE- Based Instrument Leigh M. Harrell 1, Rebecca
Freshmen University of California, Berkeley 27% University of California, Los Angeles 27% University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill 37% University of Virginia 38% University of California, San Diego 44%
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The Nationally Certified School Psychologist (NCSP) Credential: Number Granted in the Past Year by Institution and State and Total Active Prepared by Eric Rossen, PhD, NCSP NASP Director of Professional
Medical School Math Requirements and Recommendations All information in this document comes from the 2010-2011 Medical School Admission Requirements book (commonly known as the MSAR). Students should check
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Engineering by the Numbers By Brian L. Yoder, Ph.D. Bachelor s Degrees and Enrollment Engineering bachelor s degrees grew by 6 percent during the past year, reaching a total of 99,173 for 214. This continues
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800 Freestyle Relay University of Southern California Qualifying Standard 6:55.17 University of Georgia Qualifying Standard 6:55.56 University of California, Berkeley Qualifying Standard 6:57.64 University