Rewarding and Disciplinary Approaches Toward Primary and Secondary School Teachers

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1 Rewarding and Disciplinary Approaches Toward Primary and Secondary School Teachers Ruhi SARPKAYA* Abstract The aim of this research is to determine the expectations and perceptions of teachers concerning the rewarding and discipline approaches for the primary and secondary school teachers teachers working at primary and secondary schools of Manisa Province formed the population of research, and 452 of them formed the sample (female 217, male 235). In this research, a Likert type scale that was developed by the researcher, called Rewarding and Disciplinary Approaches toward Primary and Secondary School Teachers was used. Some of the valuable findings of the research are as follow: 1) There is a significant difference between the perceptions of the teachers about the rate of occurrence of the following sub-dimensions: evaluation, rewarding and discipline depending on teaching experience; evaluation, rewarding and discipline depending on the stages of schools where they work; evaluation and rewarding depending on whether they have been rewarded or not (p<.05) 2) There is a significant difference between the perceptions of the teachers about the rate of occurrence of the following sub-dimensions: discipline and evaluation depending on teaching experience; evaluation, rewarding and discipline depending on their major fields of study; rewarding and discipline depending on the types of school they have graduated from; evaluation and discipline depending on their sexes; evaluation, rewarding and discipline depending on the levels of schools where they work (p<.05). 3) Both primary and secondary schoolteachers think that internal rewards are much more valuable than external ones. Key Words Reward, Punishment, Discipline, Teacher. * Correspondence: Dr., Adnan Menderes University Faculty of Education, Department of Primary Education. Kuram ve Uygulamada E itim Bilimleri / Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice 3 (1) May s / May

2 220 EDUCATIONAL SCIENCES: THEORY&PRACTICE Since it is essential for organizations to evaluate to what extent organizational goals and individual ones have been achieved. It is inevitable that organizational managers be engaged in performance assessment in a way. Performance assessment should be the basic method to be used while making decisions about the practices of rewarding & discipline in schools. In terms of tools used for assessment and the stages in the educational system, teacher appraisal shows variation in Turkey. Keeping records about teachers is usually done according to the Regulations of Civil Servant Employment Record. Apart from this, reports of inspectors are also used (Baflar, 1995; Baflaran, 1996a). According to the research done by Özdemir (1995), although appraisal has of vital importance for teachers, they do not know what aspects of them the principals will assess. In the same study it was also determined that principals are influenced by other people and that they tend to assess the teachers according to the attitude teachers display on duty. As could be seen, scientific criteria have not been set for the appraisal done through both register reports and inspector reports and neither the principals nor inspectors have been given professional training and the assessment of teachers have been left open to subjective considerations. From this perspective, performance assessment cannot be expected to be effective. Consequently, the results of such applications overshadow the effectiveness of discipline and rewarding practices. It is clear that activities done to motivate teachers in schools should primarily aim at developing desirable positive attitudes in teachers. Besides, sometimes principals use disciplinary or punishment applications due to the undesirable attitudes of the teachers or their low performance. However, human is the main input and output in schools and when this fact is taken into account, it becomes evident that more rewarding and incentives should be used to make teachers adapt themselves to the objectives of the school and to increase their performance. As it is well known, in most of the cases punishment has destructive effects. For this reason, it is a must that constructive discipline applications rather than the traditional ones should be reinforced. In Turkey the basic approach in regard to disciplinary infractions and punishments as applied to teachers seems to be the one, which has its roots in traditional discipline approaches. It could be clarified

3 SARPKAYA / Rewarding and Disciplinary Approaches Toward Primary and Secondary that behind this attitude there lies the nature of the understanding of human beings of principals. As Kaya (1993a) emphasizes attitudes of principals in Turkey do not even correspond to the basic principles of classical management understanding and principals usually adopt them to the hypotheses of X theory. Because of this, principals do not trust their subordinates and they would like to see and control everything around them. They have more tendencies to use frightening tools such as firing, cutting, cutting off salary, appointing to a less suitable place. In all organizations, including schools, there are essential activities that managers have to maintain such as achieving objectives, sustaining the organizational system, making the organization adapt to its environment and sustaining cultural patterns managers could make use of rewards to increase their employee s success, job satisfaction and morale. By carrying out the activities mentioned above, therefore, managers could maximize the effectiveness and success of the organization. As it could be seen, rewarding employees is important for organizations. Method Population and Sample 1814 teachers working in the schools in the Manisa Province in teaching year formed the population of the study. Of the 1814 teachers, 743 of them were employed in secondary schools and 1071 of them in primary schools. For sampling, proportional element sampling approach was used. To this end, firstly the source groups in the population were taken as two sub-populations (primary-secondary school teachers) and then sampling was done from those two sub-populations. As a result, a total of 452 teachers, 208 of whom were primary and 244 of whom were secondary, formed the sample of the study. Instruments In this study Rewarding and Disciplinary Approaches toward Primary and Secondary School Teachers which was developed by the researcher, was used. Together with the instruction section, which addresses participants, stating the aim, content of the scale, and how they are expected to answer, the scale is formed in 3 parts. In the 3 rd part, 47 situations are given to measure the perception and expectation level of the participants about the approaches toward primary and secondary school teachers. Opposite the each one of the situations two questions are asked

4 222 EDUCATIONAL SCIENCES: THEORY&PRACTICE to determine the perception and expectation level of the teachers about the approaches toward primary and secondary school teachers. The questions, in your opinion how often does the situation given below appear in school?, is asked to determine the participants perception level, and under this questions are given 5 options: always(5), usually(4), sometimes(3), rarely(2), never(1) to find out the expectation level of the participants. However the questions in your opinion how often should the situation given below be in use is given and similarly 5 options: always (5), usually (4), sometimes (3), rarely (2), never (1) are stated. In obtaining the reliability evidence of the scale, Cronbach Alpha model was used. In this research, frequencies, percentages, mean, standard deviation, t-test, u-test, one-way variance analysis, Kruskal Wallis test and multi comparison test were used. _=. =.05 were taken the alpha value in all significance tests. Results Some of the results of the research are as follows: The perception level of the primary school teachers concerning the evaluation, rewarding and discipline applications dimensions of the scale is higher than that of the secondary school teachers, but their expectations are lower. There are significant differences between the perceptions of the teachers of the frequencies of the following sub-dimensions: evaluation, reward and discipline depending on their years of service; evaluation, rewarding and discipline depending on the levels of schools where they work; evaluation and rewarding depending on whether they have been rewarded or not; evaluation, rewarding and discipline depending on whether they have been punished or not. There are also significant differences between the expectations of the teachers of the frequencies of the following sub-dimensions: discipline and evaluation depending on the teachers years of service; evaluation, rewarding and discipline depending on their major fields of study; rewarding and discipline depending on the types of school they have graduated from; evaluation and discipline depending on their sexes; evaluation, rewarding and discipline depending on the levels of schools where they work.. The perception level of the primary school teachers of internal and external reward, traditional and constructive discipline sub-dimensions of the scale is higher that of secondary school teachers. However their expectation level is much lower.

5 SARPKAYA / Rewarding and Disciplinary Approaches Toward Primary and Secondary There are significant differences between the perceptions of the teachers of the frequencies of the following sub-dimensions: internal and external rewards and constructive discipline depending on their years of service; internal and external rewards depending on their major fields of study; internal and external rewards, traditional and constructive discipline depending on the level of schools where work; internal reward depending on whether they have been rewarded or not; internal and external rewards and traditional discipline. There are significant differences between the expectations of the teachers of the frequencies of the following sub-dimensions: internal reward and constructive discipline depending on their major fields of study; traditional discipline depending on their sexes; internal and external rewards, and constructive discipline depending on the types of schools where they work. Both primary and secondary school teachers think that internal rewards are much more valuable than external ones % of the teachers have stated that their colleagues must be fired due to such serious crimes as theft, rape, sexual offense and bribery; 20.2 % due to the crimes against Atatürk; and 18.8 % due to the crimes against constitutional regime. Discussion Both primary school teachers and secondary school teachers appear to attach less importance to external rewards. Teachers consider internal rewards more important. To praise teachers due to their accomplishments in the presence of their colleagues is a significant internal rewarding means. However, it is seen that in our schools this type of rewarding is not frequently used. Armstrong (1996) emphasizes that the recognition of employees by their close circles is a powerful motivator and that people do not only want other people to know how they go about their jobs, but also would like other people to appreciate their achievements. For this reason, a good leader principals should learn how to motivate the teacher through this simple but effective means of rewarding. In another study done by Topçu (1995), it is found out that teachers would like the legal documents emphasize rewards more than they do punishments. These findings suggest, our educational system gives priority to punishments more than rewards. On the other hand, it is seen that reward distributions are not always very fair. These findings put forward by Aksan (1995) and Topçu (1995), who stated that principals are unfair in distributing rewards, could be that they lack training and that there are not any objective rewarding criteria.

6 224 EDUCATIONAL SCIENCES: THEORY&PRACTICE Kaynakça/References Aç kal n, A. (1998). Okul yöneticili i. Ankara: PEGEM Yay nc l k. Aç kal n, A. (1999). nsan kayna n n yönetimi, gelifltirilmesi. Ankara: PEGEM Yay nc l k. Aç kgöz, K. (1984). Ö retmenlerin okuldaki kararlara kat l m. Yay nlanmam fl doktora tezi, Hacettepe Üniversitesi, Ankara. Aksar, M. (1995). Yöneticiden yöneticiye k yak. Abece, 105, Altunya, N. (1991). Ana hatlar yla özlük ve meslek sorunlar m z. Ankara: E itim- fl Yay nlar. Armstrong, M. (1996). Employee reward. London: Institute of Personnel and Development. Ayd n, M. (1986). Ça dafl e itim denetimi. Ankara: m E itim Araflt rma Yay n Dan flmanl k. Atwater, Leanne E., & Lau, A. N. (1997). Effects of rewards and punishment on leader charisma, leader effectiveness and follower reactions. 30 Nisan 2000 tarihinde www. globalnet.com web adresinden al nm flt r. Axelrod, S.& Apsche, J. (1983). The effects of punishment on human behavior. New York: Academic Press. Baflar, H. (1995). Ö retmen de erlendirme. Ankara: PEGEM Yay nlar. Baflar, H. (1998). E itim denetçisi. Ankara: PEGEM Yay n. Baflaran,. E. (1996a). E itim yönetimi. Ankara:Yarg c Matbaas. Baflaran,. E. (1996b). Türkiye e itim sistemi. Ankara:Yarg c Matbaas Baflaran,. E (2000). E itim psikolojisi. Ankara: Feryal Matbaas. Burke, R. R. (1988). Research on the effects of rewards: Implications for annual merit pay. Paper Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association of Teacher Educators, San Diego. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED ). Bursal o lu, Z. (1991). E itim yönetiminde teori ve uygulama. Ankara: fiafak Matbaac l k. Canman, D. (1995). Ça dafl personel yönetimi. Ankara: TODA E Yay n. Carrell, M. R., Albert, N. F., & Hayfield, R. D. (2000). Human research management. Orlando: The Dryden Press. Daft, R. L. (1991). Management. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. De Cenzo, D. A., & Robbins, S.P. (1988). Personnel human resource management. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Delon, F. G. (1978). Legal controls on teacher conduct. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED150704) Donaldson, C. (2000). Teacher evaluation, thrust for educational leadership [Electronic version]. Thrust for Educational Leadership. 29 (3), Ellis, T. I. (1984). Dismissing incompetent teachers. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED259448). Ergün, M. (1995). Bilimsel araflt rmalarda, bilgisayarla istatistik uygulamalar. Ankara: Ocak Yay nlar. Erken, V. (1990). Ö retmenlerin sicil sistemini de erlendirmesi. Yay nlanmam fl doktora tezi, Gazi üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Ankara. Gibson, J. L., Ivancevich, J. M., & Donnelly, J. H. (1988). Organizations: Behavior, structure, processes. Homewood: BPI / IRWIN. Glastrics, P., Toch, T. (1997, June 2). When teachers should be expelled from class. U. S. News & World Report, 122 (21), 32. Henderson, R. I. (1989). Compensation management rewarding performance. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Hersey, P., & Blanchard, K. H. (1988). Management of organizational behavior: Utilizing human resources. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

7 SARPKAYA / Rewarding and Disciplinary Approaches Toward Primary and Secondary Hume, David A. (1995). Reward management. Oxford: Blackwell. Kabaday, R. (1982). Okul müdürlerinin liderlik davran fllar ve ö retmenlerin güdülenmesi. Yay nlanmam fl doktora tezi, Hacettepe Üniversitesi, Ankara. Kaya, Y. K. (1993a). E itim yönetimi, kuram ve Türkiye de uygulama. Ankara: Set Ofset Matbaac l k. Kaya, Y. K. (1993b). nsan yetifltirme düzenimize yeni bir bak fl. Ankara: Set Ofset Matbaac l k. Kelley, C., & Protsik, J. (1997). Risk and reward: Perspectives on the implementation of Kentucky s School Based Performance Award. Educational Administration Quarterly, 33, 474. Köklü, M. (1994). Ortaö retim okullar nda ö retmenlerin kararlara kat l m. Yay nlanmam fl doktora tezi, nönü Üniversitesi, Malatya. Mayer, G. R. (1999). Constructive discipline for school Personnel [Electronic version]. Education & Treatment of Children, 22, Mitchell, T. R., & Larson, J. R. (1988). People in organization. New York: Hill. McGraw- Newcombe, E. (1983). Rewarding teachers: Issues and incentives. Philadelphia:Research for Better Schools. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No ). Osigweh, A. B., & Hutchinson, W. R. (1989). Positive discipline. Human Resource Management, 28, Özdemir, A. (1985). Lise müdürlerinin ö retmenleri de erlendirmesi ve gelifltirmesi. Yay nlanmam fl yüksek lisans tezi, Gazi Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Ankara. Palmer, M. J. (1993). Performans de erlendirmeleri. stanbul: Rota Yay nlar. Sarpkaya, R. (1997). Milli E itim Bakanl ndaki kurum yöneticilerinin atamalar n n ça dafl iflgören yönetimi ilkelerine göre de erlendirilmesi, E itim ve Yaflam, 6, Sarpkaya, R (2000). Liselerde çal flan ö retmenlerin ifldoyumu: Manisa ili örne i, Amme daresi Dergisi, 33 (l), Sarpkaya, R. (2001). lkö retim ve ortaö retim ö retmenlerine yönelik disiplin ve ödüllendirme uygulamalar. Yay nlanmam fl doktora tezi, Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi E itim Bilimleri Enstitüsü, zmir. Seçkin, N. (1990).Orta dereceli okul ö retmenlerinin ald klar ödüller ve cezalara iliflkin bir çal flma. E itim ve Bilim, 77, Schermerhorn, J. R. (1996). Management and organizational behavior. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Taymaz, H. (1997). E itim sisteminde teftifl, kavramlar, ilkeler, yöntemler. Ankara: TAKAV Tapu ve Kadastro Vakf Matbaas. Topçu, Z. N. (1995). Türk e itim sisteminde ilkö retim ö retmenlerinin güdüleme sorunlar. Yay nlanmam fl yüksek lisans tezi. Ankara Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Ankara.

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