1 277 Public Health Reviews, Vol. 33, No 1, New Era for Schools and Programs of Public Health in Canada Richard Massé MD, MSc, FRCPC, 1 Brent Moloughney MD, MSc, FRCPC 2 ABSTRACT In Canada, in the last few years, there has been a very rapid expansion of programs and schools of public health in response to several crises or emergency situations. Provincial and national investigations convened after the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome outbreak in Toronto in 2003 underlined important deficiencies in the institutional capacity of the public health system and the need to develop training of public health professionals and managers on a large scale. Key Words: Canadian Schools of Public Health, master of public health, public health training Recommended Citation: Massé R, Moloughney B. New Era for Schools of Public Health in Canada. Public Health Reviews. 2011;33: INTRODUCTION From about five programs in the 1990 s, there will be in September 2011, 15 Canadian universities offering MPH or MPH-type degrees in public health and as many as 500 new graduates who receive their master s degree annually. Ten years ago, there were no schools of public health, and now there are seven developed or rapidly emerging, although thus far only one is in the process of being accredited by an independent, internationally recognized body. Most universities are exclusively targeting graduate level training, including e-learning and continuous professional development, as an integral part of their curriculum, but there are at least three that offer undergraduate programs. 1 University of Montreal, Faculty of Medicine, School of Public Health. 2 University of Toronto, Dalla Lana School of Public Health. Corresponding Author Contact Information: Richard Massé at ca; Pavillon Mont-Royal, Université de Montréal. C.P. 6128, succursale Centre-ville, Montréal (QC) Canada H3C 3J7.
2 278 Public Health Reviews, Vol. 33, No 1 The involvement of more than 20 different academic institutions has resulted in a strong interest to create a network of programs and schools of public health in Canada. Initial priorities of this new network will be to improve the quality of the programs including development and refinement of core competencies, facilitate communication and collaboration between the members and, finally, promote public health training, research and capacity building activities. Greater collaboration may also lead to higher standards, reduced duplication and greater efficiency of efforts. To date, no clear quantitative ascertainment of our public health workforce s needs has been done. CHANGING CONTEXT FOR PUBLIC HEALTH TRAINING IN CANADA Up until the early 1970 s, only two schools of public health (SPHs), or hygiene as they were called then, existed in Canada: one at the University of Toronto ( ) and the other at the University of Montréal ( ). 1-3 They were both closed thereafter for different reasons and integrated within their respective faculty of medicine. There were also limited options for graduate training in public health. In the mid 1970s, the specialty of Community Medicine was recognized by the Royal College of Physicians but some of the new trainees had to pursue their academic training in the basic public health sciences in other centres such as in the United States or overseas. The 1974 Lalonde Report (New Perspective on the Health of Canadians), and the 1986 Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion were landmark documents emphasizing the importance of the broad determinants of health, including medical services, and the necessity to go beyond the previously dominant biomedical focus. 4,5 The vision of a new public health, more socially and politically oriented, was coming forward. 6 This later orientation was recently reinforced in 2008 by the WHO Report on the Social Determinants of Health led by Sir Michael Marmot and a team of commissioners from around the globe, including Canada. 7 Early in the 21 st century, Canada experienced some significant public health emergencies, first with the E. coli epidemic in Walkerton, Ontario, in May 2000, and then the Cryptosporidium contamination in North Battleford, Saskatchewan, during the spring of 2001, showing deficiencies in the safety of drinking water and the lack of protective measures in place for the population. 8,9 Following the 9/11 tragedy in 2001 and the anthrax crisis that followed in the US, Canadian public health authorities had to
3 Schools and Programs of Public Health in Canada 279 reconsider our own capacity to address similar events, recognizing the scarcity of emergency preparedness capacity in place. But more was to come. In 2003, an international outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) arrived in Toronto, the largest city in the country, demonstrating directly to the population, public health authorities and political leaders the vulnerability of our health system. 10 The social and economic costs were tremendous, but the impact was even greater on the confidence people had in Canada s public health systems, which were unprepared and incapable of facing such an event. 11 After the SARS episode, different inquiries took place identifying in particular the lack of capacity in the public health system, the need for better communication and coordination of services, and the need for training on a large scale (graduate training and continuing education of professionals) to fill the identified gaps This led to the creation of the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) in 2005, which was a major step to develop capacity at the federal level and to meet important public health challenges. The perceived possibility of financing for public health training programs from the federal government was a significant incentive to promote the development of new educational programs and schools of public health along the lines of the US model of SPHs developed over the previous century and across the country. At the same time, in the US and also in Europe, significant developments in the domain of public health training were also taking place. In the last decade, the number of SPHs accredited by the Council on Education for Public Health (CEPH) in the US has increased from 32 to 45, and accredited graduate programs have increased from 49 to 79 14,15 with a similar expansion of the number of MPH programs across Europe. Reflecting the renewed interest in public health in Canada, representatives from federal, provincial and territorial (F/P/T) governments, as well as academic colleagues, collaborated in producing a pan-canadian Framework for Public Health Human Resources Planning (2005), along with a set of public health core competencies that were finalized and released by PHAC in ,17 During this same time period, a new pan-canadian Public Health Network to support intergovernmental collaboration for public health in Canada was created including, since November 2005, a dedicated pan-canadian Public Health Human Resources Task Group. In recent years, this task group worked with the academic community to develop a
4 280 Public Health Reviews, Vol. 33, No 1 set of MPH * program and practicum guidelines to support the development of MPH programs in this country with sufficient consistency and quality to meet the public health systems needs. 18 EXPLOSION IN TRAINING OPPORTUNITIES IN PUBLIC HEALTH IN CANADA As previously mentioned, the historical status quo with respect to a small number of professional MPH programs has changed rapidly since the SARS wake up call. In the past several years, there has been an explosion of new academic programs and institutions. Three particular areas of expansion are described here: MPH programs, SPHs and undergraduate (baccalaureate) public health programs. MPH Programs From about five programs in the 1990 s, 19 as of September 2011 there will be 15 Canadian universities offering MPH-type degrees in public health, with a typical duration of one or two years (Table 1). At least three other universities are also at various planning stages for offering such programs in the near future. Most of the universities have converged to label their programs as MPH degrees, although universities in Québec continue to offer MSc degrees with a practicum. Nevertheless, there appears to be a common perspective that these programs provide a professional degree whose primary purpose is to prepare students for public health practice. 18 The diversity of programs is indicated by the range of areas of focus and concentration currently being offered (Table 1). Not included in the table are other graduate degree programs that may be public health-related (e.g., master s degree in health policy and equity) since it has not been assessed whether or not, or to which extent, such programs share core curriculum/ competencies with MPH programs. Obviously, such interdisciplinary programs are part of the developments in public health and strategic alliances between universities and with the public health network will help maintain focus on quality training for practitioners. 20 * The acronym MPH includes other master s degree programs in the Canadian context (e.g., MHSc, MHA, MHSA, MHS, MSPH, and MSc) which focus on preparing individuals for public health practice in a community setting and offering practicum.
5 Schools and Programs of Public Health in Canada 281 Table 1 Public Health Professional Master Degree Programs in Canada, 2011 University Available Stream/Focus/Concentration * University of Victoria (BC) Generalist ** (Planned September 2011) University of British Columbia (BC) Simon Fraser University (BC) University of Alberta (AB) University of Saskatchewan (SK) Epidemiology and biostatistics; occupational and environmental health; maternal child health; global and indigenous populations; health services and policy; social and life course; emerging threats; rapid response Environmental and occupational health; global health; population health; social inequities and health Applied biostatistics; environmental and occupational health; epidemiology; global health; health policy and management; health promotion; public health leadership Generalist University of Manitoba (MB) Generalist University of Waterloo (ON) University of Guelph (ON) Lakehead University (ON) University of Toronto *** (ON) Queen s University (ON) University of Montréal **** (QC) McGill University (QC) Laval University (QC) Memorial University (NL) Sociobehavioural science Generalist Generalist; nursing Epidemiology; community nutrition; occupational & environmental health; health promotion; family and community medicine Generalist Health promotion; occupational hygiene; health administration; community health; toxicology and risk assessment Epidemiology, biostatistics, occupational health, public health (Planned September 2011) Epidemiology, evaluation, health promotion, community health, global health Population and public health; nutrition and dietetics * As described on universities program websites. ** Generalist -type MPH degrees are described in both the CEPH accreditation criteria and the Canadian MPH Guidelines. Both state: a generalist MPH offers a course of study to provide the student with a sound academic background in order to practice competently as a generalist in public health. 18 *** Students may also pursue a global health focus in addition to one of the degree specializations. **** Degrees are MSc (Community Health). Note: additional universities are at various stages of planning to develop MPH programs (e.g., Carleton (ON); Ottawa (ON); Dalhousie (NS)).
6 282 Public Health Reviews, Vol. 33, No 1 The expansion in availability of MPH programs has generally been welcomed by the public health community in Canada. 18 However, concerns were raised regarding the potential for new programs being developed in relative isolation and with little guidance available for universities offering/ planning these programs. As a result, a set of voluntary MPH program and practicum guidelines was established in 2006/2007 involving academics from public health graduate programs and public health practitioners. 18 These guidelines were heavily influenced by the CEPH accreditation criteria and the Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER) PEER review criteria. 21,22 Reported anecdotally, the development of at least some new MPH programs has been informed by the guidelines. In addition, when a national awards program was established by PHAC and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) to support students attending MPH programs, only students attending programs meeting the guidelines were eligible. A more thorough assessment of the guidelines impact and their potential revision is planned for late Information on the descriptive characteristics of MPH programs (e.g., number of registered students, duration, credits, faculty, practicum, curriculum, etc.) is not currently available in a consistent manner. At a meeting of Canadian public health academic institutions in the fall of 2010, interest was expressed in gathering this information in An early estimate suggests that there are actually as many as 500 new graduates per year, and with expansion in the size and number of programs, this estimate is expected to increase in the future. Schools of Public Health The past decade has seen the re-emergence of SPHs in Canada, which had been absent since the 1970 s. In recent years, several universities across Canada have established new SPHs (Table 2). Among Canadian universities, the term school is used to refer to academic units of varying size and organizational level within university structures: a department, a sector or many departments under the authority of a faculty or even an independent school. This currently also applies to Canadian SPHs. Many of the SPHs reflect the transition of longstanding public health-related departments into SPHs with different levels of autonomy within their university. There is currently considerable heterogeneity in the levels and types of degrees offered. Most of the SPHs offer master and doctoral level degrees, and many also have graduate level diplomas or certificates, although this is not universal.
7 Schools and Programs of Public Health in Canada 283 Table 2 Schools of Public Health in Canada, 2011 School University Degrees Offered School of Public Health and Social Policy University of Victoria BAHCS * ; MPH School of Population and Public Health University of British Columbia MHA; MHSc; MPH; MSc; PhD School of Public Health University of Alberta MPH; MSc; PhD School of Public Health University of Saskatchewan MSc; MPH; PhD School of Occupational and Public Health Dalla Lana School of Public Health Ryerson University University of Toronto BASc MPH; MSc; MScCH; PhD School of Public Health University of Montréal MSc ** ; PhD * BAHCS = Bachelor of Arts in Health and Community Services; BASc = Bachelor of Applied Science. ** Master with thesis (research) and Master with practicum (professional), both offered. Undergraduate Programs An even newer development is the establishment of public health focused undergraduate degree programs. 23 Historically, many Canadian universities have had health sciences undergraduate programs and some students would have subsequently pursued health professional programs such as nursing, dentistry, and medicine. At this point, a limited number of Canadian universities are offering public health focussed undergraduate degree programs (e.g., Ryerson University and Brock University in Ontario, and the University of Lethbridge in Alberta), and this is an issue being considered by other institutions. Little analysis or discussion has occurred yet regarding these programs within Canada and their relation to system needs, training paths, competencies, etc. TOWARDS A CANADIAN NETWORK OF PROGRAMS AND SCHOOLS OF PH Following the explosion of public health programs and schools in Canada, the notion of core curriculums for MPHs and more broadly for public health training in general has become a topic of high interest for the different
8 284 Public Health Reviews, Vol. 33, No 1 universities. The Core Competencies and the Guidelines for MPH programs in Canada produced by the pan-canadian Public Health Human Resources Task Group in collaboration with PHAC are considered as working documents for developing individualized sets of expectations for the different programs offered. Both were written with the intent to revise them as experience was gained in their use. Standardizing curriculum is not at the forefront of priorities but is raised by different actors as a developing issue with the demand for greater professionalization in the public health sector, as we are seeing in the US, and the greater need for quality and consistency. 24 An inaugural meeting of representatives from more than 20 different Canadian institutions offering or planning undergraduate and graduate programs in public health, including those with SPHs, was recently convened with the support of the Canadian Public Health Association (CPHA) and PHAC. At that meeting, the creation of an inclusive Canadian Network of Public Health Schools and Programs was actively discussed. Even though many possibilities were identified, different models discussed and no final decision made, the need for a common hub to gather the emerging strengths for public health training in Canada was prioritized. This new network would primarily focus on improving the quality of the programs, facilitate communication and collaboration between the members and promote public health training, research and capacity building activities. Greater collaboration may also lead to higher standards, reduced duplication and greater efficiency of efforts (e.g., development of web-based distance learning). At the same meeting, the question of accreditation by independent bodies was also raised as an important issue, but likely necessitating collaborations with broader international entities already in place like CEPH or ASPHER. This question of accreditation could be quite divisive between future members of the network with the perception of a two tier system: internationally accredited programs and SPHs; and non-accredited programs and SPHs. Currently, two Canadian MPH-type programs are accredited by CEPH (Université de Montréal in Québec and Simon Fraser University in British Columbia) and three Master of Health Administration programs are accredited by the Commission on Accreditation Healthcare Management Education (Toronto, Montréal, and Dalhousie University in Halifax). CEPH has relatively prescriptive criteria for SPHs including their independence, faculty complement, and degree requirements by discipline. 25 At present, only one Canadian SPH, at the University of Alberta in Edmonton, is in the process of pursuing the US CEPH-SPH accreditation. The creation of a Canadian-based system of accreditation of public health programs and schools was discussed at the fall 2010 meeting. A Canadian-
9 Schools and Programs of Public Health in Canada 285 based system is not being actively pursued at this time as we are still in the early stage of development of our network, we may not have the critical mass to support our own accreditation system, and there are other options available internationally in the US or in Europe. Linked with the question of quality is also the issue of sustainability. There is actually no clear or quantitative evaluation of the extent of system needs for graduate training in public health in Canada. The general calls for more training options post-sars have been met with a substantive response from academic institutions. The question of sustainability of those programs and schools may be raised at some point, but is very difficult to pinpoint precisely, recognizing that a significant proportion of the trainees are coming to Canada from all over the world close to 50 percent in certain programs or SPHs. In addition, a number of trainees are working outside the traditional public health network, such as in clinical practice or in research. In Canada, the provision of health services and education are provincial responsibilities, as they were defined by the Confederation Act from Obviously, much has changed since then and intersectoral activities are performed at all levels. PHAC and the intergovernmental Public Health Human Resources Task Group have been very active and supportive in furthering public health workforce development in Canada. Nevertheless, much more needs to be done to support the development of these programs and each province and its universities will have to jointly collaborate in such an enterprise. The need for continuing professional training has also come up as a great demand from public health authorities. This could be of even greater importance than the need for new graduates as professionals in place often do not have the full training necessary to fulfill the expectations of the new public health agenda for the population. In 2005, the Institut National de Santé Publique du Québec (INSPQ) made a needs assessment of public health training for front-line public health providers in the province that showed the immense demand for continuing education. Even though the majority had significant experience in public health, less than seven percent had a graduate training degree in public health or public health related discipline. Hence, two thirds of the respondents were looking for master degree level training in public health through a micro program and 95 percent of those preferred an intensive continuing education format (Céline Farley, INSPQ, personal communication, 2011). Some universities, in Ontario and Québec notably, with the close partnership of national and provincial public health agencies and regional authorities are already responding to this new and growing challenge.
10 286 Public Health Reviews, Vol. 33, No 1 CONCLUSION In conclusion, this article demonstrates the considerable changes in the field of public health training in Canada. Even though there is significant interest in the fields of prevention and health promotion, partly related to increasing health services costs, the recent explosion of programs and SPHs in the country has more to do with a reaction to major health protection challenges from emerging threats, like SARS. The spinoffs could be very significant in terms of capacity development and quality improvement if universities and public health agencies work closely together with provincial/territorial and local/regional public health authorities to address the real challenges of training in our domain. The future development of these schools and programs will be highly dependent on very close collaborations with all the actors involved. A detailed enumeration to ascertain the actual capacity of the public health system is required as is an assessment of current and future educational needs and should be major priorities in our highly decentralized system. The creation of an inclusive Canadian Network of Schools and Programs of public health is a very good step in that direction. Acronyms list: ASPHER = The Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region CEPH = The Council on Education for Public Health PHAC = The Public Health Agency of Canada SARS = Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome SPHs = Schools of Public Health Acknowledgements: We would like to thank John O Neil (UBC), Harvey Skinner (York U.), and Bart Harvey (UofT) for their comments on an earlier version of this manuscript. Conflicts of interest: None declared. REFERENCES 1. Defries RD. Postgraduate teaching in public health in the University of Toronto, Can J Public Health. 1957;48: Beaton GH. Community health: a new approach in the University of Toronto. Can J Public Health. 1974;65: Desrosiers G, Gaumer B, Keel O. Contribution de l École d Hygiène de l Université de Montréal à un enseignement francophone de santé publique, Revue d histoire de l Amérique française.1994;47: Lalonde M. A new perspective on the health of Canadians. Minister of Supply and Services Canada: Ottawa; 1974.
11 Schools and Programs of Public Health in Canada World Health Organization. Ottawa charter for health promotion. Geneva: WHO; Tulchinsky TH et al. Proceedings of the International Conference on Developing New Schools of Public Health. Jerusalem, Israel. March 17-21, Public Health Reviews 2002;30: World Health Organization. CSDH report: Closing the gap in a generation: health equity through action on the social determinants of health. Final Report of the Commission on Social Determinants of Health. Geneva: WHO; The Honourable Dennis R. O Connor. Report of the Walkerton Inquiry: The Events of May 2000 and Related Issues, Available from URL: (Accessed 15 May, 2011). 9. Laing RD. Report of the Commission of Inquiry into matters relating to the safety of the public drinking water in the City of North Battleford, Saskatchewan, March 28, Available from URL: www. northbattlefordwaterinquiry.ca/inquiry/inquiry.htm (Accessed 1 May, 2011). 10. National Advisory Committee on SARS and Public Health. David Naylor, Chair. Learning from SARS: renewal of public health in Canada - a report of the National Advisory Committee on SARS and Public Health. Ottawa: Health Canada; Campbell A. The SARS Commission interim report: SARS and public health in Ontario. Toronto: Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care; Expert Panel on SARS and Infectious Disease Control For The Public s Health. Initial report of the Ontario Expert Panel on SARS and Infectious Disease Control. Toronto: Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care; Standing Senate Committee on Social Affairs, Science and Technology. Kirby MJL, LeBreton M. Reforming health protection and promotion in Canada: time to act. November Available from URL: ca/37/2/parlbus/commbus/senate/com-e/soci-e/rep-e/repfinnov03-e.htm. (Accessed 15 May, 2011). 14. Tulchinsky TH, Bickford MJ. Are schools of public health needed to address public health workforce development in Canada for the 21st century? Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Sante Publique. 2006;97: Council on Education for Public Health (CEPH). Schools of public health and public health programs accredited by the Council on Education for Public Health. Last updated 3 December, Available from URL: ceph.org/pdf/master_list.pdf (Accessed 1 May, 2011). 16. The Joint Task Group on Public Health Human Resources. Advisory Committee on Health Delivery and Human Services. Advisory Committee on Population Health and Health Security. Building the public health workforce for the 21st century. A pan-canadian framework for public health human resources planning. Ottawa: Public Health Agency of Canada; Available from URL: workforce_fo_%20the-21stc_e.pdf (Accessed 1 May, 2011).
12 288 Public Health Reviews, Vol. 33, No Public Health Agency of Canada. Core competencies for public health in Canada. Release 1.0. Ottawa: PHAC; MPH Guidelines Working Group. Guidelines for MPH Programs in Canada. Public Health Network Council - Public Health Human Resources Task Group Spasoff R. A pan-canadian Strategy For Public Health Workforce Education Pan-Canadian Public Health Human Resources Committee (PPHHRC). Draft 5: 5 October, p. 55. Available from URL: gc.ca/php-psp/pdf/pan_canadian_strategy_for_public_health_workforce_ education_e.pdf (Accessed 1 May, 2011). 20. Moloughney BW, Skinner HA. Rethinking schools of public health: a strategic alliance model. Can J Public Health. 2006;97: Council on Education for Public Health. Accreditation criteria: public health programs. Amended June Washington, DC Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER). Criteria for the Public Health Education European Review Johnson I, Donovan D, Parboosingh J. Steps to improve the teaching of public health to undergraduate medical students in Canada. Acad Med. 2008;83: Mowat DL, Moloughney BW. Developing the public health workforce in Canada: a summary of regional workshops on workforce education and training. Can J Public Health. 2004;95: Council on Education for Public Health (CEPH). Accreditation Criteria - Schools of Public Health Available from URL: SPH-Criteria.pdf (Accessed 1 May, 2011).
Health Canada Santé Canada Public Health Workforce Development in Canada PAHO Regional Forum Antigua, Guatemala July 21, 2004 Brent Moloughney MD, MSc, FRCPC Public Health Consultant to Health Canada Overview
Task Force on Changing Structures: Discussion Paper on 2 nd Draft FOR ILLUSTRATIVE PURPOSES ONLY (As of April 10, 2006) Vision To foster an internationally competitive interdisciplinary public health research
Introduction 2013 This document has been designed to help students locate and learn about Canadian university-level education in global health. The document offers a complete list of non-clinical Baccalaureate
0 Nurse Practitioner Education in Canada Final Report November 2011 1 2 Contents Background...4 Key Findings on Nurse Practitioner Programs in Canada...5 Nursing Programs in Canada...5 Age of Nurse Practitioner
Nurse Practitioner Education in Canada Nursing Masters Education in Canada Final report 212 Final Report November 211 1 212 Canadian Association of Schools of Nursing 2 Table of Contents Background...4
Global Summit on Education and Training in Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention October 15-16, 2009 CDC Global Communications Center, Atlanta, Georgia Degree Programs in Public Health: A Canadian Perspective
DRAFT 5: 2005 October 5 A PAN-CANADIAN STRATEGY FOR PUBLIC HEALTH WORKFORCE EDUCATION Pan-Canadian Public Health Human Resources Committee (PPHHRC) Representing: Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) Canadian
Today s Research, Tomorrow s Doctors La recherche d aujourd hui, les médecins de dermain ENHANCING THE HEALTH OF THE POPULATION: THE ROLE OF CANADIAN FACULTIES OF MEDICINE A Vision Paper Presented to the
Public Health in Canada: A Difficult History COMMENTARY David L. Mowat, MBChB, MPH, FRCPC Deputy Chief Public Health Officer Public Health Practice and Regional Operations Public Health Agency of Canada
THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA School of Population and Public Health Rapidly putting new knowledge into practice and training future health practitioners and researchers are core elements of the mission
PUBLIC HEALTH AND PREVENTIVE MEDICINE PROFILE Public health and Preventive medicine (PhPm) is the branch of medicine concerned with the health of populations. These specialists use population health knowledge
AUCC Related Graduate Programs in Canada Province Program Name Program Level Notes BC MEd in Northern British Columbia BC Northern British Columbia MA in Disability Management BC The British Columbia MA
List of CIHR Eligible Institutions Alberta Athabasca University Covenant Health Mount Royal University The S.H.A.R.P Foundation (Society Housing AIDS Restricted Persons) University of Alberta University
The Degree Mobility Spectrum: The Tiering of Canadian Degrees Dave Marshall, PhD Mount Royal College 4825 Mount Royal Gate SW Calgary, Alberta T3E 6K6 firstname.lastname@example.org Being submitted for publication
PositionStatement EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS AND RESPONSE CNA POSITION The nursing profession 1 plays an integral role in all aspects of emergencies, including mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery.
TUITION FEES BY CANADIAN UNIVERSITY University tuition fees for full-time Canadian and international students in an arts and humanities program (unless otherwise indicated) at the undergraduate level at
Organization of the health care system and the recent/evolving human resource agenda in Canada 1. Organization - the structural provision of health care. Canada has a predominantly publicly financed health
Cultural Safety in First Nations, Inuit and Métis Public Health Environmental Scan of Cultural Competency and Safety in Education, Training and Health Services Lauren Baba, BA 2013 National Collaborating
Curriculum Vitae Markus I. Z. Sharaput 1500 Keele St., Apt. 601 Toronto, ON M6N 5A9 647-348-3042 email@example.com Education Ph. D. Political Science (supervisor Greg Albo) 1998-2009 York University Toronto,
PROPOSAL TO ESTABLISH A SCHOOL OF PUBLIC HEALTH AT THE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO (PENDING APPROVAL OF GOVERNING COUNCIL) CONTEXT AND RATIONALE On March 31 st, 2006 a key consultation with stakeholders on and
McGill University School of Dietetics and Human Nutrition Graduate Diploma in R.D. Credentialing In the School of Dietetics and Human Nutrition at McGill, students with a B.Sc. from outside of Quebec may
PHAC CACDS Point of Sale (POS) Sharing Initiative The Nuts, Bolts and What Greases the Wheels Victoria L. Edge Epidemiologist Public Health Agency of Canada Allan H. Malek VP, Pharmacy Canadian Association
Graduate Faculty Committee Doc. No. 1123 Approved November 17, 2008 RECOMMENDATION OF THE SUBCOMMMITTEE ON GRADUATE COURSE AND CURRICULUM AND THE PUBLIC HEALTH PLANNING COUNCIL FOR AN ENTITLEMENT TO PLAN
Canadian Engineers for Tomorrow: Trends in Engineering Enrolment and Degrees Awarded 2009-2013 Engineers Canada is the national organization of the 12 provincial and territorial associations that regulate
Robert J. Robson, MDCM, MSc., FRCP(C) 116 York Street East, Elora, Ontario, Canada N0B 1S0 Phone 519-846-2601 Fax 519-846-9843 email: firstname.lastname@example.org Profile A fluently bilingual senior executive, system
CSC Accredited Programs Where marked as 1st cycle it means that the program has been accredited for five years based on a review by the CSC s accreditation board which includes a site visit by a team of
College & University Programs in Health Promotion & Public Health Updated August 2007 from OHPE Bulletin #350 "Learning Health Promotion: Many Journeys, Many Paths" A Community Colleges B Ontario Undergraduate
Appendix 1 Where to Study Criminology/Criminal Justice and related fields of study/work in Canada A 1995 Statistics Canada Report revealed that not only are employment prospects bleak and getting bleaker
Implementing Entry- to- Practice Public Health Nursing Competencies Canadian Public Health Association 2015 Vancouver, B.C. Ruth Schofield, RN, MSc(T); Susan Duncan, RN, PhD; Marie Dietrich Leurer, RN,
OVERVIEW OF TENURE AND PROMOTION POLICIES ACROSS CANADA Pamela Gravestock & Emily Gregor Greenleaf University of Toronto The accompanying documents provide summaries of tenure and promotion policies from
CAP Statistical Study of the effects of changes to NSERC s Discovery Grants Program On Breadth of Support Prepared with the help of Elizabeth Wall-Wieler (Winnipeg) November, 2012 1. Preamble Physics has
Leading the shift in Business Technology Education ITAC Talent Inspiring Tech Careers Inspiring Tech Careers Thank you for your interest in the ITAC Talent Business Technology Des carrières technologiques
CJNR 2011 Vol. 43 N o 1, 119 124 Happenings Developing a Program of Research for an Applied Public Health Chair in Public Health Education and Population Intervention Research Marjorie MacDonald In 2008
2015 Infectious Diseases Workshop - Speaker Biographies Dr. George Pasut is the vice-president, science and public health, and provides executive leadership to the emergency preparedness, infectious disease,
Analytical Bulletin Certified and Non-Certified Specialists: Understanding the Numbers CIHI Physician Databases 2004:2 Introduction Physician count information is available from a number of Canadian data
How do I become a counsellor? Students taking psychology are often interested in becoming counsellors or therapists. This guide is intended to assist with students who wish to go down this path. Please
CRITERIA 2: INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAMS 2. 1 DEGREE OFFERINGS. THE SCHOOL SHALL OFFER INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAMS REFLECTING ITS STATED MISSION AND GOALS, LEADING TO THE MASTER OF PUBLIC HEALTH (MPH) OR EQUIVALENT
FAMILY MEDICINE PROFILE GENERAL INFORMATION (Sources: Pathway Evaluation Program and the Canadian Medical Residency Guide) Family medicine is the main primary care medical specialty in Canada. It focuses
Experience research and innovation in Canada 2 WELCOME Are you an undergraduate student interested in exploring your field of study at a deeper level with a global network? Do you want to be eligible for
An Overview of Education and Training Requirements for Global Healthcare Professionals Public Health Practitioner Workforce and Training Task Force Sponsored By: September2009 TABLE OF CONTENTS EXECUTIVE
NATIONAL NURSING EDUCATION FRAMEWORK DOCTORAL 1 Canadian Association of Schools of Nursing 2015 2 Acknowledgements The Canadian Association of Schools of Nursing (CASN) gratefully acknowledges the expertise,
Public Health Association of BC CORE AND TECHNICAL COMPETENCIES FOR PUBLIC HEALTH IN BC Final Report December, 2008 Funding Provided by: This publication was produced by PHABC with funding from the Public
Public Health on the IUPUI Campus G. Marie Swanson, Ph.D., M.P.H. Professor and Chair Department of Public Health Indiana University School of Medicine IUPUI Public Health Task Force Austin Agho, Ph.D.,
Trends & Challenges in Canadian Graduate Education **** Britta Baron, University of Alberta TRANS-DOC Closing Seminar: Transferability Across the Atlantic Brussels October 2012 Canadian Context Approximately
Strengthening Public Health Research and Practice Capacity in Canada JASP Symposium October 23 rd, 2006 BY Erica Di Ruggiero, Associate Director, CIHR-Institute of Population & Public Health 1 CIHR- Institute
Final Assessment Report Health Studies (BSc) Health Studies and Gerontology (MSc, PhD) Master of Public Health (MPH) May 2014 Review Process The School of Public Health and Health Systems came into existence
RESOLUTION FOR APPROVAL OF THE MASTER OF PUBLIC HEALTH (MPH) DEGREE WHEREAS, the mission of the proposed professional Master of Public Health (MPH) program is to create and deliver knowledge and skills
Finding the Path: Becoming an Aboriginal Midwife Midwives from Nunavik, Québec Kimberly Morehouse, Brenda Epoo, Lizzie Sakiagak (student) There are many paths to becoming a midwife. A midwife is a primary
APPROVAL PROCESS FOR NURSE PRACTITIONER EDUCATION PROGRAMS 2015 This Regulatory Document was approved by ARNNL Council in 2015. Approval Process for Nurse Practitioner Education Programs Table of Contents
ACADEMIC AFFAIRS FORUM Public Health Degree Programs with Global Focuses Custom Research Brief Research Associate Anna Krenkel Research Manager Nalika Vasudevan March 2013 2 of 12 3 of 12 Table of Contents
Graduate Education in Public Health Anne Sebert Kuhlmann, MPH, PhD Lecturer, Department of Anthropology Lecturer & Assistant Dean for Public Health, The Brown School October 24, 2011 In the 20 th century,
GENERAL INTERNAL MEDICINE PROFILE GENERAL INFORMATION (Sources: Pathway Evaluation Program, American College of Osteopathic Internists & the Canadian Medical Residency Guide) Internal medicine is a broad-based
Application Form Certified Health Executive (CHE) (Please print or type) Mr. Mrs. Ms. Dr. Other (Specify) CCHL Member ID: First Name Last Name Title Organization Address City Province Postal Code Telephone
APPENDIX I SOCIAL WORK/SOCIAL SERVICES WORK PROGRAMS SOCIAL WORK/SOCIAL SERVICES WORK PROGRAMS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA INSTITUTION PROGRAM CREDENTIAL NOTES College of the New Caledonia College of the New Caledonia
Performance Relevance: Graduate Student Enrolment Expansion Graduate education is a distinctive feature of the University of and is a defining part of our vision. Graduate students are the life-blood of
SAC Position Paper on the Doctor of Audiology Degree (AuD) Speech-Language and Audiology Canada #1000-1 rue Nicholas St. Ottawa, ON K1N 7B7 613.567.9968 1.800.259.8519 email@example.com www.sac-oac.ca September,
Langara s University Quality Alliance (UQA) program is designed to help students access Canada s top universities. Through UQA, students have the opportunity to study two years at Langara followed by two
NUCLEAR MEDICINE PROFILE GENERAL INFORMATION (Source: Royal College and Pathway Evaluation Program) Nuclear medicine is concerned primarily (although not exclusively) with the use of unsealed radioactive
Building the Public Health Workforce st for the 21 Century A Pan-Canadian Framework for Public Health Human Resources Planning The Joint Task Group on Public Health Human Resources Advisory Committee on
2010 National Physician Survey : Family Physician Usage of Electronic Medical Records Inese Grava-Gubins, Artem Safarov, Jonas Eriksson College of Family Physicians of Canada CAHSPR, Montreal, May 2012
THE PRIVATE PROVISION AND INSURANCE OF DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING SERVICES IN CANADA Nathaniel De Bono; Project Manager Renee Carter; MSc Dr. Amélie Quesnel-Vallée; PhD International Research Infrastructure on
COURSE 4A Leadership of Healthcare Organizations Prof. Kenneth R. White CONTENT OF THE COURSE The purpose of the course is to explore and analyze the leadership role of the health care managers and executives.
Catalogue no. 81-595-M Culture, Tourism and the Centre for Education Statistics: Research Papers Salaries and SalaryScalesof Full-time Staff at Canadian Universities, 2010/2011: Final Report 2011 How to
Solutions Gaps Needs CURRENT & FUTURE CHALLENGES WITH PUBLIC HEALTH EDUCATION IN CANADA CPHA MAY 2015 KAREN DICKENSON SMITH & DR. MARCUS LEM Strategy Perspective of the employer (Health Authority, Government)
A. Abstract: University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Authorization Master of Healthcare Administration (MHA) Revised (3/26/2015) The UWM Master of Healthcare Administration program provides evidence-based inter
CANADIAN RESEARCH FUNDING Opportunities for Researchers in Social Sciences and Humanities High Commission of Canada Canberra, Australia November 2010 A THRIVING RESEARCH CULTURE University research accounts
VIVRE À FOND LA FRANCOPHONIE CANADIENNE THREE-WEEK PROGRAM for Grades 8 and 9 Application deadline: march 31 Apply for a $2,000 bursary! Follow us! #destinationclic www.fb.com/destination.clic @OLP-PLO
STATISTICS Nursing Education in Canada, Consolidated Statistics for Entry-to-Practice Certificate, Diploma and Baccalaureate Programs: 2006-2007 The Canadian Association of Registered Psychiatric Nurse
University of Victoria Performance Measures 2013 June 25, 2013 University of Victoria Performance Measures Table of Contents Students... 3 Enrolments... 3 Measures of full-time equivalency... 4 Applications
Canadian Association of Speech-Language Pathologists and Audiologists: Programs in Audiology 2010 Final Report December 2010 Canadian Association of Speech-Language Pathologists and Audiologists: Overview
The Chair Academy Training for Organizational Leaders Jacksonville, Florida March 7-10, 2007 Reducing the Learning Recognition Gap for Internationally Educated Nurses (IENs): Leading Change through Prior
CPhA POSITION STATEMENT Doctor of Pharmacy Degree as an Entry-Level to Practice The Canadian Pharmacists Association (CPhA): Endorses a Vision for Pharmacy of: Optimal drug therapy outcomes for Canadians
Appendix B Summary of Recent Government Initiatives in Health Human Resource Planning Health Human Resource Planning in Canada: Physician and Nursing Workforce Issues Prepared for the Commission on the
The Dietitian Workforce in Canada Meta-Analysis Report MARCH 2011 www.dietitians.ca www.dietetistes.ca Dietitians of Canada 2011. All rights reserved. DIETITIANS OF CANADA 1 Executive Summary The purpose
Resolving Customer Complaints When a Problem Occurs - We Can Help As an MCAP Client you have come to expect a high level of customer service. If you have a complaint regarding our service or policy, we
Alberta Health Services Board of Directors The biographies of the newly appointed Alberta Health Services Board of Directors are linked in the list below: Linda Hughes, Chair... 2 Dr. Brenda Hemmelgarn,
Module 9 Future Considerations Introduction In this module, you will have the opportunity to explore a step-by-step process to identify future learning for your health promotion practice. This topic was
School of Postgraduate Studies Public Health (MSc) 2016 What Is IMU s Public Health Programme About? Overview Public Health is the art and science of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health.
AFOA Canada AFOA Saskatchewan Fall Conference and AGM September 30, 2015 Saskatoon, Saskatchewan Terry Goodtrack, MPA, B Admin, CPA, CGA, CAFM, CAPA President & CEO AFOA Canada Our Vision AFOA Canada is
Alberta Public Health Association Annual Report 2014/2015 1 About the APHA The Alberta Public Health Association (APHA) is a provincial not-for-profit association representing public health in Alberta.
Health leaders coaches' corner: Coach biographies Tuesday, June 3 11:00 AM 12:00 PM Dr. Brendan Carr, CHE Island Health (formerly Vancouver Island Health Authority) Dr. Brendan Carr was named for Island
HEMATOLOGY PROFILE GENERAL INFORMATION (Sources: Royal College, Pathway Evaluation Program) Hematology is a subspecialty of internal medicine and is concerned with the nature, function, and diseases of
Clinical Doctorate Webinar Q & A General Questions Q. Will there be a vote on the clinical doctorate that is open to all genetic counselors? A formal vote of genetic counselors is not planned; however,
ENTRY-TO-PRACTICE COMPETENCIES AND STANDARDS FOR CANADIAN DENTAL HYGIENISTS QUESTIONS & ANSWERS: Educators and Administrators Canadian Dental Hygienists Association The ETPCS: Q&A attempts to anticipate
Education for Public Health: Accreditation, Learning Pathways, Career Opportunities and Credentialing Donna Petersen, ScD, MHS, CPH League for Innovation in the Community College June 16, 2015 Surge of