1 Data Mining SPSS Overview Spring 2010 Instructor: Dr. Masoud Yaghini
2 Introduction Types of Models Interface Projects References Outline
4 Introduction Three of the common data mining tools SPSS SAS-Enterprise Miner STATISTICA Data Miner The most popular and the oldest data mining tool package on the market today is SPSS
5 SPSS Introduction the most mature among the major data mining packages on the market today. Since 1993, many thousands of data miners have used to create very powerful models for business. It was the first data mining package to use the graphical programming user interface. It enables you to quickly develop data mining models and deploy them in business processes to improve decision making.
6 Introduction The package was integrated with CRISP- DM to help guide the modeling process flow. supports the entire data mining process.
7 Documentation User s Guide General introduction to using. Source, Process, and Output Nodes Descriptions of all the nodes used to read, process, and output data in different formats. Modeling Nodes Descriptions a variety of modeling methods in Applications Guide The examples in this guide provide brief, targeted introductions to specific modeling methods and techniques. Algorithms Guide Descriptions of the mathematical foundations of the modeling methods used in. CRISP-DM 1.0 Guide Step-by-step guide to data mining using the CRISP-DM methodology.
8 Application Examples While the data mining tools in can help solve a wide variety of business and organizational problems, the application examples provide brief, targeted introductions to specific modeling methods and techniques. You can access the examples by choosing Application Examples from the Help menu in Client. The data files and sample streams are installed in the Demos folder under the product installation directory.
9 Demos Folder The data files and sample streams used with the application examples are installed in the Demos folder under the product installation directory. This folder can also be accessed from the 12.0 program group under SPSS Inc on the Windows Start menu.
10 Changing the Temp Directory Some operations performed by may require temporary files to be created. By default, uses the system temporary directory to create temp files.
11 Changing the Temp Directory To alter the location of the temporary directory using the following steps: Create a new directory called clem and subdirectory called servertemp. Edit options.cfg, located in the /config directory of your installation directory. Edit the temp_directory parameter in this file to read: temp_directory, "C:/clem/servertemp". After doing this, you must restart the Server service. You can do this by clicking the Services tab on your Windows Control Panel. Just stop the service and then start it to activate the changes you made. Restarting the machine will also restart the service. All temp files will now be written to this new directory.
12 Types of Models
13 Types of Models In 12.0, models are packaged into following modules: Classification module The Classification module helps organizations for prediction Association module Association models associate a particular conclusion (such as the decision to buy something) with a set of conditions. Segmentation module The Segmentation module is recommended in cases where the specific result is unknown
14 Classification Module Classification module is included: Decision Trees C&R Tree QUEST CHAID C5.0 Decision List Neural Networks Regression Linear regression Logistic regression Bayesian Network Support Vector Machine (SVM)
15 Association Module Association module is included: Generalized Rule Induction (GRI) Apriori model CARMA model Sequence model
16 Segmentation Module Clustering models focus on identifying groups of similar records and labeling the records according to the group to which they belong. This following models are included: K-Means Kohonen TwoStep Anomaly Detection
17 Modules The following are optional add-on modules for : Text Mining option for mining unstructured data Web Mining option Database Modeling for integration with other data mining packages
19 Starting To start the application, choose 12.0 from the SPSS Inc program group on the Windows Start menu.
20 Data Stream The interface employs an intuitive visual programming interface to permit you to draw logical data flows the way you think of them. Working with is a three-step process of working with data. First, you read data into, Then, run the data through a series of manipulations, And finally, send the data to a destination. This sequence of operations is known as a data stream
21 Stream Canvas Stream Canvas the largest area of the window and is where you will build and manipulate data streams. You can work on multiple streams in the same canvas or multiple stream files Streams are created by drawing diagrams of data operations on the main canvas in the interface.
22 Example of canvas: Interface
23 Node Interface Each operation is represented by an icon or node The nodes are linked together in a stream representing the flow of data through each operation. Streams manager streams are stored in the Streams manager, at the upper right of the window.
24 Nodes Palette Nodes Palettes The palettes are groups of processing nodes listed across the bottom of the screen. The palettes include Favorites, Sources, Record Ops (operations), Field Ops, Graphs, Modeling, Output, and Export. When you click on one of the palette names, the list of nodes in that palette is displayed below. the Record Ops palette tab. To add nodes to the canvas, double-click icons from the Nodes Palette or drag and drop them onto the canvas.
25 Nodes Palette Tabs Sources Nodes Palette Tabs Nodes bring data into. Record Ops Nodes perform operations on data records, such as selecting, merging, and appending. Field Ops Nodes perform operations on data fields, such as filtering, deriving new fields, and determining the data type for given fields. Graphs Nodes graphically display data before and after modeling. Graphs include plots, histograms, web nodes, and evaluation charts.
26 Nodes Palette Tabs Modeling Nodes Palette Tabs Nodes use the modeling algorithms available in, such as neural nets, decision trees, clustering algorithms, and data sequencing. Output Nodes produce a variety of output for data, charts, and model results, which can be viewed in or sent directly to another application, such as SPSS or Excel.
27 Managers The upper right window holds three managers: Streams Outputs Models You can switch the display of the manager window to show any of these items.
28 Managers Streams tab The Streams tab will display the active streams, which you can choose to work on in a given session. You can use the Streams tab to open, rename, save, and delete the streams created in a session.
29 Managers Outputs tab The Output tab will show all graphs and tables output during a session. You can display, save, rename, and close the tables, graphs, and reports listed on this tab.
30 Managers Models tab The Models tab will show all the trained models you have created in the session. These models can be browsed directly from the Models tab or added to the stream in the canvas.
31 Projects On the lower right side of the window is the projects tool, used to create and manage data mining projects. There are two ways to view projects you create in : The CRISP-DM view The Classes view
32 Projects The CRISP-DM tab provides a way to organize projects according to the CRISP-DM methodology. For both experienced and first-time data miners, using the CRISP-DM tool will help you to better organize and communicate your efforts.
33 Projects The Classes tab provides a way to organize your work in categorically by the types of objects you create. This view is useful when taking inventory of data, streams, and models.
35 Using Shortcut Keys
36 Automating Since advanced data mining can be a complex and sometimes lengthy process, includes several types of coding and automation support. They are: Language for Expression Manipulation (CLEM) Scripting Batch mode
37 Automating Language for Expression Manipulation (CLEM) is a language for analyzing and manipulating the data that flows along streams. Data miners use CLEM extensively in stream operations to perform tasks as simple as deriving profit from cost and revenue data or as complex as transforming Web-log data into a set of fields and records with usable information. For more information, see What Is CLEM? in Chapter 7 in 12.0 User s Guide.
38 Scripting Automating is a powerful tool for automating processes in the user interface and working with objects in batch mode. Scripts can perform the same kinds of actions that users perform with a mouse or a keyboard. You can set options for nodes and perform derivations using a subset of CLEM. You can also specify output and manipulate generated models. For more information, see Scripting Overview in Chapter 2 in 12.0 Scripting and Automation Guide.
39 Batch mode Automating enables you to use in a non-interactive manner by running with no visible user interface. Using scripts, you can specify stream and node operations as well as modeling parameters and deployment options. For more information, see Introduction to Batch Mode in Chapter 7 in 12.0 Scripting and Automation Guide.
40 Building a Project
41 Building a Project A project is a group of files related to a data mining task. Projects include data streams, graphs, generated models, reports, and anything else that you have created in. Note: If the Projects tool is not visible in the window, choose Project from the View menu.
42 Using projects, you can: Building a Project Annotate each object in the project file. Use the CRISP-DM methodology to guide your data mining efforts. Add non- objects to the project, such as a PowerPoint slide show used to present your data mining goals or white papers on the algorithms that you plan to use. Produce both comprehensive and simple update reports based on your annotations.
43 Building a Project Objects that you add to a project can be viewed in two ways: Classes view and CRISP-DM view.
44 Building a Project Setting the Default Project Phase Objects added to a project are added to a default phase of CRISP-DM. This means that you need to organize objects manually according to the data mining phase in which you used them. It is wise to set the default folder to the phase in which you are currently working. To select which phase to use as your default: In CRISP-DM view, right-click the folder for the phase to set as the default. From the menu, choose Set as Default. The default folder is displayed in bold type.
45 Building a Project The Classes view in the projects tool organizes your work in categorically by the types of objects created. Saved objects can be added to any of the following categories: Streams Nodes Models Tables, graphs, reports Other (non- files, such as slide shows or white papers relevant to your data mining work)
46 Building a Project A project is essentially a file containing references to all of the files that you associate with the project. This means that project items are saved both individually and as a reference in the project file (.cpj). Because of this referential structure, note the following: Project items must first be saved individually before being added to a project. Objects that are updated individually, such as streams, are also updated in the project file. Manually moving or deleting objects (such as streams, nodes, and output objects) from the file system will make links in the project file invalid.
47 Creating a New Project Creating a New Project You can either start building one, if none is open, or you can close an existing project and start from scratch. From the stream canvas menus, choose: File > Project > New Project...
48 Adding to a Project Building a Project Once you have created or opened a project, you can add objects, such as data streams, nodes, and reports, using several methods.
49 Adding Objects from the Managers Adding Objects from the Managers Using the managers in the upper right corner of the window, you can add streams or output. To Add Objects from the Managers Select an object, such as a table or a stream, from one of the managers tabs. Right-click and choose Add to Project. If the object has been previously saved, it will automatically be added to the appropriate objects folder (in Classes view) or to the default phase folder (in CRISP-DM view). Alternatively, you can drag and drop objects from the managers to the project workspace.
50 Adding Nodes from the Canvas Adding Nodes from the Canvas You can add individual nodes from the stream canvas by using the Save dialog box. To Add Nodes from the Canvas Select a node on the canvas. Right-click and choose Save Node. Alternatively, from the menus choose: Edit > Node > Save Node... In the Save dialog box, select Add file to project. Create a name for the node and click Save. This saves the file and adds it to the project. Nodes are added to the Nodes folder in Classes view and to the default phase folder in CRISP-DM view.
51 Adding External Files Adding External Files You can add a wide variety of non- objects to a project. This is useful when you are managing the entire data mining process within. For example, you can store links to data, notes, presentations, and graphics in a project. In CRISP-DM view, external files can be added to the folder of your choice. In Classes view, external files can be saved only to the Other folder.
52 Adding External Files To add external files to a project: Drag files from the desktop to the project. or Right-click the target folder in CRISP-DM or Classes view. From the menu, choose Add to Folder. Select a file in the dialog box and click Open. This will add a reference to the selected object inside projects.
53 Setting Project Properties Setting Project Properties You can customize a project's contents and documentation by using the project properties dialog box. To access project properties: Right-click an object or folder in the projects tool and choose Project Properties. Click the Project tab to specify basic project information.
54 Setting project properties Building a Project
55 Folder Properties and Annotations Folder Properties and Annotations Individual project folders (in both CRISP-DM and Classes view) can be annotated. In CRISP-DM view, this can be an extremely effective way to document your organization's goals for each phase of data mining. For example, using the annotation tool for the Business Understanding folder, you can include documentation such as "The business objective for this study is to reduce churn among high-value customers." This text could then be automatically included in the project report by selecting the Include in report option. To annotate a folder: Select a folder in the projects tool. Right-click the folder and choose Folder Properties.
56 Object Properties Object Properties You can view object properties and choose whether to include individual objects in the project report. To access object properties: Right-click an object in the project window. From the menu, choose Object Properties.
57 Closing a Project Closing a Project When you exit or open a new project, the existing project is closed, including all associated files. Alternatively, you can choose to close the project file itself and leave all associated files open. To close a project file: From the File menu, choose Close Project. If you are prompted to close or leave open all files associated with the project, click Leave Open to close the project file (.cpj) itself but to leave open all associated files, such as streams, nodes, or graphs.
59 References Integral Solutions Limited., 12.0 User s Guide, 2007.
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