1.)OECD/DAC Handbook on Security System Reform: Supporting Security and Justice

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1 1.)OECD/DAC Handbook on Security System Reform: Supporting Security and Justice 2.) OECD/DAC draft guidance on Armed Violence Reduction OECD/DAC Network on Conflict, Peace and Development Co-operation (CPDC) 1

2 1.) Security system reform Security system reform (SSR) seeks to increase partner countries ability to meet the range of security needs within their societies SSR is primarily about establishing the Rule of Law consistent with democratic norms, sound principles of governance and transparency SSR includes, but extends well beyond, security assistance on defence, intelligence and policing SSR is fundamental to reducing poverty, protecting human rights and supporting sustainable development An accountable, effective and efficient security system can be a force for peace and stability 2

3 The DAC Handbook on Security System Reform. designed by and for SSR practitioners A two-year consultative process with practitioners and policy makers from development, security and diplomatic arenas. Process included: Engagement with field staff. Whole-of-government meetings. Dialogue with non-development actors. Thematic workshops on security and justice issue. Building on DAC work in other areas, e.g. Paris Declaration. 3

4 The SSR Handbook provides operational guidance on how to Foster political support for SSR role of a inception period Use a new assessment tool for taking a strategic approach to SSR Design SSR assistance programmes and work with State and non-state actors. Develop national and nation-wide capacity. Support reforms 9 key sectors (e.g., policing, prisons and democratic governance, justice, etc.). Manage, monitor and evaluate programmes. 4

5 Undertaking an SSR Assessment Contextual analysis and institutional assessment will help to identify constraints and opportunities in security system reform. SSR assessment should cover political analysis, the security context, capacity and governance of security system, and the needs of the poor. The assessment phase of SSR engagement takes time and should be viewed as a confidence-building measure. An inception phase allows understanding of core problems/needs. Assessments should enable design of programmes that balance building capacity (technical competence) and integrity (quality of governance) of security system institutions. Choose an entry point that would allow linkages across the system to develop naturally. Coherence linking humanitarian, health, security and development. 5

6 Strategy and Programme Design From securing the peace to ensuring stability Key elements of a successful SSR programme: Ownership. Partnership. Building political will and popular support. Understanding incentives and disincentives for reform. Realism, flexibility and sustainability. Taking a multi-layered approach to enhancing service delivery. Need to balance support for technical capacity with support for governance capability. Sequencing How to build in flexibility and reward it as part of an evaluation process? 6

7 What is next for the SSR Agenda? Support the dissemination of, and outreach on, the DAC manual: practical country-level application, and work with non-dac donors and non-development actors (NATO, PSC s). In country consultations have taken place in Burundi, the Central African Republic, Guinea Bissau and next consultation will take place in Bolivia (1-5 October 2008). DAC members to test the good practice within DAC SSR Handbook bilaterally and jointly as a co-ordination mechanism. SSR whole-of-government triple D meeting(19 March 09). Development and application of training for donors at HQ and field on SSR. As requested technical support for regional organisations such as AU and OAS. 7

8 The OECD/DAC Handbook on Security System Reform: Support Security and Justice Available to be downloaded from: 8

9 2.) From SSR to Armed Violence Reduction SSR can be most effective if linked to Armed Violence Reduction (AVR) OECD DAC is currently developing guidelines for donors on AVR as some 730,000 people die annually as a result of armed violence (the majority in nonconflict countries). The cost of a typical war is approx. USD 65 Billion Dollars. The costs of homicidal violence ranges from USD 95 Billion to USD 163 Billion annually. 9

10 The Failure of Public Security! The presence of armed violence indicates a failure of public security. Public security failure tends to be localised. For example, arid regions in Kenya, urban slums in Brazil etc AVR progamming can assist in tackling public insecurity in tandem with SSR progammes by responding to the following gaps: 10

11 The gaps to fill Understanding and responding to the gap between conflict and crime. Focus on progamming above and below the state (OAS; Viva Rio) Focus on migration, urbanisation and demographics Embracing disaffected young men Focus on prevention (OAS Haiti example) 11

12 The AVR Lens The four core elements: People People centred approach focusing on making individuals feel safe in their communities. Perpetrators Need to focus on the motivations of the perpetrators as a first step to programming. Institutions - Formal and informal structures Instruments Illicit arms 12

13 The programming orientation Direct Programming Community Security Municipal security Armed Young gangs and youth at risk Crime prevention Indirect Progamming SSR, DDR, health care, education, housing etc 13

14 OAS support in developing useful AVR guidance Possible inclusion of OAS country examples into the guidance? Testing the guidance in OAS states? Inviting OAS secretariat to provide comments on the drafts? CP20977T 14

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