1 Int. J. Mobile Communications, Vol. X, No. X, xxxx 1 Mobile banking: concept and potential Stuart J. Barnes School of Information Management, Victoria University of Wellington, PO Box 600, Wellington, New Zealand Fax: Brian Corbitt School of Information Systems, Deakin University, Melbourne, Australia Fax: Abstract: The internet and the mobile phone two technological advancements that have profoundly affected human behaviour in the last decade have started to converge. The products of this association are mobile data services. Using a variety of platforms, services are being created to enable mobile devices to perform many activities of the traditional internet, albeit in a reduced format for mobile devices. One area of activity is mobile (m-) banking (one of the first areas of commercial transaction on the wireless internet). Banking is an area that has extended in many different ways in recent years, including telephone and online banking. M-banking provides yet another channel for banking services, and in emerging markets, provides some possibility for becoming a primary channel. This paper examines the strategic implications of m-banking and the strategic positioning of m-banking services in different markets. The paper concludes with a discussion of the future for m-banking services. Keywords: Mobile commerce; mobile banking; strategy; markets; technology acceptance; benefits. Reference to this paper should be made as follows: Barnes, S.J. and Corbitt, B. (xxxx) Mobile banking: concept and potential, Int. J. Mobile Communications, Vol. X, No. Y, pp Biographical notes: Stuart J Barnes is an Associate Professor at the School of Information Management, Victoria University of Wellington. He has been teaching and researching in the information systems field for over a decade. His academic background includes a first class degree in economics from University College London and a PhD in business administration from Manchester Business School. He has published widely in leading e-commerce journals such as the International Journal of Electronic Commerce, the Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, Electronic Markets, and the E-Services Journal. He has published three books: E-Commerce and V-Business in 2001, Knowledge Management Systems in 2002, and M-Business in Brian Corbitt is Professor of Information Systems and Head of the School of Information Systems at Deakin University in Melbourne, Australia. He specialises in information and e-business policy at national and organisational levels and has been deeply involved in the development of national IT and information policies in a number of countries in Australasia, Africa and Southeast Asia. He has published widely on information policy and electronic Copyright 2003 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.
2 2 S.J. Barnes and B. Corbitt commerce, most recently in journals such as Prometheus, Information and Society, the Journal of Information Technology and the Journal of Systems and Technology. 1 Introduction In the last decade, we have witnessed the increasing penetration and development of two key areas of technology: the internet and wireless telephony. The internet has proven to be an easy and efficient way of delivering a wide variety of services to millions of wired users; as of February 2002, the estimated number of internet users stood at 544 million, rising to 1 billion by 2005 . Throughout the 1990s, the mobile phone has also played an increasingly important role in society. Again, this is a technology in an age where time is short and the weight attached to convenience is high. In June 2002, the number of mobile phone users worldwide reached one billion for the first time . In many developed economies, saturation of phone ownership is beginning to occur, as penetration rates reach more than 70% in countries such as the UK, Hong Kong, Japan, Finland and New Zealand. Until very recently the internet and the mobile phone have appeared largely separate. However, since the mid-1990s, mobile technology providers have been working to bring convergence, enabling the wireless internet. The products of this partnership are sophisticated wireless data services, centring on mobile access to the internet and electronic messaging on mobile devices. The internet in your pocket has many and various potential applications, including games, , banking, travel information, news feeds and shopping. Moreover, the commercial value of this new revenue stream is predicted to be very significant. Worldwide, mobile (m-) commerce revenues (including peer-to-peer payments) are expected to exceed $25 billion by 2006 . The internet has invigorated the role of e-services and customer relationship management (CRM) and such expectations derive partly from that trend. E-servicing has framed the success of business in all parts of the consumer movements and mass retailing that emerged in the latter half of the last century. Mobile commerce expands the potential for these services and adds another platform for the consumer to expound using that technology. Its fundamental flexibility, mobility, is its most attractive form for the consumer and with appropriate servicing, its potential will support the estimates made by Frost and Sullivan. Some of the first commercial applications of the mobile internet involve wireless or mobile (m-) banking. These developments build on earlier ideas of customer channel extension through telephone banking and online banking. M-banking taps the mobile customer channel in an effort to further reduce costs . In some emerging markets, such as China, where internet penetration is low, m-banking offers the opportunity to break into the online banking channel for the first time . This paper explores developments in m-banking in detail. This is a very new area both in terms of the mobile internet platform and the banking applications that have been developed for it. Therefore, the paper first provides some background to m-banking technologies, before exploring the strategic implications and benefits of m-banking to the banking sector. The paper concludes with a summary and conclusions on the future impact and likely success of m-banking.
3 Mobile banking: concept and potential 3 2 Background to m-banking By its nature, m-banking is a very new phenomenon. In order to better understand the subject of the analysis in this paper, this section provides a brief outline of some of the salient m-banking platforms and services. The emphasis here is on a strategic understanding rather than a technical understanding of services. 2.1 Definition of m-banking M-banking can be defined as a channel whereby the customer interacts with a bank via a mobile device, such as a mobile phone or personal digital assistant (PDA). The emphasis is on data communication, and in its strictest form m-banking does not include telephone banking, either in its traditional form of voice dial-up, or through the form of dial-up to a service based on touch tone phones. 2.2 M-banking platforms The first applications of m-banking were based in Finland. As early as 1992 customers of Merita Nordbanken were able to make bill payments and check account balances using a mobile phone (based on GSM Global Standard for Mobile networks). More recently, m-banking applications have relied on the development of some key standards for wireless electronic services and expanded to global markets. In general, the platforms used have been the wireless application protocol (WAP) and short message service (SMS). However, in Japan, the i-mode platform, based on compact hypertext markup language (chtml) (and more recently Java), has been the dominant platform for m-banking. Let us briefly examine each of these platforms in more detail WAP banking WAP is a universal standard for bringing internet-based content and advanced value-added services to wireless devices such as phones and personal digital assistants (PDAs). In order to integrate as seamlessly as possible with the web, WAP sites are hosted on web servers and use the same transmission protocol as web sites; that is hypertext transport protocol (HTTP) . The most important difference between web and WAP sites is the application environment. Whereas a web site is coded mainly using hypertext markup language (HTML), WAP sites use wireless markup language (WML), based on extensible markup language (XML). WAP data flows between the web server and a wireless device in both directions via a gateway that sits between the internet and mobile networks. A wireless device will send a request for information to a server, and the server will respond by sending packets of data, which are formatted for display on a small screen by a piece of software in the wireless device called a microbrowser.
4 4 S.J. Barnes and B. Corbitt Mobile banking was one of the first transaction-enabled services to be provided using the WAP platform, partly based on research into consumer perceptions of these emerging services. Early WAP research by Nokia suggested m-banking was likely to become a primary application of choice for those users most interested in wireless data . Around 60% of Europe s largest banks now offer m-banking services, with nearly all using the WAP platform . In some markets, such as Hong Kong, nearly all large banks, such as HSBC, Dao Heng Bank, Hang Seng Bank and Citibank, offer sophisticated m-banking services . Figure 1 shows some screen shots of a banking customer interacting with a WAP phone. The customer logs into the m-banking WAP service to conduct a variety of m-banking activities. Typically these include: checking the balance of their account (as shown in Figure 1a) transaction enquiry (as shown in Figure 1b) viewing the last transactions made (usually three or five) checking the status of a cheque number transfering funds from one account to another (usually only for more advanced m-banks) requesting a transaction statement requesting a cheque book cancelling a service request checking the status of service requests changing a password paying a utility bill or credit card (usually only for more advanced m-banks) finding account information, e.g. interest rate finding product information (as shown in Figure 1c) examining a branch listing. Figure 1 Screen shots of m-banking activities a. Checking an account balance b. Checking transaction information c. Finding product information
5 Mobile banking: concept and potential 5 In addition, more sophisticated m-banking platforms may also offer securities trading and access to the foreign exchange market. One of the key concerns with using WAP as a platform for m-banking is user acceptance. WAP adoption by consumers is both patchy and limited. As of July 2001, the use of WAP phones has been disappointingly low; just 6% of Finnish and US mobile phone users access the internet using their phones, compared with only 10% in the UK and 16% in Germany . In Japan, the success of WAP services has been greatest, with 6 million subscribers to the EZWeb WAP service in July 2001  SMS banking SMS allows text messages of up to 160 characters to be sent to and from mobile handsets via a store-and-forward system. Around 500 SMS billion messages were sent in 2001 . Although 95% of this is based on person-to-person communication and voic , other services such as e-banking are growing in popularity. However, only around 10% of Europe s largest banks offer SMS banking . This is despite the fact that the majority of phones have SMS capability, but only 10% have WAP capability . In the UK, they include the Cooperative Bank, HSBC and First Direct . Using SMS, banks can offer a variety of services triggered by the customer sending a message to the customer service centre and receiving messages on their phone. By data input via the phone keypad, customers can typically: check the balance of their account check the status of a cheque number transfer funds from one account to another view the last transactions made (usually three to five) request a transaction statement request a cheque book change a password pay a utility bill (usually only for more advanced m-banks). For example, a customer could check their account balance by sending an SMS message <bank name><password><account number> (e.g. ABANK ) to the bank s customer service. The bank replies with a message containing the relevant account information.
6 6 S.J. Barnes and B. Corbitt 2.3 Other platforms Various other platforms are available or have been proposed for m-banking activities. These include the i-mode platform in Japan, which had a phenomenal 31.3 million subscribers in February 2002 . Commission on subscriptions provide DoCoMo, i-mode s parent company, with annual revenues of more than $3.4 billion per year . The platform includes a number of m-banking facilities similar to those described above. These create approximately 7% of i-mode s traffic . However, i-mode is not restricted to Japan; tests of i-mode services were being conducted both in Europe and the USA during 2002 with a view to rolling-out commercial products [16,17]. Apart from remote m-banking, numerous ideas exist for point-of-sale (POS) applications. For example, using short-range wireless technology in phones and terminals, such as Bluetooth, consumers are enabled to pay bills by connecting to the merchant s POS terminal, buy an item from a vending machine, pay a parking meter, and many other applications . The sum owed could, e.g. be debited from a card or bank account or added to the phone bill. 3 Strategic analysis of the m-banking sector Opportunities for IT-enabled competitive advantage vary widely from one company to another, just as the rules and intensity of competition vary widely from one industry to another. The complexity of the IT management challenge increases considerably when IT penetrates to the heart of a firm s (or industry s) strategy. Thus, in order to understand the impacts of the m-banking we need a comprehensive strategic framework. Porter  provides such as framework, arguing that economic and competitive forces in an industry segment, such as the m-banking industry, is the result of five basic forces positioning of traditional intra-industry rivals threat of new entrants into the industry segment threat of substitute products or services bargaining power of buyers bargaining power of suppliers. This section aims to provide an analysis of the m-banking service sector from a strategic viewpoint. The purpose of this analysis is to provide some understanding of the key forces impacting on the ability of m-banking to succeed in provision of banking services. For illustration, we will focus on the UK banking sector, although the analysis can be reinterpreted for different markets. The results of such an analysis have distinct implications for practitioners. Figure 2 shows Porter s framework, highlighting some of the key elements for each of the five forces. As we can see, there is strength in each of the forces, emphasising a very strong degree of competition in the provision of m-banking services. Let us examine the framework in more detail.
7 Mobile banking: concept and potential 7 Figure 2 Market analysis: the m-banking sector New Entrants Asset barriers Finance entrants (e.g. VISA) Network Operators Supplier Power Infrastructure providers Network operators Consolidation Rivalry Based on customer retention Consolidation of banks New mobile channel Buyer Power Sophisticated needs Existing relationships Switching costs Substitutes Branches Telephone banking Online banking 3.1 Rivalry Banks are the major players in the provision of m-banking services. However, as Egg has shown in the online banking sector, the possibility exists for other players to enter the market offering specific products. Rivalry among banking providers differs from country to country. In the UK, the banking sector is competitive, with a large selection of banks in operation, although mergers and takeovers have essentially narrowed the market for the consumer. In this market, rivalry is not at a cut-throat level, with many banks focusing on building relationships with customers at a young age, rather than trying to lure established customers from competitors. At present the m-banking sector is still embryonic; there are a handful of basic services being provided, with none of them being particularly well subscribed. Therefore, rivalry in this sector is currently low. A key issue from the banks perspective is the cost-benefit of providing new services. One important lesson banks have learned from previous IT investments is the role of new channels in increasing the cost per customer (CPC). Previous investments in ATMs and telephone banking, for example, although with significantly lower average costs per transaction ($0.6 and $1.4 per month respectively), were so convenient and popular that they induced high transaction volumes and thus higher costs per customer. During the period from 1985 to 1995, CPC increased by 39% . Since then, similar lessons have been learned from other IT investments such as online banking . Alliances are likely to play an important role in developing m-banking services. No single industry alone has what it takes to establish m-banking. In the new mobile digital economy, consumer online services demand that diverse inputs must be combined to create and deliver value. The complementary assets and capabilities of mobile operators, banks, other financial services, infrastructure providers, software developers, network security specialists (such as RSA Security or Verisign) and content providers are likely to play an important role, with banks and operators being at the core.
8 8 S.J. Barnes and B. Corbitt The concept of e-services prescribes that rivalry is best tested and addressed where new innovations/technologies are provided to offer consumers genuine choice, thus appearing as a more appealing product. Dell Computer s success as an organisation selling using the web was as much about the choice added as the strategy put in place. Consumers are generally attracted to new technologies and history clearly tells us that once the hype is over and there is an associated drop off, e.g. the dot.com bomb, then successful technologies tend to grow steadily and very fruitfully after that . Mobile technologies can offer the consolidation needed for success and enable customer retention in the face of increased competition. The technology becomes the innovation for the customer to use, the alternative technology of choice. This can be used to sustain customers in banking; as a means to deal with strategic decisions by competitors to offer incentives to customers through more business-oriented means. Change is challenging to customers, and if a new innovation offers more flexibility, it may be the catalyst to remain a customer when charge differentiation and prices become an issue for the consumer. 3.2 New entrants Deregulation in the UK banking industry has meant increased competition for banks. This competition extends to the internet. In the online banking sector, internet-only banks such as Egg have challenged traditional bricks and mortar banks. The same threat of new entrants in the m-banking sector is currently limited; customer perceptions of wireless services are not strong enough to build value in this area and there is a small customer base. Services based on WAP have received an apathetic response in many markets, including the UK . However, if customer perceptions strengthen, there is a real threat for a suitably positioned new entrant to build customer value. For example, a strong player in the payment market, such as VISA, may have some of the competencies and brand value to exploit customer demand. The possibility exists to build new, differentiated, value-added services for m-banking, such as inter-bank transfers, using VISA s market knowledge and expertise in secure transfers. A number of developments have already occurred in this area, including those of VISA and Nokia, Sonera, and France Telecom. Perhaps an even larger threat exists from network operators; network operators already possess a powerful billing relationship with customers that can be leveraged to provide further financial services, thereby marginalising banks. This model has already proved successful in Japan with i-mode . Notwithstanding, the barriers to entry for mobile banking are high. In order to enter the market a potential entrant must have an excellent knowledge of the market and consumer. Furthermore, the market is regulated and a banking license is required. The capital cost is also very high in terms of the IT spend. 3.3 Substitutes A key threat to the viability of mobile banking is the availability of substitutes for the consumer. In the UK, the retail banking market has created an array of channels for banking services, including telephone, internet and branch banking. Any of these or other channels for interaction of customers with banking service providers must be considered substitutes for m-banking services. These services have built up large customer bases. At
9 Mobile banking: concept and potential 9 present, customers of alternative remote banking services need to be convinced of the added value of m-banking services in order to further build the customer base. Quite often in business, alternative technologies are seen as substitutes for each other. In reality they can also be seen as complementary. In the eyes of the consumer, presenting multiple channels of service activity by various technologies can sometimes be seen as a series of supportable ways offering alternatives that complement one service; in this case banking. This can strengthen the product overall and enable the technology to be perceived by business as a complement rather than as a substitute. 3.4 Buyers Ultimately, customers hold the reins when comes to channel selection. The banking sector tends to be based on a customer-centric model, where the emphasis is on managing customer relationships and meeting consumers increasing levels of sophistication . Buyer power is increasing through deregulation and the provision of internet banking solutions, although mergers and takeover are a further trend that has helped to reduce customer choice. The problems associated with branch closures in the UK and Ireland underline how customer behaviour is difficult to change. A variety of banks closed branches in remote areas, expecting customers to use other branches. In fact, customers protested, many affected customers moved to other banks, and a number of branches were reopened. Customers in banking are generally very localised, and although switching costs are not particularly high in the traditional market, banks exert extra costs by making such a move difficult (for example, difficulty in closing bank accounts or transferring automatic payments). On the other hand, if a service provides significant value to the consumer and is easy to learn and interact with, then, dependent on market conditions, customers tend to be drawn to it without a significant push from the banks. This is the lesson from telephone and online banking in the UK and similar markets. By the end of 2001, there were approximately 65 million online banking customers worldwide, of which 28 million were in Western Europe . Indeed, by 1999, 94% of all European banks offered online banking in Europe, with similarly high rollout in other developed economies. In the UK, market conditions have helped the penetration of online banking: the cost of flat-rate internet access is the lowest in Europe, and penetration rates are quite high (according to OFTEL , more than 40% of people have access at home and 60% at work). The same conditions do not yet exist for m-banking. While more than 70% of the population have access to mobile phones, less than 10% have access to WAP phones and many of these are light users . The use of SMS on mobile phones is far more widespread; currently 186 billion per annum in Europe alone . However, while it is useful for push-based information (for example, account balances), it does not offer the sophistication needed for key pull-based services (such as bank transfers), with more than 95% of messages being used for person-to-person communication. Notwithstanding, some of these difficulties may relate to the immaturity of the technologies and services involved in ways that the traditional internet was until very recently.
10 10 S.J. Barnes and B. Corbitt 3.5 Suppliers The main suppliers of wireless banking services are the parent banks. However, the companies involved in operating mobile services, providing the infrastructure (hardware and software) and developing content are also an important part of the value chain . Without appropriate competencies in the development and supply of mobile services, banks cannot reach the consumer market. The costs of obtaining such resources balanced against predicted demand is a major determinant of the banks provision of m-banking services. This market is currently reasonably competitive, with a variety of operators competing for added value in the face of falling average revenue per customer. However, operators are beginning to leverage their infrastructure advantages in transport to enable movement along the value chain towards mobile services, delivery support and market making . Consolidation through merger and acquisition in this market is another trend. Such a move could strengthen the position of operators, who, ultimately, control the billing relationship with the customer and own the subscriber identity module (SIM). Competition in the provision of infrastructure also exists, but an oligopolistic practice among the well-known group of major players (such as Nokia, Lucent, Ericsson, Motorola and Siemens) tends to keep prices high and stable . Overall, the m-banking sector is very immature. It is subject to a variety of industry forces that could each play an important part in determining the future structure of competition. Customers, in accord with developing needs, are a powerful determinant of the success of this new banking channel over existing channels. As the sector develops, competition is likely to be created through rivalry from banks, potential new entrants from finance and telecommunications, and the increasingly powerful role of suppliers (especially operators and infrastructure providers). 4 The diffusion of m-banking services: lessons from technology acceptance theory The adoption of wireless services is a complex phenomenon to predict. In some markets, wireless services have been met with apathy, such as in the UK, USA and Hong Kong . In other markets the success of services has been widespread; in Japan, i-mode, launched in February 1999, has a subscriber growth rate of nearly 1 million per month . In this section we try to unravel some of the complexities of technology adoption as applied to m-banking services. The aim is to gain some insight into the possible determinants of success or failure in m-banking adoption among consumers in different markets. As a basis for the analysis, we will use technology acceptance theory. This theory examines the factors that influence the adoption, and diffusion throughout a social system, of new technologies or services such as m-banking. Figure 3 shows the basic model for our analysis. This is based on the work of a number of key theorists, particularly Rogers  research on technology diffusion, and Fishbein s and Ajzen s theory of planned behaviour (TPB) . Rogers suggests that there are five characteristics that are important in explaining the diffusion of innovations, such as m-banking: relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialability and observability. TPB posits that actual, voluntary use of a technology is determined by the individual s behavioural intention, which, in turn, is determined by the individual s attitude towards
11 Mobile banking: concept and potential 11 using the technology and subjective norms present in the individual s social environment. In recent years, Rogers s findings and those of TPB have been combined into a general theory of technology acceptance [30,31], including additional factors to be considered along with Rogers s basic five, specifically image and trust. Figure 3 General model of technology acceptance The model provides an interesting framework for analysing the potential of m-banking services. By assessing the attitudes and subjective norms associated with using the technology we are better equipped to examine aspects of the likely diffusion of m-banking in different markets. Figure 3 suggests that an individual s attitude toward adopting m-banking is determined by seven key characteristics. Let us examine each of these, in turn. Relative advantage. A unique value proposition of m-banking services is that they are available on the move. Many other aspects of the service, such as those of interactivity and remote access are not unique. The relative advantage of m-banking is strongly dependent on existing banking services, electronic or otherwise. For example, m-banking in emerging markets such as China or India creates a principal source of relative advantage from the fact that it provides an access channel to many individuals for whom online banking was effectively previously inaccessible . M-banking provides the potential for low-cost access to remote banking services. However, in mature economies where remote banking services are more developed, such as the UK, the USA, the Netherlands and Germany, the relative advantage of m-banking will be small. In these markets, managing the reach and richness of services is an important aspects of market positioning . In this case, the consumer-banking sector is already saturated with multiple banking channels such as telephone and online banking. Here, m-banking is a channel extension of previous services.
12 12 S.J. Barnes and B. Corbitt Complexity. The complexity of m-banking is dictated by the available technological infrastructure and usability of m-banking services. Present technological constraints include low power, difficulties in data input and small screens for handheld devices (as well as high latency and low bandwidth for most existing services). In areas where traditional online access is available, the use of such devices is likely to be considered more complex and less satisfactory than online banking. This is certainly the case for many WAP banking services . Areas without preconceptions about online services, such as developing markets, are likely to be more oriented towards new mobile services. However, it is easy to overestimate this constraint. Subscriptions to SMS services are growing at a phenomenal rate; over 30% a month in many markets, despite the crude interface and display . Similarly, the financial services provided on i-mode, based on the familiar HTML and controlled by a simple and intuitive interface of menus and the command navigation button, have experienced rapid subscription growth . Compatibility. The compatibility of m-banking with a customer s experiences and behaviour varies widely between different markets. A key part of this is the user s experience with other technologies and services. This could be in terms of the penetration of mobile phones, PCs, online banking, telephone banking, SMS, i-mode or WAP. For example, if the penetration of mobile phones is high and SMS is a popular service, this could provide a hook for SMS-based m-banking. Where communities are localised and the use of mobile telecommunications is low, the possibilities for m-banking may be more limited. Trialability. Most market research conducted in developed economies shows that customers are understandably unwilling to pay for mobile services (e.g. account balances) that they already receive free through another channel; customers, however, are more willing to pay for mobile transaction services such as stock trading and for new pushed services that they could not receive any other way . Nevertheless advanced mobile banking services, even where they have been provided free of charge, such as in Brazil and Turkey, have experienced relatively low customer take-up . Part of the problem is encouraging users to try m-banking to demonstrate its value proposition, especially where observability is low. Trialability and pricing of services is likely to be an important part of establishing m-banking and building a critical mass. Observability. The immediacy of m-banking services creates a relatively high level of observability. M-banking usage is highly interactive, and, on some services, such as SMS and packet-switched network browsing, transactions are responded to almost instantly. Observability can be enhanced through individuals witnessing others using m-banking, especially since usage on mobile phones and PDAs often occurs out in the open. However, unless contact is made with the user by the observer, it is often very difficult to establish what a device is being used for, and the security aspects of such services must also be observed. Observability is lessened somewhat due to the fact that some important aspects of the innovation, such as the network, are less visible. On the other hand, m-banking usage can form the basis for observable behaviour; for example, after a user checks a bank balance they may reorganise their finances, perhaps transferring money between accounts.
13 Mobile banking: concept and potential 13 Image. Related to visibility, the image of device users is very important in some markets. Indeed, as the European, US and Japanese markets have shown, many users select handsets and services on the basis of enhancing the individual s social status or image . It is possible that the same ideas of image may extend to ownership of m-banking services. Trust. One of the major difficulties in the area of trust-building for m-banking services is security. In terms of technology, the mobile transaction channel is very new and needs to build a perception of security among consumers. As with the traditional internet, this may take time, but may be easier for familiar services such as messaging. Human nature suggests that customers are more likely to trust traditional bricks-and-mortar banks than those that they cannot see, weakening the possibility for building stand-alone m-banking services, even in emerging markets. However, the extension of trust for existing brands is a strong possibility, although the limited richness of mobile devices does make it more difficult to communicate the brand message to the consumer. According to TPB, an individual s adoption of m-banking will be affected by subjective norms toward using the technology. These norms are determined by normative beliefs that the individual attributes to significant others (friends, work colleagues, family members and the like) with respect to adopting or continuing to use the technology. It is now well recognised that mobile telephony plays a large role in social interactions, and can be especially active amongst the younger age groups . This raises some concerns that there could be an age gap in the penetration of m-banking. Social norms will at least in part be related to those associated with existing infrastructure and service platforms, e.g. via the penetration of mobile phones, SMS, i-mode or WAP. In many European countries, the usage of SMS is extraordinarily high among the youth and young adult segment. Similar patterns can be seen for i-mode in Japan, where 70% of subscribers are under 35. Individuals in this segment tend to be strongly influenced by their peers. Since mobile phones are habitually used for social communication, the possibility for passing on individual beliefs via communities tends to be strong. Users often interact with their mobiles while with groups of friends showing off any attractive new content. Therefore, virility can be important, creating a message or experience that is so relevant and compelling that the consumer passes it on. The wireless digital space can be a fertile breeding ground for message and experience viruses . Cultural and brand values can also form a basis for norms. For example, in Japan the cultural tendency toward group conformity associated with i-mode suggests that a critical mass of usage leads to accelerated adoption and continued usage. Further, loyalty towards certain brand identities in different countries, such as banks, network operators and even handset providers, comprises a subjective norm that can further strengthen adoption and use of services such as m-banking. 5 Summary and conclusions The emergence of data communications on mobile phones and PDAs provides exciting possibilities for the growth of mobile banking services. Technical platforms such as SMS, i-mode and WAP have provided the potential channel for such services and hundreds of
14 14 S.J. Barnes and B. Corbitt banks worldwide have begun to develop and use them . This paper has examined the nature of these services and their strategic potential as a viable channel for consumer banking. Porter s framework provided a useful structure to examine m-banking services in the UK, the results of which provide some useful insights and implications for other markets. From a strategic perspective, the m-banking marketplace involves a complex interplay between banks and their existing banking channels, the consumer, and the suppliers of related competencies, technical infrastructure and network services, some of which pose a potential threat in developing competing services. Mobile banking is still an immature product. The successful adoption and use of m-banking services is dependent on a number of factors, including existing banking channels, market conditions and customer perceptions. Section three examined the adoption of m-banking services using technology acceptance theory, underlining some of the key aspects of the technology and user behaviour that are likely to play a role in the future adoption of m-banking services. Whether the services become one of many channels or a primary channel for banking will significantly affect the potential return on m-banking investments by banks, which was estimated to be $254 million in 2002 in Western Europe alone . The issue of reach and richness of m-banking services is one that needs careful management ; even if a market existed, m-banking cannot fully replace the rich and richness of other banking platforms. However, as the above analysis has shown, it does provide significant potential for a channel to enable or extend electronic banking for consumers, depending on the prevailing market conditions. The next five years will provide important evidence regarding the future potential of m-banking in existing and emerging markets. If industry analysts are correct, 2003 is likely to provide the inflection point for the growth of wireless data services , based on the penetration of cheaper data access via packet-switched networks (typically, the global packet radio service or GPRS) and the continued success of platforms such as SMS and its successor, MMS (multimedia message service). Alongside, the growth of short-range wireless services, such as Bluetooth, could provide important complementary platforms for wireless financial services, especially electronic payment at POS. References 1 IDC Research (2001) A billion users will drive e-commerce, Available from: [Accessed 28 May 2001]. 2 EMarketer (2002a) One billion mobile users by end of Q2, Available from: [Accessed 28 April 2002]. 3 Frost and Sullivan (2002a) Mcommerce transactions to hit USD25 billion, Available from: [Accessed 29 April 2002]. 4 Durlacher (1999) Mobile commerce report, Available from: [Accessed 15 January 2000]. 5 Datta, A., Pasa, M. and Schnitker, T. (2001) Could mobile banking go global? McKinsey Quarterly, No. 4, G Lab (2000) Your Pocket Guide to the Mobile Internet. Cambridge, 3G Lab Limited. 7 Andersen, A. and Morgan, J.P. (2000) Wireless Data: The World in Your Hand, London, Arthur Andersen/JP Morgan.
15 Mobile banking: concept and potential 15 8 Epaynews (2001) European banks should offer SMS banking, Available from: [Accessed 3 May 2002]. 9 Maude, D., Raghunath, R., Sahay, A. and Sands, P. (2000) Banking on the device, McKinsey Quarterly, No. 3, pp EMarketer (2001) Wireless web growing around the world, Available from: Accessed 10 September 2001]. 11 Mobile Media Japan (2002) Japanese mobile internet users., Available from: [Accessed 15 April 2002]. 12 Frost and Sullivan (2002b) European SMS to double by 2006, Available from: [Accessed 29 April 2002]. 13 West, L. (2001) Dial m for money, Available from: [Accessed 5 May 2002]. 14 Nakada, G. (2001) I-Mode romps, Accessed 5 March 2001]. 15 Funk, J. (2000) The Internet Market: Lessons from Japan s I-Mode System, Unpublished White Paper, Kobe University, Japan. 16 Iwatani, Y. (2002) NTT DoCoMo may launch I-mode in US this year, Available from: [Accessed 22 March 2002]. 17 Pikula, V. (2001) KPN starts tests with European I-mode service, [Accessed 22 March 2002]. 18 Barnes, S.J. (2002b) Under the skin: short-range embedded wireless technology, International Journal of Information Management, Vol. 22, No. 3, (in press). 19 Porter, M. (1980) Competitive Strategy, New York, Free Press. 20 Olazabal, N.G. (2002) Banking: the IT paradox, McKinsey Quarterly, No. 1, pp Coltman, T., Devinney, T., Latukefu, A. and Midgley, D. (2001) E-business: evolution, revolution or hype?, California Management Review, No. 1, pp Emarketer (2002b) Banking on eeurope, Available from: [Accessed 28 April 2002]. 23 OFTEL (2001) Consumers Use of Mobile Telephony, London, HMSO. 24 Forrester Research (2002) Finance firms look to mobiles, [Accessed 23 April 2002]. 25 Barnett, N., Hodges, S. and Wilshire, M. (2000) M-commerce: an operator s manual, The McKinsey Quarterly, No. 3, pp Barnes, S.J. (2002a) The mobile commerce value chain: analysis and future developments, International Journal of Information Management, Vol. 22, No. 2, (in press). 27 Kramer, R. and Simpson, B. (1999) Wireless Wave II: the Data Wave Unplugged, London, Goldman Sachs. 28 Rogers, E. (1995) Diffusion of Innovations, New York, Free Press. 29 Ajzen, I. (1991) The theory of planned behavior, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Vol. 50, pp Karahanna, E., Straub, D. and Chervany, N. (1999) Information technology adoption across time: a cross-sectional comparison of pre-adoption and post-adoption beliefs, MIS Quarterly, Vol. 23, pp Venkatesh, V. and Davis, F. (2000) A theoretical extension of the technology acceptance model: four longitudinal field studies, Management Science, Vol. 46, pp AUTHOR, ARE REFS.18 & 26 STILL IN PRESS?
16 16 S.J. Barnes and B. Corbitt 32 Wurster, T. and Evans, P. (2000) Blown to Bits, Boston, Harvard University Press. 33 Barnes, S.J. and Vidgen, R. (2001 Assessing the quality of WAP news sites: the WebQual/m method, VISION: the Journal of Business Perspective, June-December (in press). 34 Hart, P.D. (2000) The Wireless Marketplace in 2000, Washington DC, Peter D. Hart Research Associates. 35 Puca (2001) Booty call: how marketers can cross into wireless space, [Accessed 28 May 2001]. 36 Santello, P. (2001) Direct Experience Marketing, San Francisco, Lot21, Inc. 37 Wireless Financial Services News (2002) Wireless Banks and Brokers, Newton MA, Longwood Information. 38 Jupiter Research (2001) Wireless Market to Take Off in 2003, London, Jupiter MMXI. AUTHOR, IS REF.33 STILL IN PRESS?
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