# Energy Forecasting Methods

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1 Energy Forecasting Methods Presented by: Douglas J. Gotham State Utility Forecasting Group Energy Center Purdue University Presented to: Indiana Utility Regulatory Commission Indiana Office of the Utility Consumer Counselor November 15, 2007

2 Outline Modeling techniques Projecting peak demand from energy forecasts Determining capacity needs from demand forecasts Incorporating load management and conservation measures Uncertainty

3 Using the Past to Predict the Future What is the next number in the following sequences? 0, 1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 36, 49,... 0, 1, 3, 6, 10, 15, 21, 28,... 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13,... 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13,... These types of problems are at the heart of what forecasters do

4 A Simple Example ???

5 A Little More Difficult ???

6 Much More Difficult ???

7 Much More Difficult The numbers on the previous slide were the summer peak demands for Indiana from 2000 to They are affected by a number of factors Weather Economic activity Price Interruptible customers called upon Price of competing fuels

8 Question How do we find a pattern in these peak demand numbers to predict the future?

10 Methods of Forecasting Time Series trend analysis Econometric structural analysis End Use engineering analysis

11 Time Series Forecasting Linear Trend fit the best straight line to the historical data and assume that the future will follow that line (works perfectly in the 1 st example) Many methods exist for finding the best fitting line, the most common is the least squares method. Polynomial Trend Fit the polynomial curve to the historical data and assume that the future will follow that line Can be done to any order of polynomial (square, cube, etc) but higher orders are usually needlessly complex Logarithmic Trend Fit an exponential curve to the historical data and assume that the future will follow that line (works perfectly for the 2 nd example)

12 Good News and Bad News The statistical functions in most commercial spreadsheet software packages will calculate many of these for you These may not work well when there is a lot of variability in the historical data If the time series curve does not perfectly fit the historical data, there is model error. There is normally model error when trying to forecast a complex system.

13 Methods Used to Account for Variability Modeling seasonality/cyclicality Smoothing techniques Moving averages Weighted moving averages Exponentially weighted moving averages Filtering techniques Box-Jenkins

14 Econometric Forecasting Econometric models attempt to quantify the relationship between the parameter of interest (output variable) and a number of factors that affect the output variable. Example Output variable Explanatory variable Economic activity Weather (HDD/CDD) Electricity price Natural gas price Fuel oil price

15 Estimating Relationships Each explanatory variable affects the output variable in different ways. The relationships can be calculated via any of the methods used in time series forecasting. Can be linear, polynomial, logarithmic Relationships are determined simultaneously to find overall best fit. Relationships are commonly known as sensitivities.

16 End Use Forecasting End use forecasting looks at individual devices, aka end uses (e.g., refrigerators) How many refrigerators are out there? How much electricity does a refrigerator use? How will the number of refrigerators change in the future? How will the amount of use per refrigerator change in the future? Repeat for other end uses

17 The Good News Account for changes in efficiency levels (new refrigerators tend to be more efficient than older ones) both for new uses and for replacement of old equipment Allow for impact of competing fuels (natural gas vs. electricity for heating) or for competing technologies (electric resistance heating vs. heat pump) Incorporate and evaluate the impact of demand-side management/conservation programs

18 The Bad News Tremendously data intensive Primarily limited to forecasting energy usage, unlike other forecasting methods Most long-term planning electricity forecasting models forecast energy and then derive peak demand from the energy forecast

19 Example has electrical energy models for each of 8 utilities in Indiana Utility energy forecasts are built up from sectoral forecasting models residential (econometric) commercial (end use) industrial (econometric)

20 Another Example The Energy Information Administration s National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) projects energy and fuel prices for 9 census regions Energy demand residential commercial industrial transportation

21 SUFG Residential Sector Model Residential sector split according to space heating source electric non-electric Major forecast drivers demographics households household income energy prices Year Annual Use per Electric Space Heating Customer Year s Annual Use per Non-Electric Space Heating Customer Year 1967 Years

22 Residential Model Sensitivities Source: SUFG 2005 Forecast

23 NEMS Residential Module Sixteen end-use services i.e., space heating Three housing types single family, multi-family, mobile home 34 end-use technologies i.e., electric air-source heat pump Nine census divisions

24 SUFG Commercial Sector Model Major forecast drivers floor space inventory end use intensity employment growth energy prices 10 building types modeled offices, restaurants, retail, groceries, warehouses, schools, colleges, health care, hotel/motel, miscellaneous 14 end uses per building type space heating, air conditioning, ventilation, water heating, cooking, refrigeration, lighting, mainframe computers, mini-computers, personal computers, office equipment, outdoor lighting, elevators and escalators, other

25 Commercial Model Sensitivities Source: SUFG 2005 Forecast

26 NEMS Commercial Module Ten end-use services i.e., cooking Eleven building types i.e., food service 64 end-use technologies i.e., natural gas range Ten distributed generation technologies i.e., photovoltaic solar systems Nine census divisions

27 SUFG Industrial Sector Model Major forecast drivers industrial activity energy prices 15 industries modeled classified by Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system some industries are very energy intensive while others are not

28 Indiana s Industrial Sector Source: SUFG 2005 Forecast

29 Industrial Model Sensitivities Source: SUFG 2005 Forecast

30 NEMS Industrial Module Seven energy-intensive industries i.e., bulk chemicals Eight non-energy-intensive industries i.e., construction Cogeneration Four census regions, shared to nine census divisions

31 Energy Peak Demand Constant load factor / load shape Peak demand and energy grow at same rate Constant load factor / load shape for each sector Calculate sectoral contribution to peak demand and sum If low load factor (residential) grows fastest, peak demand grows faster than energy If high load factor (industrial) grows fastest, peak demand grows slower than energy

32 Energy Peak Demand Day types Break overall load shapes into typical day types low, medium, high weekday, weekend, peak day Adjust day type for load management and conservation programs Can be done on a total system level or a sectoral level

33 Load Diversity Each utility does not see its peak demand at the same time as the others 2005 peak demands occurred at: Hoosier Energy 7/25, 6PM Indiana Michigan - 8/3, 2PM Indiana Municipal Power Agency 7/25, 3PM Indianapolis Power & Light - 7/25, 3PM NIPSCO 6/24, 1PM PSI Energy 7/25, 4PM SIGECO 7/25, 4PM Wabash Valley 7/24, 5PM

34 Load Diversity Thus, the statewide peak demand is less than the sum of the individual peaks Actual statewide peak demand can be calculated by summing up the load levels of all utilities for each hour of the year Diversity factor is an indication of the level of load diversity Historically, Indiana s diversity factor has been about percent that is, statewide peak demand is usually about 96 percent of the sum of the individual utility peak demands

35 Peak Demand Capacity Needs Target reserve margin Loss of load probability (LOLP) Expected unserved energy (EUE) Assigning capacity needs to type peaking baseload intermediate Optimization

36 Reserve Margin vs. Capacity Margin RM = capacity demand demand x100% CM = capacity demand capacity x100% Both reserve margin (RM) and capacity margin (CM) are the same when expressed in megawatts difference between available capacity and demand Normally expressed as percentages

37 Reserve Margins Reserve/capacity margins are relatively easy to use and understand, but the numbers are easy to manipulate Contractual off-system sale can be treated as a reduction in capacity or increase in demand does not change the MW margin, but will change the percentage Similarly, interruptible loads and direct load control is sometimes shown as an increase in capacity

38 LOLP and EUE Probabilistic methods that account for the reliability of the various sources of supply Loss of load probability given an expected demand for electricity and a given set of supply resources with assumed outage rates, what is the likelihood that the supply will not be able to meet the demand? Expected unserved energy similar calculation to find the expected amount of energy that would go unmet Both are used in resource planning to ensure that sufficient capacity is available for LOLP and/or EUE to be less than a minimum allowable level

39 Capacity Types Once the amount of capacity needed in a given year is determined, the next step is to determine what type of capacity is needed peaking (high operating cost, low capital cost) baseload (low operating cost, high capital cost) intermediate or cycling (operating and capital costs between peaking and baseload) some planners only use peaking and baseload

40 Assigning Demand to Type SUFG uses historical load shape analysis for each of the utilities to assign a percentage of their peak demand to each load type Percentages vary from utility to utility according to the characteristics of their customers utilities with a large industrial base tend to have a higher percentage of baseload demand those with a large residential base tend to have a higher percentage of peaking demand Rough breakdown: baseload 60%, intermediate 15%, peaking 20%

41 Assigning Existing Resources SUFG then assigns existing generation to the three types according to age, size, fuel type, and historical usage patterns Purchased power contracts are assigned to type according to time period (annual or summer only) and capacity factor Power sales contracts are also assigned to type

42 Assigning Capacity Needs to Type Future resource needs by type are determined by comparing existing capacity to projected demand, while accounting for interruptible and buy through loads, as well as firm purchases and sales and retirement of existing units Breakdown of demand by type is not projected to change across the forecast horizon

43 NEMS Electricity Market Module Eleven fossil generation technologies i.e., advanced clean coal with sequestration Two distributed generation technologies baseload and peak Seven renewable generation technologies i.e., geothermal Conventional and advanced nuclear Fifteen supply regions based on NERC regions and sub-regions

44 Load Management and Conservation Measures Direct load control and interruptible loads generally affect peak demand but not energy forecasts delay consumption from peak time to off-peak time usually subtract from peak demand projections Efficiency and conservation programs generally affect both peak demand and energy forecasts consumption is reduced instead of delayed usually subtract from energy forecast before peak demand calculations

45 Sources of Uncertainty Exogenous assumptions forecast is driven by a number of assumptions (e.g., economic activity) about the future Stochastic model error it is usually impossible to perfectly estimate the relationship between all possible factors and the output Non-stochastic model error bad input data (measurement/estimation error)

46 Alternate Scenarios Given the uncertainty surrounding long-term forecasts, it is not advisable to follow one single forecast SUFG develops alternative scenarios by varying the input assumptions Source: SUFG 2005 Forecast

47 Back to the Short Answer

48 Further Information State Utility Forecasting Group Energy Information Administration

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