1 Parallels Parallels Virtuozzo Containers for Windows User's Guide Version 4.0 Copyright Parallels Software International Inc.
2 ISBN: N/A Parallels Holdings Ltd Sunrise Valley Drive Suite 600 Herndon, VA USA Tel: +1 (703) Fax: +1 (703) Parallels Holdings Ltd. All rights reserved. Distribution of this work or derivative of this work in any form is prohibited unless prior written permission is obtained from the copyright holder.
3 3 Contents Preface 11 About Parallels Virtuozzo Containers About This Guide Organization of This Guide Documentation Conventions Getting Help Feedback Virtuozzo Containers Philosophy 18 About Virtuozzo Containers Software What is Virtuozzo Containers What is Container Virtuozzo Applications Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 for 64-bit Processors Distinctive Features of Parallels Virtuozzo Containers OS Virtualization Virtuozzo File System (VZFS) Templates Resource Management Main Principles of Virtuozzo Operation Basics of Virtuozzo Technology Understanding Templates Parallels Management Console Overview Parallels Infrastructure Management Overview Container Administrators' Tools Hardware Node Availability Considerations Operations on Containers 32 Creating New Container Before You Begin Choosing Container ID Creating Container Creating Container Running Windows SBS Starting, Stopping, and Querying Status of Container Accessing Container Configuring Terminal Services Inside Container Terminal Services Client Remote Desktop Connection Windows File Sharing Citrix MetaFrame XP Listing Containers Container Statuses Backing Up and Restoring Containers Backups Overview Setting Default Backup Parameters Backing Up Single Container Backing Up Group of Containers Browsing Backup Contents... 68
4 Contents 4 Restoring Single Container Restoring Container Files Restoring Group of Containers Managing Backup Node Searching for Container Backups Scheduling Container Backups Setting Maximal Backup Number for Parallels Power Panel Using Third-Party Backup Software Searching for Container Moving Container Within Hardware Node Copying Containers Within Hardware Node Copying Single Container Copying Group of Containers Migrating Container Deleting Container Changing Administrator Password Setting Container Name Storing Extended Information on Container Forwarding SCSI Disks to Container Operations Inside Container Managing Users and Groups Managing Files Managing Windows Updates Inside Container Overview Configuring Updates Inside Container Managing Resources 137 Managing Container Disk Space Quota Setting Up Disk Space Quota Checking Disk Quota Status Managing Container CPU Resources Managing Container CPU Usage Configuring Number of CPUs Inside Container Managing Container System Resources Managing Network Resources Enabling QoS Scheduler for Container Enabling Network Browsing for Container Managing Network Bandwidth Configuring Network Classes Viewing Network Traffic Statistics Turning On and Off Network Bandwidth Management Configuring Network Bandwidth Management for Container Managing Container Resources Configurations Creating Container Configuration Sample Copying Container Configuration Sample Saving and Uploading Configuration Sample to/from Local Computer Scaling Container Configuration Sample Applying New Configuration Sample to Container Keeping Your Virtuozzo Containers System Up-to-Date 171 Updating Virtuozzo Containers Software Updating Windows Server Deploying Local WSUS and VUS Servers Setting Up Local WSUS Server Setting Up Local VUS Server
5 Contents 5 Managing Hardware Nodes 201 Managing Virtuozzo Licenses Understanding Licensing Installing Virtuozzo License on Hardware Node Updating Virtuozzo License Transferring License to Another Node Viewing Virtuozzo License Virtuozzo License Expiration Managing Files Uploading Files to Node Downloading Files to Local Computer Managing IP Addresses Pool on Node Configuring Hardware Node IP Addresses Pool Viewing Allocated IP Addresses Logs and Monitors 219 Monitoring Resources Using Charts Representation Using Table Representation Viewing Network Traffic Summary Viewing System and Virtuozzo Logs Subscribing to Parallels Management Console Alerts Monitoring Top Resources Consumption Top CPU Resource Consuming Containers Top Physical Memory Consuming Containers Top Disk Space Consuming Containers Top Incoming Traffic Receiving Containers Top Outgoing Traffic Consuming Containers Monitoring Virtuozzo Objects Using vzsnmp Plug-In Managing Services and Processes 245 What Are Services and Processes Main Operations on Services and Processes Managing Services and Processes Managing Processes Managing Services Managing Virtuozzo Network 252 Managing Network Adapters on Hardware Node Listing Adapters Connecting Adapter to Virtual Network Managing Virtual Networks Creating Virtual Network Listing Virtual Networks Deleting Virtual Network Managing Container Virtual Network Adapters Networking Modes Creating and Deleting Container Adapters Configuring Container Network Adapter Parameters Connecting Bridged Containers to Network
6 Contents 6 Enabling VPN Inside Container Enabling NAT for Container Advanced Tasks 277 Migrating Physical Server to Container Overview Migration Requirements Migration Restrictions Migrating Physical Server to Container in Parallels Management Console Configuring Container Resources Parameters After Migration Managing Memory Resources in Virtuozzo-Based Systems Managing Memory Resources on Node Managing Container Memory Resources Managing External Drives and Image Files for Container Managing Container Virtual Disks Managing Hardware Node Drives Managing Image Files Managing Types of Container Virtual Hard Disks Shrinking Container Virtual Disks Customizing Container Desktop Configuring Container Offline Management Reinstalling Container Updating Parallels Management Console Configuring Parallels Agent Managing Virtuozzo Global Parameters Troubleshooting 318 General Considerations Problems With Container Management Failure to Start Container Failure to Access Container From Network Failure to Log In to Container Failure to Manage Containers in PAE-disabled System Failure to Run Sound Files Inside Container Failure to See Mounted Drives Inside Container Submitting Problem Report to Technical Support Establishing Secure Channel to Parallels Support Glossary 330 Index 332
11 11 C HAPTER 1 Preface In This Chapter About Parallels Virtuozzo Containers About This Guide Getting Help Feedback... 17
12 Preface 12 About Parallels Virtuozzo Containers Parallels Virtuozzo Containers is a patented OS virtualization solution. Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 creates isolated partitions or Containers on a single physical server and OS instance to utilize hardware, software, data center and management effort with maximum efficiency. The basic Virtuozzo capabilities are: Intelligent Partitioning - Division of a server into as many as hundreds of Containers with full server functionality. Complete Isolation - Containers are secure and have full functional, fault and performance isolation. Dynamic Resource Allocation - CPU, memory, network, disk and I/O can be changed without rebooting. Mass Management - Suite of tools and templates for automated, multi-container and multi-server administration. The diagram below represents a typical model of the Virtuozzo-based system structure: Figure 1: Virtuozzo Containers OS Virtualization
13 Preface 13 The Parallels Virtuozzo OS virtualization model is streamlined for the best performance, management, and efficiency. At the base resides a standard Host operating system which can be either Windows or Linux. Next is the virtualization layer with a proprietary file system and a kernel service abstraction layer that ensure the isolation and security of resources between different Containers. The virtualization layer makes each Container appear as a standalone server. Finally, the Container itself houses the application or workload. The Parallels Virtuozzo OS virtualization solution has the highest efficiency and manageability making it the best solution for organizations concerned with containing the IT infrastructure and maximizing the resource utilization. The Parallels Virtuozzo complete set of management tools and unique architecture makes it the perfect solution for easily maintaining, monitoring, and managing virtualized server resources for consolidation and business continuity configurations.
14 Preface 14 About This Guide The primary audience for this book is anyone responsible for administering one or more systems running Parallels Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 for Windows. To fully understand the major Virtuozzo notions and learn to perform the main administrative operations, no more than basic Windows administration habits is required. This guide is meant to provide comprehensive information on Parallels Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 for Windows high-end server virtualization software for Windows-based servers. The issues discussed in this guide cover the necessary theoretical conceptions as well as practical aspects of working with Virtuozzo Containers. The guide will familiarize you with the way to create and administer Containers (sometimes also called Virtual Private Servers, or VPSs) on Virtuozzo-based Hardware Nodes and to employ both the graphical and command line interfaces for performing various tasks. Note: The guide does not familiarize you with the process of installing, configuring, and deploying your Virtuozzo system. Detailed information on all these operations is provided in the Parallels Virtuozzo Containers for Windows Installation Guide shipped with the Virtuozzo Containers software. According to the task-oriented approach, most topics of this guide are devoted to a particular task and the ways to perform it. However, the Virtuozzo Containers software is equipped with as many as three different tools to perform various administrative tasks: 1 Parallels Management Console with graphical user interface. Management Console is considered the primary tool for administering Virtuozzo and performing main administrative tasks on Hardware Nodes and in the Container context. Therefore, when describing the ways to perform this or that task, we have provided the corresponding procedures for Parallels Management Console only. 2 Parallels Infrastructure Manager with web interface. Infrastructure Manager - a web counterpart of Management Console - is provided with its own guide as well as a comprehensive online help system. 3 Virtuozzo command line utilities. If you are used to working in the command line, you can turn to the Parallels Virtuozzo Containers for Windows Reference Guide to learn to manage Hardware Nodes and Containers by means of Virtuozzo command line utilities. Besides, there is another tool for managing Containers - Parallels Power Panel. However, this tool is mainly regarded as a means for individual Container customers to manage their personal Containers and is therefore not described in this guide.
15 Preface 15 Organization of This Guide Chapter 2, Virtuozzo Philosophy, is a must-read chapter that helps you grasp the general principles of Virtuozzo operation. It provides an outline of Virtuozzo architecture and lets you understand the Virtuozzo licensing policy. Chapter 3, Operations on Containers, covers those operations that you may perform on Containers by means of Parallels Management Console or special Virtuozzo utilities: creating and deleting Containers, starting and stopping them, migrating between Hardware Nodes, etc. Chapter 4, Managing Resources, zeroes in on configuring the resource control parameters for different Containers. These parameters include disk quotas, CPU time, and a set of memoryrelated resources. Chapter 5, Keeping Your Virtuozzo System Up-to-Date, provides information on the ways to keep all the software components of a Hardware Node up-to-date. Chapter 6, Managing Hardware Nodes, centers on all those operations you as Hardware Nodes administrator can perform on your Nodes. Chapter 7, Logs and Monitors, explains the ways to keep track of all system events and the consumption of all kinds of resources by the running Containers and the Hardware Node itself. Chapter 8, Managing Services and Processes, familiarizes you with the operations you can perform on processes and services in Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 by using the Parallels Management Console graphical interface. Chapter 9, Managing Virtuozzo Network, familiarizes you with the Virtuozzo network structure, enumerates Virtuozzo networking components, and explains how to manage these components in Virtuozzo-based systems. Chapter 10, Advanced Tasks, enumerates those tasks that are intended for advanced system administrators who would like to obtain deeper knowledge about Virtuozzo capabilities. Chapter 11, Troubleshooting, suggests ways to resolve common inconveniences should they occur during your work with the Virtuozzo Containers software. Documentation Conventions Before you start using this guide, it is important to understand the documentation conventions used in it. For information on specialized terms used in the documentation, see the Glossary at the end of this document. The table below presents the existing formatting conventions. Formatting convention Type of Information Example Triangular Bullet( ) Step-by-step procedures. You To create a Container: can follow the instructions below to complete a specific task.
16 Preface 16 Special Bold Items you must select, such as menu options, command buttons, or items in a list. Titles of chapters, sections, and subsections. Italics Used to emphasize the importance of a point, to introduce a term or to designate a command line placeholder, which is to be replaced with a real name or value. Monospace Preformatted Monospace Bold The names of commands, files, and directories. On-screen computer output in your command-line sessions; source code in XML, C++, or other programming languages. What you type, as contrasted with on-screen computer output. CAPITALS Names of keys on the keyboard. KEY+KEY Key combinations for which the user must press and hold down one key and then press another. Go to the Resources tab. Read the Basic Administration chapter. These are the so-called EZ templates. To destroy a Container, type vzctl destroy ctid. Use vzctl start to start a Container. Saved parameters for Container 101 # rpm V virtuozzo-release SHIFT, CTRL, ALT CTRL+P, ALT+F4 Besides the formatting conventions, you should also know about the document organization convention applied to Parallels documents: chapters in all guides are divided into sections, which, in turn, are subdivided into subsections. For example, About This Guide is a section, and Documentation Conventions is a subsection. Getting Help In addition to this guide, there are a number of other resources shipped with Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 which can help you use the product more effectively. These resources include: Manuals: Parallels Virtuozzo Containers Evaluation Guide. This guide is destined to introduce you to the main features of Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 and to its underlying technology, to help you set up an environment for evaluating the Virtuozzo major features, and to suggest the relevant procedures for this evaluation. Getting Started With Parallels Virtuozzo Containers for Windows. This guide provides basic information on how to install Parallels Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 on your server, create new Containers, and perform main operations on them.
17 Preface 17 Parallels Virtuozzo Containers for Windows Installation Guide. This guide provides exhaustive information on the process of installing, configuring, and deploying your Virtuozzo system. As distinct from the given guide, it contains a more detailed description of all the operations needed to install and set Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 to work including planning the structure of your Virtuozzo network, performing the Virtuozzo Containers unattended installation, etc. Besides, it does not include the description of any Container-related operations. Parallels Virtuozzo Containers for Windows Templates Management Guide. This guide is meant to provide complete information on Virtuozzo templates - an exclusive Parallels Virtuozzo technology allowing you to efficiently deploy standard Windows applications inside your Containers and to greatly save the Hardware Node resources (physical memory, disk space, etc.). Parallels Virtuozzo Containers for Windows Reference Guide. This guide is a complete reference on all Virtuozzo configuration files and Hardware Node command-line utilities. Help systems: Parallels Management Console Help. This help system provides detailed information on Parallels Management Console - a graphical user interface tool for managing Virtuozzo Hardware Nodes and their Containers. Parallels Infrastructure Manager Online Help. This help system shows you how to work with Parallels Infrastructure Manager - a tool providing you with the ability to manage Virtuozzo Hardware Nodes and their Containers with the help of a standard Web browser on any platform. Parallels Power Panel Online Help. This help system deals with Parallels Power Panel - a means for administering individual Containers thru a common Web browser on any platform. Feedback If you spot a typo in this guide, or if you have thought of a way to make this guide better, we would love to hear from you! The Parallels documentation forum is the ideal place for your comments and suggestions. It is regularly monitored by the members of the Parallels technical documentation department, so it is likely that you will receive a reply to your post before long. Note that new users will be asked to fill in a short registration form before being able to post. Registering will allow you to participate not only in the documentation forum discussions, but in all the other Parallels forums as well.
18 18 C HAPTER 2 Virtuozzo Containers Philosophy In This Chapter About Virtuozzo Containers Software Distinctive Features of Parallels Virtuozzo Containers Main Principles of Virtuozzo Operation Hardware Node Availability Considerations About Virtuozzo Containers Software What is Virtuozzo Containers Parallels Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 is a complete server automation and virtualization solution based on a patented technology developed by Parallels. The Virtuozzo Containers software creates multiple isolated Containers on a single physical server to share hardware, licenses, and management effort with maximum efficiency. Each Container performs and executes exactly like a stand-alone server for its users and applications as it can be rebooted independently and has its own Administrator access, Active Directory domain users, IP addresses, memory, processes, files, applications, system libraries, and configuration files. Light overhead and efficient design of Parallels Virtuozzo makes it the right virtualization choice for production servers with live applications and real-life data. The basic Virtuozzo capabilities are: Intelligent Partitioning divides a server into as many as hundreds of Containers with full server functionality. Complete Isolation ensures that the Containers are secure and have full functional, fault and performance isolation. Dynamic Resource Allocation of key system resources such as CPU, memory, network, disk and I/O enables near real-time changes. Live Migration and other business continuity capabilities ensure data is available and recoverable. Management Tools include full suite of tools and templates for automated, multi-container and multi-server administration.
19 Virtuozzo Containers Philosophy 19 What is Container A Container is a virtual private server, which is functionally identical to an isolated standalone server: Each Container has its own processes, Active Directory domain users, files and provides full administrative access. Each Container has its own IP addresses, port numbers, filtering and routing rules. Each Container can have its own configuration for the system and application software, as well as its own versions of Dynamic Link Libraries (DLLs), system libraries, and registry. It is possible to install or customize software packages inside a Container independently from other Containers or the host system. Multiple distributions of a package can be run on one and the same Windows box. Each Container has its own unique Administrator user with full control over the given Container and full access to other user accounts inside this Container. Each Container can be a member of a Windows domain (e.g. access any of the network shares to which the Container user has rights). Moreover, any Container can act as a domain controller granting other Containers and stand-alone servers users access to a set of network resources (applications, printers, etc.). Virtuozzo Applications Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 can be efficiently applied in a wide range of areas: enterprise server consolidation, web and applications hosting, software development and testing, user training, and so on. If you administer a number of Windows dedicated servers within an enterprise, you can benefit from the Virtuozzo solution in the following ways: Reduce the number of required physical servers and corresponding support by grouping a multitude of your enterprise servers onto a single server without losing a bit of valuable information and without compromising performance. Increase server utilization and maximize server potential. Provision servers in minutes by using the technology of Virtuozzo templates. Migrate Containers in the time of network data transfer, nearly eliminating the planned downtime and enabling fast reaction to unplanned downtime situations. Monitor OS and application versions and update/upgrade the current software easily across all of your physical servers running the Virtuozzo Containers software and their Containers. Guarantee Quality-of-Service in accordance with a corporate service level agreement (SLA). Automate routine tasks such as upgrades and updates. Minimize software license and support requirements, etc. Due to its unique efficiency and completeness, Parallels Virtuozzo has also a wide variety of profitable uses for Hosting Service Providers allowing them to: Sell new powerful and popular services such as: Advanced Shared for shared hosting with customized application sets and resources; True Container for a cheaper, secure, and easier alternative to dedicated servers;
20 Virtuozzo Containers Philosophy 20 Split Dedicated allowing your customers to split the servers for their better utilization, etc. Provide complete self-administration panels (Parallels Power Panel) including system backup/restore and monitoring tools. Have a multitude of customers with their individual full-featured Containers sharing a single physical server. Transparently move customers and their environments between servers, without any manual reconfiguration. Increase profitability through the better management and leverage of hardware and software investments. Automate service provisioning by using the technology of Virtuozzo templates, etc. Besides, Parallels Virtuozzo Containers proves invaluable for IT educational institutions that can now provide every student with a personal Windows server, which can be monitored and managed remotely. Software development companies may use Containers for testing purposes and the like. Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 for 64-bit Processors Parallels Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 is released in three variants for common 32-bit processors and for two groups of 64-bit processors: x86-64 including the following processors: AMD Opteron; AMD Athlon 64; Intel Xeon with EM64T support; Intel Pentium with EM64T support; etc. IA-64 containing the Intel Itanium 2 processor only. Depending on the kind of processors to be used, this or that variant of the Parallels Virtuozzo Containers distribution set should be chosen. The Virtuozzo Containers 32-bit version has been fully ported to support x86-64 and IA bit processors, therefore, all its functionality is retained in the 64-bit versions. So, you can use any Virtuozzo Tool and utility in exactly the same way as you would use it on the servers with standard 32-bit processors. However, while working with the 64-bit version of Virtuozzo Containers, you should keep in mind the following: 1 The Virtuozzo Containers 64-bit version should be installed on a server running either the x86-64-bit or IA64-bit version of Windows Server Please refer to the Parallels Virtuozzo Containers for Windows Installation Guide to learn what particular 64-bit versions of Windows Server 2003 are supported by the Virtuozzo Containers software. 2 The Containers created under Parallels Virtuozzo Containers for x86-64 should use the 64- bit OS template.
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