1 Parallels Parallels Virtuozzo Containers for Windows User's Guide Version 4.0 Copyright Parallels Software International Inc.
2 ISBN: N/A Parallels Holdings Ltd Sunrise Valley Drive Suite 600 Herndon, VA USA Tel: +1 (703) Fax: +1 (703) Parallels Holdings Ltd. All rights reserved. Distribution of this work or derivative of this work in any form is prohibited unless prior written permission is obtained from the copyright holder.
3 3 Contents Preface 11 About Parallels Virtuozzo Containers About This Guide Organization of This Guide Documentation Conventions Getting Help Feedback Virtuozzo Containers Philosophy 18 About Virtuozzo Containers Software What is Virtuozzo Containers What is Container Virtuozzo Applications Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 for 64-bit Processors Distinctive Features of Parallels Virtuozzo Containers OS Virtualization Virtuozzo File System (VZFS) Templates Resource Management Main Principles of Virtuozzo Operation Basics of Virtuozzo Technology Understanding Templates Parallels Management Console Overview Parallels Infrastructure Management Overview Container Administrators' Tools Hardware Node Availability Considerations Operations on Containers 32 Creating New Container Before You Begin Choosing Container ID Creating Container Creating Container Running Windows SBS Starting, Stopping, and Querying Status of Container Accessing Container Configuring Terminal Services Inside Container Terminal Services Client Remote Desktop Connection Windows File Sharing Citrix MetaFrame XP Listing Containers Container Statuses Backing Up and Restoring Containers Backups Overview Setting Default Backup Parameters Backing Up Single Container Backing Up Group of Containers Browsing Backup Contents... 68
4 Contents 4 Restoring Single Container Restoring Container Files Restoring Group of Containers Managing Backup Node Searching for Container Backups Scheduling Container Backups Setting Maximal Backup Number for Parallels Power Panel Using Third-Party Backup Software Searching for Container Moving Container Within Hardware Node Copying Containers Within Hardware Node Copying Single Container Copying Group of Containers Migrating Container Deleting Container Changing Administrator Password Setting Container Name Storing Extended Information on Container Forwarding SCSI Disks to Container Operations Inside Container Managing Users and Groups Managing Files Managing Windows Updates Inside Container Overview Configuring Updates Inside Container Managing Resources 137 Managing Container Disk Space Quota Setting Up Disk Space Quota Checking Disk Quota Status Managing Container CPU Resources Managing Container CPU Usage Configuring Number of CPUs Inside Container Managing Container System Resources Managing Network Resources Enabling QoS Scheduler for Container Enabling Network Browsing for Container Managing Network Bandwidth Configuring Network Classes Viewing Network Traffic Statistics Turning On and Off Network Bandwidth Management Configuring Network Bandwidth Management for Container Managing Container Resources Configurations Creating Container Configuration Sample Copying Container Configuration Sample Saving and Uploading Configuration Sample to/from Local Computer Scaling Container Configuration Sample Applying New Configuration Sample to Container Keeping Your Virtuozzo Containers System Up-to-Date 171 Updating Virtuozzo Containers Software Updating Windows Server Deploying Local WSUS and VUS Servers Setting Up Local WSUS Server Setting Up Local VUS Server
5 Contents 5 Managing Hardware Nodes 201 Managing Virtuozzo Licenses Understanding Licensing Installing Virtuozzo License on Hardware Node Updating Virtuozzo License Transferring License to Another Node Viewing Virtuozzo License Virtuozzo License Expiration Managing Files Uploading Files to Node Downloading Files to Local Computer Managing IP Addresses Pool on Node Configuring Hardware Node IP Addresses Pool Viewing Allocated IP Addresses Logs and Monitors 219 Monitoring Resources Using Charts Representation Using Table Representation Viewing Network Traffic Summary Viewing System and Virtuozzo Logs Subscribing to Parallels Management Console Alerts Monitoring Top Resources Consumption Top CPU Resource Consuming Containers Top Physical Memory Consuming Containers Top Disk Space Consuming Containers Top Incoming Traffic Receiving Containers Top Outgoing Traffic Consuming Containers Monitoring Virtuozzo Objects Using vzsnmp Plug-In Managing Services and Processes 245 What Are Services and Processes Main Operations on Services and Processes Managing Services and Processes Managing Processes Managing Services Managing Virtuozzo Network 252 Managing Network Adapters on Hardware Node Listing Adapters Connecting Adapter to Virtual Network Managing Virtual Networks Creating Virtual Network Listing Virtual Networks Deleting Virtual Network Managing Container Virtual Network Adapters Networking Modes Creating and Deleting Container Adapters Configuring Container Network Adapter Parameters Connecting Bridged Containers to Network
6 Contents 6 Enabling VPN Inside Container Enabling NAT for Container Advanced Tasks 277 Migrating Physical Server to Container Overview Migration Requirements Migration Restrictions Migrating Physical Server to Container in Parallels Management Console Configuring Container Resources Parameters After Migration Managing Memory Resources in Virtuozzo-Based Systems Managing Memory Resources on Node Managing Container Memory Resources Managing External Drives and Image Files for Container Managing Container Virtual Disks Managing Hardware Node Drives Managing Image Files Managing Types of Container Virtual Hard Disks Shrinking Container Virtual Disks Customizing Container Desktop Configuring Container Offline Management Reinstalling Container Updating Parallels Management Console Configuring Parallels Agent Managing Virtuozzo Global Parameters Troubleshooting 318 General Considerations Problems With Container Management Failure to Start Container Failure to Access Container From Network Failure to Log In to Container Failure to Manage Containers in PAE-disabled System Failure to Run Sound Files Inside Container Failure to See Mounted Drives Inside Container Submitting Problem Report to Technical Support Establishing Secure Channel to Parallels Support Glossary 330 Index 332
7 7 Table of Figures Figure 1: Virtuozzo Containers OS Virtualization Figure 2: Virtuozzo Containers Technology Figure 3: Management Console Main Window Figure 4: Infrastructure Manager Interface Overview Figure 5: Management Console - Viewing Container Figure 6: Management Console - Choosing Sample Configuration File Figure 7: Management Console - Configuring Container Network Adapters Figure 8: Management Console - Specifying OS Template Figure 9: Management Console - Viewing Container Figure 10: Management Console - Starting Container Figure 11: Management Console - Configuring Terminal Services Inside Container Figure 12: Management Console - Listing Containers Figure 13: Backup Overview Figure 14: Management Console - Setting Default Backup Storage Figure 15: Management Console - Setting Default Backup Location Figure 16: Management Console - Setting Default Backup Compression Level Figure 17: Management Console - Setting Default Backup Type Figure 18: Management Console - Choosing Backup Mode Figure 19: Management Console - Choosing Files and Folders to Back Up Figure 20: Management Console - Specifying Main Backup Parameters Figure 21: Management Console - Choosing Containers to Back Up Figure 22: Management Console - Choosing Files to Backup Up Figure 23: Management Console - Specifying Main Backup Parameters Figure 24: Management Console - Browsing Backup Contents Figure 25: Management Console - Restoring Container Wizard Figure 26: Management Console - Restoring Container Files Wizard Figure 27: Management Console - Choosing Files For Restoring Figure 28: Management Console - Restoring Containers Wizard Figure 29: Management Console - Listing Backups Figure 30: Management Console - Choosing Destination Node Figure 31: Management Console - Launching Restore Individual Container Files Wizard76 Figure 32: Management Console - Searching for Backups Figure 33: Scheduling Container Backups - Choosing Files to Back Up Figure 34: Scheduling Container Backups - Setting Main Backup Options Figure 35: Management Console - Defining Backup Tasks Parameters Figure 36: Management Console - Setting Number of Allowed Backups in Power Panel.. 85 Figure 37: Installing Symantec Backup Exec Figure 38: Creating Backup Job - Step Figure 39: Creating Backup Job - Step Figure 40: Creating Backup Job - Step Figure 41: Symantec Backup Exec - Filesystem Backup Figure 42: Symantec Backup Exec - Shadow Copy Components Backup Figure 43: Configuring TSM Server Software Figure 44: Installing TSM Client Software Figure 45: Tivoli Storage Manager - Filesystem Backup Figure 46: Tivoli Storage Manager - Adding Virtuozzo VSS Figure 47: NetWorker User Tool - Filesystem Backup Figure 48: EMC NetWorker - Scheduling Backup Figure 49: Installing BrightStor ARCserve
8 Table of Figures 8 Figure 50: Configuring BrightStor ARCserve Figure 51: Using NTBACKUP to Create Container Backups Figure 52: Management Console - Finding Container Figure 53: Management Console - Specifying New Container ID Figure 54: Manangement Console - Setting Root and Private Area Paths Figure 55: Management Console - Cloning Container Figure 56: Management Console - Specifying Network Parameters Figure 57: Management Console - Specifying Container Name and Hostname Figure 58: Management Console - Resolving IP Address Conflicts Figure 59: Management Console - Migrating Containers Figure 60: Management Console - Deleting Container Figure 61: Management Console - Setting Administrator Password Figure 62: Manangement Console - Setting Container Name Figure 63: Manangement Console - Providing Container Description Figure 64: Management Console - Forwarding SCSI Device Figure 65: Management Console - Managing Users and Groups Figure 66: Manangement Console - File Manager Figure 67: Management Console - Setting Location For Uploading Files Figure 68: Management Console - Uploading Files to Container Figure 69: Management Console - Downloading Files to Local Computer Figure 70: Management Console - Configuring File Properties Figure 71: Container Update Manager - Overview Figure 72: Container Update Manager - Removing Update From Container Figure 73: Container Update Manager - Checking Container Updates Figure 74: Management Console - Setting Disk Space Quota Figure 75: Management Console - Viewing Container Disk Space Statistics Figure 76: Management Console - Managing CPU Usage Figure 77: Management Console - Configuring Number of CPUs Inside Container Figure 78: Management Console - Managing System Parameters Figure 79: Management Console - Enabling QoS Scheduler for Container Figure 80: Management Console - Configuring Network Classes Figure 81: Management Console - Viewing Current Network Traffic Statistics Figure 82: Management Console - Setting Up Traffic Shaping Parameters Figure 83: Management Console - Configuring Network Bandwidth Figure 84: Management Console - Configuring Network Bandwidth Management for Container Figure 85: Management Console - Choosing Container Configuration Sample Figure 86: Management Console - Entering Container Sample Name and Description Figure 87: Management Console - Defining Resources Parameters Figure 88: Management Console - Specifying Network Parameters for Sample Figure 89: Management Console - Specifying Traffic Shaping Parameters Figure 90: Management Console - Copying Container Sample Figure 91: Management Console - Uploading Container Sample Figure 92: Management Console - Scaling Container Sample Figure 93: Management Console - Applying New Resource Configuration Figure 94: Running Virtuozzo Update Wizard Figure 95: Specifying Proxy Parameters Figure 96: Defining Virtuozzo Update Settings Figure 97: Installing WSUS - Selecting Update Source Figure 98: Installing WSUS - Defining Web Site Figure 99: Installing WSUS - Setting Update Server Figure 100: Designing VUS Infrastructure Figure 101: Installing VUS - Entering Personal Information
9 Table of Figures 9 Figure 102: Installing VUS - Starting Installation Figure 103: Synchronizing VUS Server - Viewing Virtual Directory Figure 104: VUS Manager - Registering Virtuozzo Products Figure 105: VUS Manager - Viewing Registered Product Figure 106: VUS Manager - Viewing Detailed Information on Virtuozzo Containers Figure 107: VUS Manager - Registering New Product Figure 108: VUS Manager - Viewing Updates Information Figure 109: VUS Manager - Viewing Update Details Figure 110: VUS Manager - Synchronizing Local VUS Server Figure 111: VUS Manager - Configuring Updates Approval Policy Figure 112: VUS Manager - Approving Virtuozzo Update Figure 113: VUS Manager - Running Reports Figure 114: Setting Path to Local VUS Server Figure 115: Deploying Chain of VUS Servers Figure 116: VUS Manager - Setting VUS Upstream Server Figure 117: Management Console - Installing License on Hardware Node Figure 118: Management Console - Uploading Virtuozo License File Figure 119: Management Cosole - Updating Virtuozzo License Figure 120: Management Console - Transferring License to Another Node Figure 121: Management Console - Viewing License Figure 122: Management Console - Virtuozzo License Expiration Figure 123: Management Console - Managing Files on Hardware Node Figure 124: Management Console - Choosing Hardware Nodes for Uploading Files Figure 125: Management Console - Uploading Files to Hardware Node Figure 126: Management Console - Configuring Node IP Addresses Pool Figure 127: Management Console - Viewing Information on IP Addresses Pool Figure 128: Management Console - Adding Monitoring Counters Figure 129: Management Console - Adjusting Charts Scale Figure 130: Management Console - Adjusting Charts View Figure 131: Management Console - Highlighting Counter Figure 132: Management Console - Changing Logging Period Figure 133: Management Console - Replaying Logs Figure 134: Management Cosole - Monitoring Traffic Parameters Figure 135: Management Console - Viewing Network Traffic Summary Figure 136: Management Cosole - Viewing Logs Figure 137: Management Console - Setting Relay Server Figure 138: Management Console - Subscribing to Alert Figure 139: Management Console - Top CPU Resource Consuming Containers Figure 140: Management Console - Containers With Top CPU Share Usage Figure 141: Management Console - Top Physical Memory Consuming Containers Figure 142: Management Console - Containers With Top Memory Share Usage Figure 143: Management Console - Top Disk Space Consuming Containers Figure 144: Management Console - Containers With Top Disk Space Share Consumption240 Figure 145: Management Console - Top Incoming Traffic Receiving Containers Figure 146: Management Console - Top Outgoing Traffic Consuming Containers Figure 147: Management Conole - Monitoring Active Processes Figure 148: Task Manager - Monitoring Active Processes Figure 149: Management Console - Viewing Services Figure 150: Management Console - Listing Network Adapters Figure 151: Management Console - Connecting Adapter to Virtual Network Figure 152: Management Console - Creating Virtual Network Figure 153: Management Console - Listing Virtual Networks Figure 154: Management Console - Deleting Virtual Network
10 Table of Figures 10 Figure 155: Virtuozzo Network - Host-Routed Networking Figure 156: Virtuozzo Network - Bridged Networking Figure 157: Management Console - Setting Parameters for Container Virtual Adapter. 263 Figure 158: Manangement Console - Changing Container MAC Addresses Figure 159: Management Console - Configuring Container Network Adapter Parameters269 Figure 160: Management Console - Enabling DHCP for Container Adapter Figure 161: Mannagement Console - Connecting veth Adapter to Bridge Figure 162: Virtuozzo Network - Using NAT Figure 163: Management Console - Logging In to Physical Server Figure 164: Management Console - Reviewing Server Configuration Figure 165: Management Console - Specifying Main Parameters for Container Figure 166: Management Console - Defining Network Parameters Figure 167: Management Console - Specifying Resource Parameters Figure 168: Sharing Memory Among Containers Figure 169: Copy-On-Write Protection Figure 170: Management Console - Setting Container Private Memory Figure 171: Process Explorer - Viewing Memory Pools Figure 172: Management Console - Adding New Drive to Container Figure 173: Management Console - Configuring Container Drive Figure 174: Management Console - Removing Drive From Container Figure 175: Management Console - Mounting Hardware Node Drive Figure 176: Management Console - Removing Hardware Node Drive Figure 177: Management Console - Mounting Image File Figure 178: Management Console - Viewing Offline Services Figure 179: Management Console - Disabling Offline Management Figure 180: Management Console Updater Figure 181: Management Console - Managing Parallels Agent Configuration Figure 182: Management Console - Managing Global Virtuozzo Parameters Figure 183: Submitting Problem Report to Technical Supprot Figure 184: Submitting Problem Report - Specifying Time Period Figure 185: Submitting Problem Report - Specifying Connection Settings Figure 186: Specifying Proxy Parameters Figure 187: Establishing Secure Channel to Parallels Support
11 11 C HAPTER 1 Preface In This Chapter About Parallels Virtuozzo Containers About This Guide Getting Help Feedback... 17
12 Preface 12 About Parallels Virtuozzo Containers Parallels Virtuozzo Containers is a patented OS virtualization solution. Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 creates isolated partitions or Containers on a single physical server and OS instance to utilize hardware, software, data center and management effort with maximum efficiency. The basic Virtuozzo capabilities are: Intelligent Partitioning - Division of a server into as many as hundreds of Containers with full server functionality. Complete Isolation - Containers are secure and have full functional, fault and performance isolation. Dynamic Resource Allocation - CPU, memory, network, disk and I/O can be changed without rebooting. Mass Management - Suite of tools and templates for automated, multi-container and multi-server administration. The diagram below represents a typical model of the Virtuozzo-based system structure: Figure 1: Virtuozzo Containers OS Virtualization
13 Preface 13 The Parallels Virtuozzo OS virtualization model is streamlined for the best performance, management, and efficiency. At the base resides a standard Host operating system which can be either Windows or Linux. Next is the virtualization layer with a proprietary file system and a kernel service abstraction layer that ensure the isolation and security of resources between different Containers. The virtualization layer makes each Container appear as a standalone server. Finally, the Container itself houses the application or workload. The Parallels Virtuozzo OS virtualization solution has the highest efficiency and manageability making it the best solution for organizations concerned with containing the IT infrastructure and maximizing the resource utilization. The Parallels Virtuozzo complete set of management tools and unique architecture makes it the perfect solution for easily maintaining, monitoring, and managing virtualized server resources for consolidation and business continuity configurations.
14 Preface 14 About This Guide The primary audience for this book is anyone responsible for administering one or more systems running Parallels Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 for Windows. To fully understand the major Virtuozzo notions and learn to perform the main administrative operations, no more than basic Windows administration habits is required. This guide is meant to provide comprehensive information on Parallels Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 for Windows high-end server virtualization software for Windows-based servers. The issues discussed in this guide cover the necessary theoretical conceptions as well as practical aspects of working with Virtuozzo Containers. The guide will familiarize you with the way to create and administer Containers (sometimes also called Virtual Private Servers, or VPSs) on Virtuozzo-based Hardware Nodes and to employ both the graphical and command line interfaces for performing various tasks. Note: The guide does not familiarize you with the process of installing, configuring, and deploying your Virtuozzo system. Detailed information on all these operations is provided in the Parallels Virtuozzo Containers for Windows Installation Guide shipped with the Virtuozzo Containers software. According to the task-oriented approach, most topics of this guide are devoted to a particular task and the ways to perform it. However, the Virtuozzo Containers software is equipped with as many as three different tools to perform various administrative tasks: 1 Parallels Management Console with graphical user interface. Management Console is considered the primary tool for administering Virtuozzo and performing main administrative tasks on Hardware Nodes and in the Container context. Therefore, when describing the ways to perform this or that task, we have provided the corresponding procedures for Parallels Management Console only. 2 Parallels Infrastructure Manager with web interface. Infrastructure Manager - a web counterpart of Management Console - is provided with its own guide as well as a comprehensive online help system. 3 Virtuozzo command line utilities. If you are used to working in the command line, you can turn to the Parallels Virtuozzo Containers for Windows Reference Guide to learn to manage Hardware Nodes and Containers by means of Virtuozzo command line utilities. Besides, there is another tool for managing Containers - Parallels Power Panel. However, this tool is mainly regarded as a means for individual Container customers to manage their personal Containers and is therefore not described in this guide.
15 Preface 15 Organization of This Guide Chapter 2, Virtuozzo Philosophy, is a must-read chapter that helps you grasp the general principles of Virtuozzo operation. It provides an outline of Virtuozzo architecture and lets you understand the Virtuozzo licensing policy. Chapter 3, Operations on Containers, covers those operations that you may perform on Containers by means of Parallels Management Console or special Virtuozzo utilities: creating and deleting Containers, starting and stopping them, migrating between Hardware Nodes, etc. Chapter 4, Managing Resources, zeroes in on configuring the resource control parameters for different Containers. These parameters include disk quotas, CPU time, and a set of memoryrelated resources. Chapter 5, Keeping Your Virtuozzo System Up-to-Date, provides information on the ways to keep all the software components of a Hardware Node up-to-date. Chapter 6, Managing Hardware Nodes, centers on all those operations you as Hardware Nodes administrator can perform on your Nodes. Chapter 7, Logs and Monitors, explains the ways to keep track of all system events and the consumption of all kinds of resources by the running Containers and the Hardware Node itself. Chapter 8, Managing Services and Processes, familiarizes you with the operations you can perform on processes and services in Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 by using the Parallels Management Console graphical interface. Chapter 9, Managing Virtuozzo Network, familiarizes you with the Virtuozzo network structure, enumerates Virtuozzo networking components, and explains how to manage these components in Virtuozzo-based systems. Chapter 10, Advanced Tasks, enumerates those tasks that are intended for advanced system administrators who would like to obtain deeper knowledge about Virtuozzo capabilities. Chapter 11, Troubleshooting, suggests ways to resolve common inconveniences should they occur during your work with the Virtuozzo Containers software. Documentation Conventions Before you start using this guide, it is important to understand the documentation conventions used in it. For information on specialized terms used in the documentation, see the Glossary at the end of this document. The table below presents the existing formatting conventions. Formatting convention Type of Information Example Triangular Bullet( ) Step-by-step procedures. You To create a Container: can follow the instructions below to complete a specific task.
16 Preface 16 Special Bold Items you must select, such as menu options, command buttons, or items in a list. Titles of chapters, sections, and subsections. Italics Used to emphasize the importance of a point, to introduce a term or to designate a command line placeholder, which is to be replaced with a real name or value. Monospace Preformatted Monospace Bold The names of commands, files, and directories. On-screen computer output in your command-line sessions; source code in XML, C++, or other programming languages. What you type, as contrasted with on-screen computer output. CAPITALS Names of keys on the keyboard. KEY+KEY Key combinations for which the user must press and hold down one key and then press another. Go to the Resources tab. Read the Basic Administration chapter. These are the so-called EZ templates. To destroy a Container, type vzctl destroy ctid. Use vzctl start to start a Container. Saved parameters for Container 101 # rpm V virtuozzo-release SHIFT, CTRL, ALT CTRL+P, ALT+F4 Besides the formatting conventions, you should also know about the document organization convention applied to Parallels documents: chapters in all guides are divided into sections, which, in turn, are subdivided into subsections. For example, About This Guide is a section, and Documentation Conventions is a subsection. Getting Help In addition to this guide, there are a number of other resources shipped with Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 which can help you use the product more effectively. These resources include: Manuals: Parallels Virtuozzo Containers Evaluation Guide. This guide is destined to introduce you to the main features of Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 and to its underlying technology, to help you set up an environment for evaluating the Virtuozzo major features, and to suggest the relevant procedures for this evaluation. Getting Started With Parallels Virtuozzo Containers for Windows. This guide provides basic information on how to install Parallels Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 on your server, create new Containers, and perform main operations on them.
17 Preface 17 Parallels Virtuozzo Containers for Windows Installation Guide. This guide provides exhaustive information on the process of installing, configuring, and deploying your Virtuozzo system. As distinct from the given guide, it contains a more detailed description of all the operations needed to install and set Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 to work including planning the structure of your Virtuozzo network, performing the Virtuozzo Containers unattended installation, etc. Besides, it does not include the description of any Container-related operations. Parallels Virtuozzo Containers for Windows Templates Management Guide. This guide is meant to provide complete information on Virtuozzo templates - an exclusive Parallels Virtuozzo technology allowing you to efficiently deploy standard Windows applications inside your Containers and to greatly save the Hardware Node resources (physical memory, disk space, etc.). Parallels Virtuozzo Containers for Windows Reference Guide. This guide is a complete reference on all Virtuozzo configuration files and Hardware Node command-line utilities. Help systems: Parallels Management Console Help. This help system provides detailed information on Parallels Management Console - a graphical user interface tool for managing Virtuozzo Hardware Nodes and their Containers. Parallels Infrastructure Manager Online Help. This help system shows you how to work with Parallels Infrastructure Manager - a tool providing you with the ability to manage Virtuozzo Hardware Nodes and their Containers with the help of a standard Web browser on any platform. Parallels Power Panel Online Help. This help system deals with Parallels Power Panel - a means for administering individual Containers thru a common Web browser on any platform. Feedback If you spot a typo in this guide, or if you have thought of a way to make this guide better, we would love to hear from you! The Parallels documentation forum is the ideal place for your comments and suggestions. It is regularly monitored by the members of the Parallels technical documentation department, so it is likely that you will receive a reply to your post before long. Note that new users will be asked to fill in a short registration form before being able to post. Registering will allow you to participate not only in the documentation forum discussions, but in all the other Parallels forums as well.
18 18 C HAPTER 2 Virtuozzo Containers Philosophy In This Chapter About Virtuozzo Containers Software Distinctive Features of Parallels Virtuozzo Containers Main Principles of Virtuozzo Operation Hardware Node Availability Considerations About Virtuozzo Containers Software What is Virtuozzo Containers Parallels Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 is a complete server automation and virtualization solution based on a patented technology developed by Parallels. The Virtuozzo Containers software creates multiple isolated Containers on a single physical server to share hardware, licenses, and management effort with maximum efficiency. Each Container performs and executes exactly like a stand-alone server for its users and applications as it can be rebooted independently and has its own Administrator access, Active Directory domain users, IP addresses, memory, processes, files, applications, system libraries, and configuration files. Light overhead and efficient design of Parallels Virtuozzo makes it the right virtualization choice for production servers with live applications and real-life data. The basic Virtuozzo capabilities are: Intelligent Partitioning divides a server into as many as hundreds of Containers with full server functionality. Complete Isolation ensures that the Containers are secure and have full functional, fault and performance isolation. Dynamic Resource Allocation of key system resources such as CPU, memory, network, disk and I/O enables near real-time changes. Live Migration and other business continuity capabilities ensure data is available and recoverable. Management Tools include full suite of tools and templates for automated, multi-container and multi-server administration.
19 Virtuozzo Containers Philosophy 19 What is Container A Container is a virtual private server, which is functionally identical to an isolated standalone server: Each Container has its own processes, Active Directory domain users, files and provides full administrative access. Each Container has its own IP addresses, port numbers, filtering and routing rules. Each Container can have its own configuration for the system and application software, as well as its own versions of Dynamic Link Libraries (DLLs), system libraries, and registry. It is possible to install or customize software packages inside a Container independently from other Containers or the host system. Multiple distributions of a package can be run on one and the same Windows box. Each Container has its own unique Administrator user with full control over the given Container and full access to other user accounts inside this Container. Each Container can be a member of a Windows domain (e.g. access any of the network shares to which the Container user has rights). Moreover, any Container can act as a domain controller granting other Containers and stand-alone servers users access to a set of network resources (applications, printers, etc.). Virtuozzo Applications Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 can be efficiently applied in a wide range of areas: enterprise server consolidation, web and applications hosting, software development and testing, user training, and so on. If you administer a number of Windows dedicated servers within an enterprise, you can benefit from the Virtuozzo solution in the following ways: Reduce the number of required physical servers and corresponding support by grouping a multitude of your enterprise servers onto a single server without losing a bit of valuable information and without compromising performance. Increase server utilization and maximize server potential. Provision servers in minutes by using the technology of Virtuozzo templates. Migrate Containers in the time of network data transfer, nearly eliminating the planned downtime and enabling fast reaction to unplanned downtime situations. Monitor OS and application versions and update/upgrade the current software easily across all of your physical servers running the Virtuozzo Containers software and their Containers. Guarantee Quality-of-Service in accordance with a corporate service level agreement (SLA). Automate routine tasks such as upgrades and updates. Minimize software license and support requirements, etc. Due to its unique efficiency and completeness, Parallels Virtuozzo has also a wide variety of profitable uses for Hosting Service Providers allowing them to: Sell new powerful and popular services such as: Advanced Shared for shared hosting with customized application sets and resources; True Container for a cheaper, secure, and easier alternative to dedicated servers;
20 Virtuozzo Containers Philosophy 20 Split Dedicated allowing your customers to split the servers for their better utilization, etc. Provide complete self-administration panels (Parallels Power Panel) including system backup/restore and monitoring tools. Have a multitude of customers with their individual full-featured Containers sharing a single physical server. Transparently move customers and their environments between servers, without any manual reconfiguration. Increase profitability through the better management and leverage of hardware and software investments. Automate service provisioning by using the technology of Virtuozzo templates, etc. Besides, Parallels Virtuozzo Containers proves invaluable for IT educational institutions that can now provide every student with a personal Windows server, which can be monitored and managed remotely. Software development companies may use Containers for testing purposes and the like. Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 for 64-bit Processors Parallels Virtuozzo Containers 4.0 is released in three variants for common 32-bit processors and for two groups of 64-bit processors: x86-64 including the following processors: AMD Opteron; AMD Athlon 64; Intel Xeon with EM64T support; Intel Pentium with EM64T support; etc. IA-64 containing the Intel Itanium 2 processor only. Depending on the kind of processors to be used, this or that variant of the Parallels Virtuozzo Containers distribution set should be chosen. The Virtuozzo Containers 32-bit version has been fully ported to support x86-64 and IA bit processors, therefore, all its functionality is retained in the 64-bit versions. So, you can use any Virtuozzo Tool and utility in exactly the same way as you would use it on the servers with standard 32-bit processors. However, while working with the 64-bit version of Virtuozzo Containers, you should keep in mind the following: 1 The Virtuozzo Containers 64-bit version should be installed on a server running either the x86-64-bit or IA64-bit version of Windows Server Please refer to the Parallels Virtuozzo Containers for Windows Installation Guide to learn what particular 64-bit versions of Windows Server 2003 are supported by the Virtuozzo Containers software. 2 The Containers created under Parallels Virtuozzo Containers for x86-64 should use the 64- bit OS template.