1 global strategy danchurchaid ı nørregade 15 ı 1165 copenhagen K ı telephone ı ı nødhjælp.dk ı danchurchaid.org partnership for change in the world
2 The Global Strategy is the overall strategic tool to guide our international work in the years to come. It addresses our development work, humanitarian assistance, mine action and advocacy globally and sets the direction for future development within programmes, geographical presence and partnerships. The organisational development and capacity to implement this strategy is described in the work plans within DanChurchAid Vision and Plan challenges in a changing world 3 partnership for change 5 partnership strategic objectives 7 0ur goals 9 strategic change objectives 11 programme and project focus and overview 17 dca focus countries and regional perspective 19 right based development and gender equality 31 programme management 35 assumptions and risks 37
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4 3 Challenges in a changing world 1The world in which we operate is undergoing dramatic change. Power is shifting to the rapidly growing economies of the global east and south and the power of governments to act as agents and change is eroding. In almost all nation states, internal inequality is increasing as the world economic expands. It is now too simplistic to talk about a rich global north and a poor global south. The number of poor countries is declining, but globally inequality is still rising. Across the 21st century world chronic poverty often exists side by side with grossly excessive wealth. Most people in poverty now live in middle-income, emerging economies. The richest 1 per cent today controls 40 per cent of the world s wealth while the poorest 50 per cent own just 1 per cent. Within DanChurchAid s (DCA) five thematic areas of work, there have been improvements. As examples million people are no longer living in extreme poverty; women continue to gain representation in parliaments; and more people than ever are living with HIV - due to improved access to treatment for HIV and fewer AIDS-related deaths. The beginning of the 21st century witnessed how coalitions and individual citizens in the Arab world mobilised and challenged repressive governments. In Myanmar, there has been a gradual opening of political space. However, despite these advances, the consolidation of democratic governance remains fragile. The shallowness of past reforms in formal democratic institutions is also increasingly evident - in the growth of restrictions to any form of opposition from citizens and civil society, the media and other actors. NGO framework laws have been introduced around the globe, north and south, threatening to filter out groups that are critical of government policies. There is a global decline in key areas such as press freedom, the rule of law and the rights of civil society. Only 43 per cent of the world s population lives in countries assessed as free by Freedom House. Hunger remains a global challenge, despite the fact that the number of people living in extreme poverty and poverty rates have fallen in every developing region. Even at the current rate of progress, estimates indicate that about 1 billion people will still be living on less than $1.25 a day in Four out of every five people living in extreme poverty will live in sub-saharan Africa and southern Asia. Despite global food production continuing to exceed global food requirements, and increasing opportunities for communication, trade and transport at the global level, approximately 923 million women, men, and children are still denied access to a stable supply of the most basic calorie and nutrient requirements. At the global level, food insecurity is thus a matter of unequal distribution and unjust food systems, in addition to production constraints at the local levels. Food insecurity poses immense human suffering and seriously undermines the potential for utilising human resources. Every night, one person in seven goes to bed hungry. The HIV and AIDS agenda is changing rapidly as prevention efforts are reducing the number of new infections. Acquiring HIV is no longer a death sentence and a person with HIV does not need to ever develop AIDS. Access to treatment for people living with HIV has increased in all regions. At the end of 2010, 6.5 million people were receiving antiretroviral therapy in developing regions. This constitutes an increase of over 1.4 million people over December 2009, and the largest one-year increase ever. However, the 2010 target of universal access was not reached. For this to happen will require a concerted effort from all stakeholders to ensure sufficient funding, attention to key populations and marginalised groups and not least to address the key social drivers of the epidemic - in particular gender inequality, discrimination and stigmatisation and lack of sexual and reproductive rights. Only a third of those in need of treatment have access to it. Climate changes lead to extreme and unpredictable weather patterns. This poses a particular challenge to poor countries and marginalized areas, and in particular the most impoverished in those areas. The impact of climate change and environmental decline is seen in both more frequent natural and man-made disasters - such as floods, droughts and famine. Their impact on poor communities can reverse years of progress in development. 70 per cent of disasters are now climate related, affecting some 260 million people each year. Armed conflict and violence uprooted more than 4 million people in 2011, either inside or outside the borders of their countries. At the end of 2011, an estimated 42.5 million people worldwide were living in a place to which they had been forcibly displaced due to conflict or persecution. Governments have provided a record level of funding to rid the world of landmines, and in 2011 more contaminated land has been cleared than ever before. But anti-personnel mines continue to be laid by governments and non-state parties, and 72 countries are mine-affected, even though 80 per cent of the world s nations have signed the Mine Ban Treaty. Cluster munitions are still being produced, transported and used with significant negative impact on local populations despite the 2008 Cluster Munitions Convention. 70% of all landmine victims are civilians.
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6 5 Partnership for change 2A partnership is based on mutual ownership, accountability and participation - a strong mutual relationship based on shared values. Partnership is a founding principle of DanChurchAid - not just a way of working but fundamental to our values and identity. Our emphasis on working in partnerships is our most important comparative advantage. Since 2010, DCA has been a leading member of the global Action by Churches Together (ACT ) alliance. Our partners are on the front line, interacting with rights holders every day. Our partners are critical actors who implement activities which turn our policies into every day practice. DCA partners enrich and inspire our work, and they enable us to understand the problems of poverty and marginalisation. DCA recognises the need to be more systematic about our partnership approach in the period We want to strengthen partners to become stronger civil society actors in their own contexts. We will be more transparent about whom we work with, why and for how long. We will work from baseline data and have minimum objectives for all partners. Beginning in 2013, Regional Offices will monitor activities against these objectives. From 2013 onwards, DCA will prioritise joint programming, joint advocacy strategies and organisational development work, with 1-2 key partners annually in each focus country (10-12 focus countries in all). By the end of the period , DCA s goal is to have at least 100 key partners. For each, we will have clear objectives and expectations for organisational development, and quality and accountability improvements reflected in accountability frameworks which go beyond project activities and funding contracts. All partner organisations will be supported, motivated and monitored on six benchmarks in accountability and quality management with the ultimate aim to significantly improve their organisational sustainability, quality and accountability. Some partners may themselves also opt for external verification. The commitment to the ACT alliance will continue to be strong and our added value as a faith-based organisation will remain central. Most people in developing countries engage in some form of spiritual practice and believe that their faith is important and enables them to relate to the world. Faith groups feel they are motivated by values which are grounded in their religious beliefs and they can have a distinct understanding of development and a different relationship with poor people. Often there can be a lack of understanding between faith groups and governments, donors, secular development organisations and other parts of civil society. In the past, many development agencies have avoided the issue of faith and religion and its role in development. However, DCA as a member of the ACT alliance believes that development actors need to have a basic understanding of what a faith group is and the role played by faith in development - in order to better achieve shared objectives. This includes an understanding of how faith relates to development issues, in the lives of communities, the role of religious institutions and leaders in public life, and faith-based development and relief organisations. An improved understanding helps to build trust and identify greater opportunities for collaboration on policy development and programming. It is important to acknowledge the crucial role of faith-based organisations and faith groups in providing services and relief to poor people, particularly to marginalised communities and in fragile states. DCA will draw more on its particular access to Christian and other faith-based actors to help activate their potential as agents of active citizenship. Many of the 100 key partners for DCA will be ACT partners. In the coming years, DCA will strengthen programmatic cooperation with other ACT members in all DCA focus countries and in humanitarian response activities. One benchmark for ACT alliance cooperation will be having realistic and up-to-date contingency plans in place for all humanitarian response partners in all DCA focus countries. We will ensure that resources are shared and used in the most effective and cost-efficient way, increasing the quality and financing of programmes in the field. DCA partner interaction with ACT Forums and external sustainable advocacy networks will be increased to strengthen the analysis, strategic decisions and coordination of initiatives. A DCA partner group (PG) consisting of elected representatives from DCA s partners was re-established in The PG has an advisory function to the DCA Board as well as day-to-day management (Senior Management). The PG gives inputs to DCA s overall strategic directions (Vision & Plan parts I and II), new policies, major revision of existing policies and other DCA key documents. All DCA partners in each focus country elect a representative to the DCA Partner Group. We will continue to seek critical, constructive advice from the PG in regard to all new policies and strategies.
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8 Partnership strategic objectives 3In the period we will prioritise a revision of our Partnership Policy, including a strategic plan for working with partners and a more systematic portfolio management of our partnerships in each focus country. Partnership Policy To increase the transparency of DCA s different relationships with partners, the Partnership Policy will be adjusted to categorise the range of relationships with partners, including defining the purpose, criteria and mutual requirements for these partnerships. For all partnership relations DCA will work to strengthen, Rights-Based Commitments and Gender Equity standards, including the six benchmarks within the Humanitarian Accountability Partnership Indicators The current Partnership Policy from 2006 is revised to meet recommendations from the Added Value evaluation (COWI, 2009); the HAP certification and the Thematic Review and Capacity Assessment of DanChurchAid (Intrac, 2011). The Policy will be approved by DCA s Partner Group and Board in August Indicator Core partners cooperating with DCA in approved programmes have a signed long-term partnership agreement with DCA in accordance with the revised Partnership Policy. Partner portfolio management DCA will ensure that programmes have a strategic, balanced and mixed partner portfolio based on different criteria; a balance between members of the ACT alliance, or potential ACT members versus secular partners; human rights organisations and gender equity organisations; advocacy versus service delivery partners; short term and longer term partners, etc. In each focus country the nature of the relationship with each partner is based on a systematic and mutual discussion between field offices and HQ staff, including regular assessments of partners organisational strengths and weaknesses, and relevant organisational development plans will be agreed upon. In all DCA programmes, two annual partner platform meetings will be conducted to share learning and experiences with programme implementation, reviews and evaluation, capacity building training; advocacy campaigns, etc. Chairing of the partner platform meetings will be on a rotational basis Indicators From 2013, at least one to two partnership agreements will be signed in each DCA focus country per year, including a long-term organisational development plan for each partner. By July 2013 in each focus country, DCA will institute work plans and reports of activities to improve partners practice and how to put relevant parts of the Humanitarian Accountability Framework into practice; and present a roll-out plan how DCA intends to work with its partners and how they implement and monitor their staff code of conduct Indicator By 2016, all approved country strategies (with a regional focus) have clear partner relationship criteria and are monitored annually in twice annual partnership meetings against mutually agreed accountability benchmarks. ACT alliance In the period , DCA will strengthen programmatic cooperation with other ACT members in all DCA focus countries and ensure that resources are shared and used in the most effective, coordinated and cost-efficient way, as well as increasing quality and financing of programmes in the field. DCA partner interaction with ACT Forums and external sustainable advocacy networks will be increased to strengthen the analysis, strategic decisions and coordination of initiatives Indicators DCA is active in each in-country ACT Forum and we document number of meetings and activities each year Indicators Within the ACT alliance, DCA has facilitated capacity building with one or more ACT partners in each focus country. External coordination and networks DCA facilitates strategic linkages with external networks and institutions beyond the ACT alliance in programme countries with the purpose of exchanging information and best practices, improving overall coordination and impact of technical and advocacy activities. This will include theme-specific national networks, NGO Forums, research institution and the UN, as well as international networks. DCA will strive to place resource persons on the governance bodies of SPHERE, HAP, NGO Forum, ACT board, Aprodev (the Association of World Council of Churches related Development Organisations), ICBL/CMC (International Coalition to Ban Landmines/Cluster Munition Coaltion), and LWF (Lutheran World Foundation) Indicator Conversion of humanitarian standards and accountability mechanisms (Joint Standard Initiative - JSI) through external consultation has progressed significantly against benchmarks Indicator All DCA programme strategies specify the strategic relevance and type of network, and how DCA and partners can benefit from it. 7
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10 9 Our goals 4In the period , DanChurchAid will contribute to the fulfilment of the fundamental human rights of the world s poorest and most marginalised people. Five global goals outline the thematic focus where DCA will work to strengthen: the right to take part in and influence social, political and economic changes; We will work to remove the barriers that prevent men and women from equal participation in society at local, national and international levels. We aim to strengthen democratic structures and processes and further the implementation of civil and political rights, allowing poor women and men and civil society organisations to enjoy their equal right to participate. We focus on changing the institutions and actors that abuse the participation rights of certain population groups, especially women, indigenous people, minorities and religious minorities. the right to food through better access to sustainable livelihood activities; In all of our areas of activity, we will strengthen and secure the right to food. We commit ourselves to achieve a higher level of equality, food security and an increasing standard of living by changing the structures that cause hunger and malnutrition and prevent people from escaping from it. We promote sustainable and climate-friendly methods of agriculture that are adapted to the new challenges caused by climate changes, and also to reduce vulnerability and marginalisation by promoting microfinance, income-generation activities and access to markets. We support mobilisation and organisation to advocate for the right to food. the right to basic health services with particular focus on the fight against HIV and AIDS; Our work focuses on the right to basic health services, in particular in relation to HIV and AIDS. We want to strengthen women and men s access to contraception and support the rights of women and men to be able to freely decide when to have children, to be free from sexual coercion and from harmful cultural practices. As a faith-based organisation, we focus specifically on ensuring that other faith-based organisations fight against stigmatisation and discrimination, and address the gender inequality that is the main driving force of the HIV and AIDS epidemic. the right to a life in dignity and thus the right to humanitarian assistance and protection; We work within existing international humanitarian law and standards in disaster response. When responding to a humanitarian crisis, we address basic needs, in particular food security, with a focus on gender issues as well as strive to eliminate the underlying causes of the crisis. We prioritise accountability to the local population and develop its response in collaboration with ACT partners, networks and the affected population. The response includes disaster risk reduction, humanitarian assistance and reconstruction. Wherever possible, we will link our response to ongoing development activities. the right to protection against the negative effects of landmines, cluster munitions and other explosive remnants of war; We conduct humanitarian mine action to remove the barriers that mines, cluster munitions and other explosive remnants of war pose to socio-economic development in post-conflict countries. The DCA response includes demining, survey, mine risk education, armed violence reduction and victim assistance.
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12 5 11 Strategic change objectives DCA will continue its work within five programme areas, including via local, national and global advocacy: Active Citizenship Right to Food HIV and AIDS Prevention Humanitarian Assistance Humanitarian Mine Action Advocacy DCA works according to the rights-based approach. Complementing DCA s humanitarian and development work, advocacy is seen as an equal and integrated activity. For DCA, advocacy means a series of actions strategically designed to increase the influence of rights holders on public policy decisions and implementation that affect their lives. The overall objective of DCA s work with advocacy is to address power imbalances and increase achievements of rights for the most impoverished and marginalised. This implies addressing the structural causes of poverty and injustice and active support towards sustainable and equitable development. The right to take part in and influence social, political and economic changes In 2012, DCA s Political Space Programme policy was revised and the name was changed to Active Citizenship. The revised policy has a sharpened focus on the human right to participate, including freedoms of association, assembly and expression, and the right to information. As with the previous programme, we will support work against discrimination. The new policy is centred on supporting poor men and women to engage in decision-making structures and processes, particularly at the local level; further their equal rights to participation in electoral processes. The policy will more systematically monitor and advocate for an enabling environment for citizen action, as per international human rights standards. While DCA is prioritising an engagement in local governance, we are also committed to addressing national level advocacy for changes in discriminatory laws, policies and norms that limit the participation of poor women and men. Recent programme evaluations have pointed to the need for DCA to further build partner capacity on strategic advocacy, including facilitating improved skills in political economy and power analysis. Stakeholder analyses must therefore be stronger on assessing power and interests. Based on these analyses, DCA and partners need to be more strategic in taking opportunities within political processes for addressing governance gaps. Experience also suggests that DCA must maintain a flexible strategic framework for these programmes, enabling them to adapt to different political contexts and quickly respond to changing political contexts. In view of the increased risks faced by partners, we will need to step up our networking with protection-specialised agencies (e.g. Frontline Defenders)
13 and increase our support, where relevant, to human rights defenders mechanisms in its focus countries. DCA will also explore making more explicit a focus on promoting dialogue and constructive engagement between conflicting groups. This will include supporting initiatives at the local, national and international levels for promotion of peaceful coexistence and reconciliation e.g. through interfaith dialogue and consensus building among ethnic and religious groups. We will continue to support work on access to justice as a cross-cutting intervention to respond to abuses and violations against women and discriminated groups, as an inhibiting factor to their enhanced participation in their societies. DCA will undertake advocacy activities at Danish, EU and global levels aimed at ensuring political space and enabling environment for civil society action with a special focus on the right to association and assembly. These activities will, to a very large degree, be carried out in cooperation with DCA partners, first and foremost in Aprodev, ACT alliance and Concord (the European NGO confederation for Relief and Development) in Denmark and Europe. Indicators 2013 Strategy Indicator In 3 out of 10 fully-fledged Active Citizenship programmes, 60 per cent of partners have developed long-term advocacy strategies and report increased skills in political economy and power analysis in Strategy Indicator In all Active Citizenship Programmes, 60 per cent of partners have institutionalised long-term advocacy strategies and show evidence of increased political analysis and strategic advocacy skills Effect Indicator Number of new laws and policies introduced with partner contributions and the documented increase in resources for more equitable service delivery and poverty-reducing programmes due to partner-supported lobby and advocacy interventions Effect Indicator Documented impact of the increased participation of women and men and representative civil society organisation within local and national decision-making structures and processes in terms of increased budgets and their effective disbursement, equitable service delivery, improved policies, laws and practices, etc. The right to food through better access to sustainable livelihood activities DCA will upscale sustainable livelihood activities in rural areas and facilitate linkage at national and international levels. This entails working within the UN Global Strategic Framework and Guidelines In Agriculture, this entails i.a. capacity development and organisation of farmers and pastoralists; improved food production and storage; marketing of agricultural and other produce; and advocacy to keep national duty bearers accountable to commitments to right to food. DCA will work to mainstream climate change adaptation by including Disaster Risk Reduction in all Right to Food programmes. It is our strategy to improve disaster resilience by linking humanitarian efforts more firmly to long-term development, through vulnerability analysis and vulnerability scenarios and strengthening local efforts where disaster risk reduction and climate adaptation are integrated. The local population, particularly the most vulnerable groups and the local authorities will be involved in prevention and preparedness to a much greater degree for maximum effect. The rural poor hold great potential for contributing to the achievement of the right to food if given the opportunity to access resources and influence. We will continue to support the rural poor in improving productivity, generating income and gaining influence on the political processes that define the framework for their right to food. We will focus on reducing discrimination of vulnerable groups that may include farmers with little or poor quality land, marginalised pastoralists, landless labourers, girls and women with no land rights, HIV and AIDS affected and indigenous peoples. Giving women the same level of access to knowledge and natural resources as men would in itself lift 100 to 150 million people out of hunger. DCA will strengthen poverty alleviation activities by facilitating the removal of barriers to access to sustainable and green livelihoods. We will focus on various aspects of agriculture (capacity building and organization of farmers, increased food production, food storage, food marketing and advocacy to keep national duty bearers accountable to uphold food security laws), and other rural income generating activities to ensure household food security including the most vulnerable e.g. landless and casual labourers. DCA will continue the strategic use of microfinance to support the formation of village savings and loan groups. In relevant areas Advocacy issues in our Right to Food programmes will be climate change adaptation, land grabbing and integration of development and humanitarian aid policies. We will continue to focus on consumer protection and advocacy in connection to microfinance. In areas where mines and Unexploded Ordinances (UXO)s hinder food production or access to agricultural land, DCA will integrate the work of Humanitarian Mine Action and Right to Food programmes. Indicators 2013 Strategy Indicator By 2013, more than 50 per cent of the partners in each Right to Food programme have included strategic work on structural causes of food insecurity, disaster risk reduction and the effect and impact of climate change in their policies and plans, and show evidence of implementation of these policies in projects Strategy Indicator By 2016, more than 50 per cent of the partners in each Right 12
14 to Food programme have included strategic work on structural causes of food insecurity, disaster risk reduction and the effect and impact of climate change in their policies and plans, and show evidence of implementation of these policies in projects Effect Indicator By 2013, the combination of agricultural production, income generation and accessing rights has contributed to a reduction of food insecure months of 10 per cent within DCA programme areas Effect Indicator By 2016, the combination of an integrated approach to humanitarian assistance, climate change adaptation and agricultural production, income generation and accessing rights has contributed to a reduction of food insecure months of 50 per cent within DCA programme areas. The right to basic health services with particular focus on the fight against HIV and AIDS HIV prevalence is declining in many countries and world focus on HIV is decreasing. However, the challenge of HIV remains huge. Still only a third of those in need of treatment have the access to treatment. The social and cultural issues around HIV is worsened by a real set back on sexual and reproductive rights in many countries, both in relation to women s rights and sexual minority rights, making HIV prevention even more challenging. A review of DCA s HIV and AIDS programme will take place in Based on its recommendations a new programme policy on HIV and AIDS will be developed. DCA has long experience in combating the HIV and AIDS epidemic. Focus has been on supporting organisation giving care for people living with HIV and AIDS, support for orphans and vulnerable children and prevention. An important part of the work has been advocacy in Denmark, internationally and in the countries in the South. During , DCA will continue to focus on HIV and AIDS intervention but direct the work into high prevalence countries in Africa. Areas will include HIV and AIDS prevention, advocacy, empowerment and changes of attitude towards people with the disease to reduce stigma and discrimination. DCA will shift focus away from service provision to more rights-based approaches with advocacy for increased government support in favour of the groups most vulnerable to the infection and strengthening of people living with HIV own organisations and networks. Supporting sexual and reproductive rights including sexual minority rights, and fighting against criminalisation of HIV transmission will be given more focus in the programmes in the planning period. A strategy for Danish, International and Danish advocacy will be developed in DCA as a faith-based organisation will continue to work to support the rights of the most marginalised and especially how to involve the faith-based community in creating an enabling and constructive environment for HIV prevention. Indicators 2013 Strategy Indicator By 2013, all DCA HIV and AIDS programmes document active steps to strengthen advocacy focus on programme by capacity development initiatives or by including advocacy resource organisations in the partner base Strategy Indicator By 2016, all DCA HIV and AIDS programmes have participated actively in national level advocacy Effect indicator By 2013, 2 out of 3 HIV and AIDS programmes document increased access to gender sensitive and rights based prevention and treatment of HIV for the most vulnerable women and men Effect indicator By 2016, all DCA HIV and AIDS programmes document increased access to gender sensitive and rights-based prevention and treatment of HIV for the most vulnerable women and men. The right to a life in dignity and thus the right to humanitarian assistance and protection The priorities in our humanitarian work are: respect for humanitarian principles; protection of conflict and disaster affected people; greater inclusion of local civil society in conflict mitigation and peaceful co-existence activities at community level; and reconstruction work in countries and areas caught up in complex crises. DCA and our humanitarian assistance partners are firmly committed to the Humanitarian Charter and the Sphere Project Minimum Standards in Disaster Response, both in principle and in action. DCA is likewise committed to the benchmarks of the Humanitarian Accountability Partnership. Together, these two initiatives form the foundation for delivering humanitarian assistance that is accountable and of high quality. In this regard, the Rights- Based Approach plays a fundamental role in our approach to humanitarian assistance. From 2013 and onwards, there will be increased activity by DCA and partners within the ACT alliance to advocate for local populations where core humanitarian principles and standards are not respected. DCA will work to strengthen partner staff knowledge of Sphere Standards and HAP benchmarks, especially the development of complaints mechanisms, the provision of adequate information, and the fostering of meaningful participation of disaster and conflictaffected communities. Through delivery of humanitarian assistance via local partner organisations, DCA plays a unique role in humanitarian actions. Our partners often have access to the most marginalised and vulnerable populations, and often have a unique perspective on the disaster and responses to it. DCA will continue our focus on beneficiary involvement in decision-making and improved visibility efforts to increase accountability and we will work to increase partner 13
15 staff knowledge of SPHERE minimum standards and HAP benchmarks, especially the requirement to have complaints mechanisms for local communities which will be a valuable contribution to the humanitarian community at large. We will continue to prioritise addressing food crisis response in the delivery of timely and effective humanitarian assistance. As mentioned above under the right to food, a revision of the Humanitarian Assistance Policy will take place in During , DCA will develop medium to longer term strategies for all humanitarian crisis situations where DCA engages for more than 12 months and which are not covered under another programme strategic framework. The strategies will include disaster risk reduction with an emphasis on disaster preparedness measures, define exit strategies, and outline DCA s role and added value in relation to the implementing partners and affected communities. We believe that disaster resilience can be strengthened considerably by linking humanitarian action with long-term development, through local efforts where disaster risk reduction measures and climate adaptation are integrated. Between 2013 and 2016, DCA will prioritise Disaster Risk Reduction by allocating specific funds to all five regions to mitigate the effects of climate change. Apart from the recommendation to secure a stronger link between humanitarian assistance and development, the review will take into account, the experience and lessons learned from the Cash and Risk Conference in During the period , DCA will increase the use of cash programming in its activities. Additional emphasis will be given to understanding and supporting local protection skills and methods. DCA will utilise the findings of its Local to Global Protection project through awareness raising and training for partners, in particular in Myanmar, Sudan, South Sudan and the occupied Palestinian territories, as well as through developing and implementing methods which reflect the findings in our humanitarian work generally and within the ACT alliance. DCA s research and experience demonstrates that local populations capacity to survive and protect themselves is often more important than external protection. Local communities capacities will be prioritised through increased support for local self-protection activities. One important element is to protect civilians from war remnants and large quantities of weapons through humanitarian mine action and mine risk education. DCA will work proactively with the ACT alliance in order to create synergy and increased international funding to humanitarian response between ACT donors and ECHO. DCA s humanitarian response funds will be used strategically to attract funding for emergencies. Further, emphasis will be placed on strengthened cooperation with the ACT alliance, CONCORD, VOICE, and with Nordic ACT Organizations to increase international funding from ECHO and USAID specifically. DCA accountability and procurement specializations will be further promoted within the ACT alliance, demonstrating DCA added value. Indicators Strategy indicator 2013 By 2013, all ACT alliance forums in DCA focus countries and countries with significant DCA supported humanitarian response have realistic and up-to-date contingency plans in place. Strategy Indicator 2016 By 2016, all DCA supported humanitarian projects provide adequate information, ensure meaningful participation by rights holders and actively use feedback from complaints mechanisms to ensure quality improvements. Effect Indicator 2013 By 2013, medium to long term strategies are in place for all humanitarian crisis situations where DCA works more than 12 months and which are not covered under another DCA programme strategic framework. At least three humanitarian project evaluations document reduced vulnerability and increased resilience among rights holders as a result of strengthened focus on self-protection; disaster preparedness and cash programming. Effect Indicator 2016 By 2016, all DCA humanitarian projects document reduced vulnerability and increased resilience among rights holders as a result of strengthened focus on self-protection, disaster preparedness and cash programming. The right to protection against the negative effects of landmines, cluster munitions and other explosive remnants of war DCA s Mine Action programme will expand the scope of engagement in south east Asia, with focus on Myanmar and Laos. Existing activities in Africa and the Middle East will be maintained and strengthened where funding allows. DCA s Humanitarian Mine Action (HMA) programme will also diversify activity, by strengthening our risk education expertise and expanding our engagement in Armed Violence Reduction (AVR). DCA HMA will strive to make mine clearance activity more efficient, through use of innovative technology and effective land release techniques. DCA will ensure better understanding of beneficiaries needs and our impact by systematic use of task impact assessments and the establishment of a robust operational database. Future focus for HMA will centre on developmental impact: where explosive ordnance and mines affect freedom of movement and right to a life with dignity/right to food. This approach will focus DCA HMA prioritisation at the global level, and inform work at Regional Offices to ensure mine action enables other DCA focus country programme activity and output. DCA, being one of only five major mine action organizations worldwide and the only ACT alliance member with this capacity, will continue to strengthen collaboration where possible with ACT partners, including significant work to combine psy- 14
16 cho-social support with mine action, and will remain the only ACT alliance member with humanitarian response capacity in mine action. DCA HMA will continue to advocate for universal accession to both the Mine Ban Treaty and the Convention on Cluster Munitions. In addition, DCA HMA will advocate for effective wording within the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons. Indicators Strategy indicator 2013 AVR and Psychosocial elements have been introduced in two programmes, supported where possible by ACT partnerships for delivery. Strategy indicator 2016 Publically accessible annual programme reporting per country has been instituted, documenting goals, progress, and overall output, and including the developmental and humanitarian impact of DCA HMA and Armed Violence Reduction activity. Effect indicator 2013 The effect of HMA interventions has broadened beyond clearance to introduce protection of those most threatened by proliferation of small arms and light weapons, and strengthened support to those traumatised by the effects of conflict. Effect indicator 2016 Clearance efficiency increased by 10 per cent over 2011 levels, development effect ( including improved livelihoods through release of land for farming) and contribution to sustainable national capacity demonstrated for all DCA HMA interventions. 15
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18 Programme and project focus and overview 6From 2013 to 2016, the number of programmes under each programme policy will be changed to reflect an increased focus on the right to food and a shift towards working with HIV and AIDS only in high prevalence countries in Africa. The right to food programmes will be scaled up and adjusted according to the new policy. The programmes will ensure that regionally connected disaster risks are systematically integrated when developing (regional) right to food and/or humanitarian assistance programmes in Asia, Africa and Central America. Currently DCA has nine approved food security programmes either as stand-alone programmes or integrated into country programmes: India, Cambodia, Uganda, Malawi, Ethiopia and Central America (regional). Moreover, food security is integrated into the country programmes in Palestine, South Sudan and Zambia. In 2013, a Myanmar food security programme will be approved, and in the longer term Kyrgyzstan will also focus on food security. If it is decided to establish Zimbabwe as a DCA focus country, a food security programme will also be developed here. In 2013, work on the right to basic health will focus on HIV and AIDS prevention only in high prevalence countries in Africa. Separate HIV and AIDS programmes are approved in Malawi, Zambia, Ethiopia and Uganda. HIV and AIDs programmes in Kyrgyzstan and Cambodia will be phased out. It is not envisaged to increase the number of HIV and AIDS programmes in Africa, but closer cooperation with Norwegian Church Aid (NCA) managing the Zambia country programme is planned. This will clarify future ambitions in regard to HIV and AIDS. We will continue the current level of democracy building with a focus on access to justice and citizens participation as described in the revised Active Citizenship policy. For the time being, DCA has Active Citizenship programmes in 12 countries, either as separate programmes or as integrated components in a country programme: Ethiopia, Malawi, South Sudan (country programme), Uganda, Zambia (as a part of a Norwegian Church Aid country programme), Myanmar, Cambodia, India, South Asia (regional), Palestine (country programme), Honduras and Kyrgyzstan. Should Zimbabwe be defined as a DCA focus country, an active citizenship programme/programme component will be developed. Humanitarian assistance and protection will continue to be a strong component in DCA s international work. With an increased emphasis on disaster risk reduction measures, linkages to longer term right to food programmes will be strengthened. Moreover, based on the findings of the localto-global project, support to local self-protection building will increase. Currently, DCA has Humanitarian Assistance programmes in South Sudan (country programme) and in South Asia (regional disaster risk reduction programme). Disaster risk reduction and emergency response is also addressed under the Right to Food programmes in Ethiopia and Cambodia and the country programme in Palestine. In addition to these programmatic interventions, DCA s humanitarian assistance is responding to humanitarian crises through shorter term stand- alone projects. In 2011, DCA had approximately 27 humanitarian projects in 13 countries outside a longer term programme framework. In the medium term, DCA foresees a need to continue humanitarian assistance in 8 of these countries (Sudan, Kenya, Somalia, Thailand, Myanmar, India, Bangladesh and Pakistan) and in 2013, medium term humanitarian strategies will be developed for these countries. The scope of DCA s humanitarian assistance in terms of people targeted and projects implemented will depend on the need to respond, but it is foreseen that at a minimum the scope will remain the same as in Humanitarian mine action and mine risk education is currently taking place in seven countries. By 2013, we will complete our work in Albania. In the future, we will explore opportunities to increase co-operation with ACT sister agencies who are working with development in mine contaminated areas. We will continue the current level of our work with our crosscutting commitments to the rights-based approach, including gender equality and special attention on accountability towards rights holders (HAP certification). 17 Year Active Citizenship programmes Right to Food programmes HIV and AIDS Programmes Humanitarian Assistance programmes and projects outside programmes Humanitarian Mine Action programmes total programmes 27 projects 4 programmes 27 projects The number of programmes in 2016 indicated above is based on an assumption that Zimbabwe will develop into a DCA focus country. The future number of humanitarian stand-alone projects outside programmes is difficult to predict. 27 projects is the 2011 level of engagement.
19 photo paul jeffrey/actalliance
20 7 19 DCA Focus countries with regional perspective Geographical focus DCA s international engagement is based on strategic and sustainable support in focus countries with a regional perspective. The principles and rules for DCA engagement are outlined in DCA s Regional Policy and made specific in individual strategies for all our focus regions. The commitment to work with a regional perspective comes from experience that issues are interlinked across borders and sometimes require a broader response. Other issues can be purely national in nature and are therefore more focussed. DCA could work with a much larger geographical spread and greater technical reach. But we have made a conscious choice to harness our significant resources behind local partners in a limited number of programme types (5), focus countries (10-12) and regions worldwide. Important selection criteria include: levels of poverty and food insecurity, freedom of movement, power imbalances, and levels of discrimination, HIV and AIDS prevalence and disasters. These factors are then assessed against the windows of opportunity for influencing decision-makers, availability of funding and most importantly, availability of strong local partners, legitimately rooted in local society and able to make a difference in improving livelihoods, enjoyment of basic human rights, freedom of movement, and access to basic social services. In 2012, DCA was engaged in 11 focus countries: Ethiopia, South Sudan, Uganda, Malawi, Zambia, India, Myanmar, Cambodia, Kyrgyzstan, Honduras and Palestine. In the strategic period , DCA will increase its activities in Zimbabwe with a view to establish it as a new focus country. A focus country is where a DCA Regional Office is located and is the centre of DCA s engagement in the focus region. This focus is maintained to ensure that long-term and substantial support is maintained within the country to facilitate sustainable institutional and social changes. Together with a focus country the focus region can consist of countries in the region where the mandate and engagement is more limited, be it Programme Country, Humanitarian Response Country, or Humanitarian Mine Action Country. The rationale behind a focus country with a regional perspective is to secure: a flexible but strategic framework for combining different types of donor funding in countries in the focus region; a framework which can help identify and strengthen linkages between different countries and partnerships in the focus region for learning and advocacy; a framework for responding to cross-border issues e.g. climate change, certain disasters, regional-level advocacy, etc.; and long-term commitment.
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