# VANCOUVER POLICE DEPARTMENT PLANNING, RESEARCH & AUDIT SECTION

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1 VANCOUVER POLICE DEPARTMENT PLANNING, RESEARCH & AUDIT SECTION ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT REPORT DATE: December 4, 212 BOARD MEETING: December 12, 212 BOARD REPORT # Regular TO: FROM: SUBJECT: Police Board Jim Chu, Chief Constable Introduction to the Crime Severity Index PURPOSE & SUMMARY: Previously the Police Board requested information about the crime severity index (CSI). This report explains what the CSI is, how it s calculated, and provides recent results for in comparison with other jurisdictions. Since the public release of the CSI in 29, has experienced significant decreases in all three types of CSI. In fact, since 2 s total decrease in all three types of CSI has been larger than decreases experienced in the Census Metropolitan Area, British Columbia (), and the national average. DISCUSSION: What is the CSI? The more commonly known and understood measure of crime is the total crime rate which is the number of reported criminal offences per 1, population (in a given jurisdiction for one calendar year). This is the total crime rate and it is further broken down into the violent crime and the property crime rate. Where the crime rate measures the volume of crime, the CSI measures the volume and seriousness of crime. The CSI helps explain whether or not reported crime is more or less serious than the previous year. Essentially, the difference between reported crime rates and the CSI measure is that the crime rate method counts the number of more serious crime incidents and the number of less serious crime incidents and applies an equal weighting; thus, one homicide is mathematically equivalent to one shoplifting incident (in the calculation of the total crime rate). The CSI was developed to apply differing weights to each type of crime and assess the severity of crime; thus, in the CSI calculation one homicide does not equal one shoplifting. The CSI was developed by Statistics Canada in consultation with the justice community and this included substantial input by Canadian police. The CSI was first introduced in 29.

2 CMA West Port Moody Delta White Rock Pitt Meadows Coquitlam Port Coquitlam Richmond North Maple Ridge Burnaby New Westminster Victoria Surrey Langley CSI Values One of the key variables used to measure the CSI is that of sentencing. More serious crimes receive more serious punishments from the courts and therefore, will result in a higher index value. To calculate the seriousness weight of each offence, the number of people serving sentences is multiplied by the average number of days served. The CSI then takes this weight value and multiplies it by the number of incidents per offence. All weighted offences are then added together and divided by the corresponding population total. The CSI has a base of 1 and the CSI s result for any jurisdiction can increase or decrease away from that base. Similar to reported crime rates, the CSI measures the Total CSI, Violent CSI, and Non-Violent CSI (i.e., property crimes and other Criminal Code offences). Recent Results for the Total CSI The 211 Total CSI in is 13.4 and it is higher than the national average of The following figure also compares s Total CSI with those of other police departments in the Census Metropolitan Area (CMA) 1, Victoria, and. As one can see Langley, Surrey, and Victoria had higher Total CSI s in 211 than Overall 211 CSI Comparison by Police Service Canada = The figure on the following page shows how these police departments Total CSI changed between 29 (since the creation of the CSI) and 211. All police departments experienced a decrease in Total CSI with the exception of White Rock (3.%). West experienced the largest decrease in Total CSI (36.%) and ranked tenth with a Total CSI decrease of 15.8%. 1 data cannot be extracted from other geographical areas as these figures are based on rankings and not incidents. 2

3 Langley, -.4% Surrey, -6.3% Richmond, -7.7% Port Coquitlam, -8.8% Port Moody, -11.5%, -15.8% Coquitlam, -16.5% New Westminster, -19.4% Victoria, -2.6% North, -21.4% Delta, -21.7% Burnaby, -22.5% Pitt Meadows, -22.7% Maple Ridge, -25.7% West Van, -36.% % Change in CSI Values White Rock, 3.% Police Services Percentage Change from 29 to 211 2% 1% % -1% -2% -3% -4% -5% -6% -7% Total CSI and Other Large Police Services Comparing the Total CSI change from 29 to 211 to other police departments of large cities in Canada shows that the Edmonton Police Service experienced the largest decline in Total CSI (24.3%) and the Toronto Police Service experienced the smallest decline (1.1%). s Total CSI decreased 15.8% from 29 to 211. Total CSI City % Change Toronto % Montréal % Ottawa % % Calgary % Winnipeg % Edmonton % Total CSI: Long-term Trend The figure on the following page shows how the Total CSI from 2 to 211 in has experienced a decrease in the Total CSI for seven consecutive years whereas the CMA,, and Canada have experienced a decrease in CSI eight years in a row. 3

4 CMA White Rock Port Moody West Delta Port Coquitlam Coquitlam Pitt Meadows Richmond North Maple Ridge New Westminster Burnaby Victoria Surrey Langley Violent CSI Values CSI Values Macro Comparison of Crime Severity Index from 2 to Canada CMA The Total CSI has decreased substantially since 2. Canada s Total CSI value is 27.3% lower than it was eleven years ago. s value decreased 34.3% over the same time. The CMA has decreased 4.5% and s value has decreased 51.8% since 2. Recent Results for the Violent CSI s Violent CSI value (127.8) is higher than the national average with an index of 85.3 while locally only Langley, Surrey, and Victoria have higher Violent CSIs Violent CSI Comparison by Police Service Canada =

5 Port Moody, -6.9% Surrey, -1.1% Richmond, -13.7% North, -14.5% Victoria, -18.%, -18.8% White Rock, -18.9% Pitt Meadows, -2.7% Burnaby, -23.6% New West, -26.4% Maple Ridge, -27.9% Port Coquitlam, -28.7% Delta, -29.9% West Van, -32.% Coquitlam, -32.5% % Change in Violent CSI Values Langley, 27.6% The following figure displays changes to the Violent CSI from 29 to 211. All police departments experienced a decrease in Violent CSI over the past two years with the exception of Langley (27.6%). Coquitlam experienced the largest decrease in Violent CSI (32.5%) from 29 to 211. s Violent CSI value decreased 18.8% over the same time period. Police Services Violent CSI Percentage Change from 29 to 211 6% 4% 2% % -2% -4% -6% -8% Violent CSI and Other Large Police Services Reviewing 29 and 211 data shows that with respect to the Violent CSI, experienced the second largest decrease at 18.8%. The Ottawa Police Service had the largest decrease in Violent CSI (18.9%) whereas Montreal s Violent CSI value decreased (-3.6%) from 29. Violent CSI City % Change Montréal % Toronto % Winnipeg % Edmonton % Calgary % % Ottawa % Violent CSI: Long-term Trend The figure on the following page shows that,, and Canada have experienced a decrease in Violent CSI values for five consecutive years, whereas the CMA has experienced a decrease in Violent CSI values over the past four years. 5

6 CMA West Port Moody Delta Pitt Meadows Coquitlam Port Coquitlam White Rock North Richmond Maple Ridge Burnaby New Westminster Victoria Surrey Langley Non-Violent CSI Values Violent CSI Values Macro Comparison of Violent Crime Severity Index from 2 to Canada CMA Since 2, the Violent CSI has decreased in each of these four areas. Canada s Violent CSI value is 12.8% lower than it was in 2. s value has decreased 22.6%, while the CMA value has decreased 3.3% and s value has decreased 42.9%. Recent Results for the Non-Violent CSI 2 The figure on the following page compares s 211 Non-Violent CSI value (94.1) with other CMA jurisdictions, Victoria,, and the national average. Langley, Surrey, Victoria, and New Westminster have higher Non-Violent CSI values and it is noteworthy that s value is only slightly higher than the CMA s average but is slightly below s Non-Violent CSI Comparison by Police Service Canada = Non-violent crime rate includes property and other Criminal Code offences. 6

7 % Change in Non-Violent CSI Values Port Coquitlam, -1.2% Surrey, -4.5% Richmond, -5.9% Langley, -7.2% Coquitlam, -9.8% Port Moody, -12.5%, -14.1% New Westminster, -16.6% Delta, -18.8% Victoria, -21.7% Burnaby, -22.% Pitt Meadows, -23.3% North, -23.4% Maple Ridge, -25.% West Van, -37.2% White Rock, 7.3% The following figure shows which police departments experienced an increase or decrease in Non-Violent CSI levels from 29 to 211. All departments experienced a decrease in Non- Violent CSI values from 29 to 211 with the exception of White Rock (7.3%). West experienced the largest decrease in Non-Violent CSI (37.2%) from 29 to 211. s Non-Violent CSI value decreased 14.1% over the same time period. Police Services Non-Violent CSI Percentage Change from 29 to 211 4% 2% % -2% -4% -6% -8% Non-Violent CSI and Other Large Police Services The Winnipeg Police Service experienced the largest decrease in Non-Violent CSI (31.2%) whereas Toronto s experienced the smallest decrease in non-violent CSI (11.5%). s Non-Violent CSI decreased 14.1% when comparing 29 and 211 data. Non-Violent CSI City % Change Toronto % Ottawa % Montréal % % Calgary % Edmonton % Winnipeg % Non-Violent CSI: Long-term Trend The figure on the following page shows that, over the past 8 years,, s CMA,, and Canada have all experienced a decrease in the Non-Violent CSI values. 7

8 Non-Violent CSI Values Macro Comparison of Non-Violent Crime Severity Index from 2 to Canada CMA Reviewing the data since 2 shows that overall Non-Violent CSI values have decreased. More specifically, Canada s Non-Violent CSI value decreased 32.2%, s has decreased 37.9%, s CMA has decreased 43.9%, and s decreased 55.4% since 2. CONCLUSION: The CSI was developed to apply differing weights to each type of crime and assess the severity of crime; thus, in the CSI calculation one homicide does not equal one shoplifting. The CSI was first introduced in 29. The Total CSI decreased in, s CMA,, and Canada from 29 to 211. This means less crime is coming to the attention of the police and less serious crimes are coming to the attention of the Canadian criminal justice system. has experienced significant decreases in Total CSI, Violent CSI, and Non-Violent CSI since 2. These decreases have out-paced decreases seen in the CMA,, and the national average. Statistics Canada releases updated CSI data every July. The Planning, Research & Audit Section will annually provide a report, similar to this report, to the Police Board every September that updates the results of the CSI data released by Statistics Canada. Author: Drazen Manojlovic Telephone: Date: Dec.4, 212 Submitting Executive Member (signature): DCC Warren Lemcke Date: December 4, 212 8

9 This report has been prepared in consultation with the sections/divisions listed below, and they concur with its contents. Concurring: Date: Date: Date: 9

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