FINSCOPE Zambia FinScope Zambia 2009 M & N ASSOCIATES LIMITED

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1 FINSCOPE Zambia 2009 FinScope Zambia 2009 The Government of the Republic of Zambia (GRZ) has been committed to reforming the country s financial sector for several years. Financial access is now a priority pillar of reform within Phase II of the Financial Sector Development Plan (FSDP), alongside interrelated pillars that are aimed at stimulating competition and promoting ongoing improvements to market infrastructure. Conducting the FinScope survey is part of the GRZ s commitment to the expansion of financial inclusion in the country as it provides regulators, policy makers, financial service providers and supporting agencies with valuable market information that they can, and have, used to develop policy, improve service delivery and pursue greater outreach. The FinScope survey tool has been developed by FinMark Trust as a nationally representative survey of consumer perceptions about financial services and issues. The survey is conducted among adults, defined as all individuals aged 16 and above. To date, it has been completed in 14 African countries. FinScope provides insights into how people source their income and manage their financial lives. By so doing, FinScope assists in establishing credible benchmarks and indicators of financial inclusion, while at the same time providing insights into market obstacles to growth and innovation, and highlighting opportunities for policy reform and innovation in product development and delivery. A FinScope survey was first completed in Zambia in late It showed a picture of low overall financial inclusion: 14.6% of adults were banked in 2005 A further 7.8% were formally served by non-bank financial institutions, bringing the formally served market (banks and non-banks) to 22.4% of adults 11.3% were informally served only In total, 33.7% of Zambians adults were financially served, leaving 66.3% financially excluded In 2008, FinMark Trust Zambia was commissioned by the Bank of Zambia to conduct a second FinScope survey (FinScope Zambia 2009), which was funded by the GRZ s Private Sector Development Reform Programme (PSDRP). The objectives of this follow-up survey are to provide further insights into Zambia s financial sector and assess how the landscape of financial access has changed over time. These insights will enable government to measure its performance in improving access since 2005 and to ascertain the extent to which developments within the financial sector, including the recent global financial crisis, have impacted on financial inclusion. These findings will also assist in informing other industry support processes and product innovation strategies, and thereby contribute meaningfully towards the ultimate long-term goal of effective financial access for all Zambians. M & N ASSOCIATES LIMITED

2 FINSCOPE ZAMBIA 2009 Geographical distribution of the Zambian adult population by province Sampling and methodology 6% 9% Methodology and sample 4% 13% 12% 19% 9% 17% 11% Nationally representative sample of adult Zambian individuals aged 16 years and older 400 Enumerator Areas (EAs) were drawn for the purpose of the sample 4000 face-to-face interviews were conducted (10 per EA) by CSO in partnership with M & N Associates The survey data was captured, cleaned, weighted and validated by CSO in partnership with M & N Associates 9% Central 17% Copperbelt 11% Eastern 9% Luapula 19% Lusaka 12% Northern 4% North Western 13% Southern 6% Western Gender distribution Female Male 51.3% 48.7% Urban-rural distribution 38% 62% Socio-economic profile The majority (62%) of the adult population live in rural areas Almost half (47%) of the adult population are under the age of 30 years More than half of the adult population (56%) have only a primary school education or less Many adults get income on an irregular, inconsistent basis income from farming and selfemployment are the most relied upon sources of income: o 50% of rural and 27% of urban adults do not have a regular monthly income o Only 14% of urban adults earn a salary or wages from a company or business, reducing to less than 3% for rural adults o In rural areas, financial activity is driven by farming activities, whereas in urban areas self-employment (running own business) feature more prominently Almost 80% of adults earn below K a month (US$1 = K5 145 (June 2010)) Understanding people s lives A large proportion of Zambian adults do not have access to basic amenities: o Two in every five adults do not have access to a safe source of drinking water; in rural areas more than half of the adult population does not have access to safe drinking water o More than 13% of adults (21% in rural areas) do not have access to a toilet facility, with only 16% having access to a flush toilet o Only one in every five adults uses electricity to cook; more than 90% of adults living in rural areas rely on wood or charcoal as cooking fuel In terms of ownership of household assets, Zambian adults own basic assets such as agricultural hand tools and furniture i.e. assets not normally linked to wealth or which could be used to leverage finance: o Home ownership is high more than 70% of all adults and more than 80% of rural adults or a member of their household claim to own the dwelling that they live in o Most (87%), however, do not have title deeds to their land Urban Rural

3 MAKING FINANCIAL MARKETS WORK FOR THE POOR IN ZAMBIA Financial Access The FinScope survey uses the Financial Access Strand to compare financial access across countries. The Financial Access Strand focuses on the financial system of a country in its broadest sense and assumes all adults in the country will fall into one of three segments: formally included, informally served and financially excluded. The Financial Access Strand The segments are differentiated by current product usage indices ranging from people who are formally included, to those people who use informal products and finally to those people who use no products. The latter group of people are defined as the "financially excluded" population. The Access Strand is segmented into the following three broad segments as shown in the diagram: Formally included Formal products supplied by institutions governed by a legal precedent of any type. This is not exclusive usage, as they can also currently use informal products. Formally included Informally served Divided into two sub-segments for more accurate cross country comparisons: Formal bank Formal other Financially excluded Traditional banking products supplied by a financial institution. This is not exclusive usage, these adults can also currently use formal other products or any informal products. Informally served Financially excluded Other formal products that are not banking products and are not supplied by a banking institution Informal products operate without recognized legal governance e.g. savings with an employer or chilimba. Respondents who currently use one or more informal product but don t use any formal products are included in this segment. Neither users of formal nor informal products. Any respondent who is currently not using any of these products is included in this segment and is said to be unbanked. Zambian 2009 Access Strand 37.3% Financially included 23.2% Formally served 62.7% Financially excluded Zambia Have/use a bank product Don t have/use a bank product but have/use a financial product from a formal non-bank financial institution Don t have/use a formal financial product but have an informal financial product Don t have/use any financial product The Zambian Access Strand 37.3% of Zambian adults are financially served leaving 62.7% of adults financially excluded (i.e. using no financial products formal or informal to manage their financial lives) 23.2% of Zambians adults are formally served: 13.9% have a bank account and 9.3% have other formal financial products though they do not have a bank account 14.1% of Zambians are informally served only (i.e. using only informal financial products)

4 FINSCOPE ZAMBIA 2009 The Zambian Access Strand continued The most significant difference between rural and urban usage of financial products lies in the use of bank products bank product penetration being more than twice as high among urban adults compared to rural adults The informal sector is an important driving force of financial inclusion with 16.5% of adults in rural areas and 10.2% of urban adults using only informal products Total Urban Rural Have/use a bank product Don t have/use a bank product but have/use a financial product from a formal non-bank financial institution Don t have/use a formal financial product but have an informal financial product Don t have/use any financial product Landscape of Access The Landscape of Access provides a measure and understanding of consumer demand across the four main product categories, namely: Transactions: : the proportion of the adult population with mechanisms through which funds are deposited, withdrawn and/or transmitted Savings: the proportion of the adult population with a means of accumulating money, whether on a contractual or discretionary basis Credit: the proportion of the adult population with funds having been provided in advance against a committed repayment stream Insurance: the proportion of the adult population with one or more product that covers a defined risk event in return for a premium (includes life, burial, health and short-term insurance) Landscape of Access 2009: Usage of formal and informal products Landscape of Access 2009: Rural/urban product usage Transactional 40% Transactional 40% % 20% Insurance 0% Savings Insurance 0% Savings Credit Total showing informal sector role Formal Credit Urban Rural The 2009 Landscape of Access for Zambia clearly illustrates that consumer demand is orientated towards savings, transactions and credit. It further illustrates the significance of the informal financial sector in pushing out the boundaries of access with regard to savings and credit There is a significant difference between the landscapes of access for urban and rural areas. The landscape of access for urban areas is skewed towards transactions and savings products whilst the landscape of access in rural areas is significantly more skewed towards credit products

5 MAKING FINANCIAL MARKETS WORK FOR THE POOR IN ZAMBIA Barriers to Financial Inclusion Access to financial services can be defined as the ability of an individual to obtain and, on a sustainable basis, use financial services that are affordable and appropriate to their financial needs. A number of factors may exclude people from using a particular service (referred to as access barriers) or may discourage individuals from using a particular service even if they are not excluded (referred to as usage barriers). The FinScope survey assesses the extent to which the following barriers prevent adults who are not formally served from using formal financial services: Access barriers o Physical access/proximity to financial institution o Perceived affordability of financial products o Perceived appropriateness (in terms of need) of financial products o Perceived eligibility o Regulatory barriers (such as statutory Know Your Customer (KYC) requirements under anti-money laundering legislation) Usage barriers o Income-related barriers o Attitudes and perceptions with regard to money matters and financial institutions With regard to barriers to banking in Zambia, the FinScope 2009 findings indicate usage barriers to be more significant than access barriers: More than half of unbanked adults perceive that low income levels prevent them from using bank accounts, whilst access barriers such as product affordability and physical access are less likely to be cited as reasons for not being banked o Less than 1 in 3 unbanked adults trust banks o Less than 1 in 3 unbanked adults know where to go when they want to open a bank account or use a bank product KYC requirements might, if stringently enforced, serve as another significant barrier to banking only 2.6% of unbanked adults have access to the standard KYC documentation 60% % of unbanked 50% 40% 30% 30% 53.4 Barriers to banking in Zambia: reasons for the unbanked not to have bank accounts 20% 10% 0% Does not need it insufficient or no money coming in to justify it Income coming in, but insufficient balance after expenses Cannot maintain the minimum balance Bank services charges are too high Banks are too far away or transport too difficult Banking hours are not convenient Does not understand how banks work Does not understand the financial language used in banks Does not know how to apply Does not understand benefits of having a bank account Does not trust banks Bank accounts are not for people like me Fears embarrassment or refusals Does not have an ID document, salary slip or letter from the Chief to be able to open an account Banks do not provide the products or services needed Income Affordability Physical access Usage Eligibility Appropriateness

6 FINSCOPE ZAMBIA 2009 Financial Inclusion: Zambia Since the last FinScope survey was conducted in 2005, there have been notable efforts to promote financial inclusion. Following the launch of the 2005 findings, the GRZ introduced a financial access indicator within the country s Performance Assessment Framework, a framework to measure the country s performance annually by government and cooperating partners. Furthermore, increasing financial access is now one of three priority pillars of reform within Phase II of the FSDP. In addition, supply-side data indicates that the banking sector infrastructure has expanded over the past five years. The bank branch network has expanded by 33% whilst the number of Point of Sale (POS) devices has increased from 342 in 2005 to 850 in 2009 and the number of Automated Teller Machines (ATMs) has increased almost five-fold. One of the objectives of FinScope 2009 was to assess whether or not these and other supply side interventions have resulted in increased inclusion. Comparing Financial Access Strands for 2005 and Increased Total inclusion Have/use a bank product Don t have/use a bank product but have/use a financial product from a formal non-bank financial institution Don t have/use a formal financial product but have an informal financial product Don t have/use any financial product There has been a decrease in the percentage of adults that are financially excluded 62.7% in 2009 compared to 66.3% in 2005 The slight decrease (14.6% (2005) to 13.9% (2009)) in the banked population implies that the banked population has remained stagnant at around 14% of adults. Further analysis indicates that interventions have resulted in an increased depth of access within the banking sector (i.e. more products per served adults, increased cross-selling to existing bank customers) rather than a greater breadth of access (i.e. more people served): o In 2005 each banked adult had on average two bank products this has increased to three in 2009 o There has been a significant increase in the use of transactional products (ATM/Cashpoint cards and Visa Electron accounts) from 2005 to 2009 o There has also been an increase in the uptake of lower cost bank transactional products, which suggests that existing banked customers are switching to these lower cost products The proportion of adults who rely on formal financial products not provided by commercial banks increased from 7.8% in 2005 to 9.3% in 2009 illustrating a notable growth in the population served by non-bank financial institutions. This growth was mainly driven by an increased uptake in MFI credit The significance of the role of the informal sector in pushing out the boundaries of financial inclusion has increased in % of adults relied on informal products whilst in 2009 this percentage increased to14.1%

7 MAKING FINANCIAL MARKETS WORK FOR THE POOR IN ZAMBIA Financial Inclusion: Zambia continued Whilst comparing the Financial Access Strands for 2005 and 2009 sheds some light on the changes in financial inclusion, comparing the Landscapes of Access illustrates a significant shift in product usage a decrease in the use of savings and insurance products combined with an increase in the use of credit products. Further analysis of this phenomenon indicates that: The decrease in savings products is driven by a decrease in formal non-bank savings products such as shares, government bonds etc. and not by a decrease in bank savings products The increase in credit products is largely driven by a significant increase in the uptake of informal credit especially by adults relying on farming activities Comparing the Financial Access Landscape for 2005 and 2009 Transactions 40% % Insurance 0% Savings Credit

8 The Financial Access Strand in 2009: A regional perspective Western Southern North-Western Northern Lusaka Luapula Eastern Copperbelt Central Have/use a bank product Don t have/use a bank product but have/use a financial product from a formal non-bank financial institution Don t have/use a formal financial product but have an informal financial product Don t have/use any financial product The regional perspective further demonstrates the contributions of the non-bank institutions and the informal sector in reducing the levels of financial exclusion in Zambia: The level of financial inclusion in the Lusaka and Copperbelt provinces is driven by the percentage of banked adults o These two regions have the highest percentage of banked adults (19.5% and 20% respectively) Northern Province has almost the same level of inclusion as Lusaka, despite having only 10.5% of adults banked o The level of inclusion in this region is driven by the usage of formal non-bank products, and the usage of informal products The Southern, Eastern and Central provinces all have a smaller proportion of banked adults than Copperbelt Province, but have higher overall levels of financial inclusion o In these provinces, levels of inclusion are increased by the use of informal products Comparing Zambia with other African countries RSA Namibia 07 Botswana Nigeria 08 Malawi Zambia 09 Rwanda 08 Tanzania 09 Mozambique Banked Formal Other Informal Financially excluded Contact For more information on FinScope Zambia 2009, including a detailed report on the findings, please contact: Juliet Munro Tel Public Relations Division Bank of Zambia PO Box Lusaka Tel:

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