HIV/AIDS AND LIFE SKILLS MONITORING TOOL ASSESSMENT REPORT

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1 MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, SCIENCE, VOCATIONAL TRAINING AND EARLY EDUCATION HIV/AIDS AND LIFE SKILLS MONITORING TOOL ASSESSMENT REPORT Prepared by Monitoring and Learning Unit September 2013

2 Table of Contents Abbreviation and Acronyms INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND Background to the HIV Monitoring Tool METHODOLOGY Purpose of Piloting the HIV and Lifeskills Monitoring Tool Objectives... 5 Methodology DATA ANALYSIS Geographical distribution of schools Institution count Distribution by province HIV AND AIDS POLICY ISSUES MESVTEE HIV/AIDS work place policy Staff access to the HIV Policy Institution that have formed the workplace HIV policy Institution s with work place programme containing the essential elements of the policy MESVTEE MINIMUM STANDARDS ON HIV AND AIDS Dissemination of HIV and AIDS messages in class, during assembly and other gatherings to educators and learners * province cross tabulation HIV/AIDS Clubs Care treatment and support Presence of Guidance and Counselling Educators MESVTEE LIFE SKILLS Institution with the MESVTEE life skills framework MESVTEE life skills framework and has the life skills framework been circulated to all educators Availability of Life skills materials for educators and learners Institutions integrating life skills in their lessons SEXUALITY AND PROTECTION Institution with Teachers trained to implement Sexuality Education Integrating sexuality education in lessons

3 3.5.3 Girls dropping out due to early pregnancy Institution with readmission of girls who dropped out of school due to early pregnancies Institutions collaborating with the community on SRH Cases of Child Sexual Abuse LEARNING AND RECOMMENDATIONS Key Learnings Recommendation Conclusion

4 Abbreviation and Acronyms CSO Civil Society Organisation CTS Creative Technology Studies IEC Information Education and Communication MESTVEE Ministry of Education, Science Technical Vocational Training, and Early Education MOU Memorandum Of Understanding SRH Sexual and Reproduction Health STIs Sexually Transmitted Infections 3

5 1.0 INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND Restless Development is the global leader in youth-led development whose mission is to place young people at the forefront of change and development. Restless Development Inspires, Educates, Trains and Supports young people to lead development in their countries and communities. It helps young people make responsible choices about their own lives. Restless Development equips young people to contribute positively to their societies. As a youth Development agent it creates space for young people to play active roles in policy and decision-making. Restless Development in Zambia has been working to place young Zambians at the forefront of change and development since In July 2012, Restless Development model has been included in the Bank of Zambia s National Financial Education Strategy for Zambia, as a key model for the youth Restless Development developed a National Strategic Framework The framework is an anchor to the youth developmental activities. The activities are based on three goal areas, these being: Civic Participation: Young people are significant contributors to development processes, resulting in government policy and practice that is both beneficial and accountable to young people and its citizens Livelihoods and Employment: Young people are taking up productive livelihood and employment opportunities that contribute to their household incomes and economy of the country Sexual and Reproductive Health: Young people are engaging in safe sexual and reproductive practices that lead to healthy lives. To achieve these goals Restless Development Zambia applies five strategic approaches namely Direct Delivery (DD), Shaping Policy and Practice (SPP), Building a Strong Youth Sector (BSYS), Sharing and Learning (S&L) and Generation of Leadership (GoL). To read more about Restless Development and our National Strategic Framework in Zambia please go to: or visit our website 1.1 Background to the HIV Monitoring Tool Restless Development has been focusing on the implementation of the Ministry of Education, Science Technical Vocational Training, and Early Education (MESTVEE) HIV policy while providing technical expertise towards the work of developing the HIV and Lifeskills Monitoring tool with and on behalf of the MESTVEE. Restless development has spearheaded the development of a Standards monitoring tool, which will enable the Ministry to capture data on Life Skills and HIV awareness educational activities in schools through the Standards Inspectorate. The development of the too was initiated in early 2011 through the HIV Coordinator for the district. The preliminary tool was piloted by Chibombo District Education Board Secretary s office. The tool was used by Chibombo District to improve the capturing of HIV and AIDS activities happening at school level and was piloted in schools where the Restless Development intervention was on course and in those schools, which were phased out. Restless Development in collaboration with Chibombo District pushed for the integration of the tool within the Directorate of Standards. Subsequently, the tool received feedback from the Standards Directorate after further editing was done on it based on the feedback from the pilot in Lusaka Province. More recently, it has been further revised following Provincial Standards feedback in late January 2013 and signed off for piloting in

6 2.0 METHODOLOGY 2.1 Purpose of Piloting the HIV and Lifeskills Monitoring Tool The main purpose of the monitoring tool is to strengthen mainstreaming of HIV activities within the education sector for enhanced policy implementation. A national wide pilot was conducted following the Pilot that was done in two provinces. The college lecturers did the national wide pilot during the assessment of the students on teaching practice. 2.2 Objectives The specific objectives for the piloting of the monitoring tool were: 1. Assess the efficiency of the tool and determine whether it is responding to the needs that it was designed for while ascertaining the key challenges that the student teachers face during their teaching practice with regards to the implementation of the ministry of education policy 2. To identify gaps and draw lessons that can help strengthen the monitoring tool and the implementation of the HIV policy in the schools 3. To provide recommendations for improvement to standards on key issues of concern towards the improvement of SRH education In schools Methodology The HIV and Lifeskills monitoring tool was used for data collection: The college lecturers administered the tool to 40 schools that had student teachers who were under Restless Development capacity building plan. 9 Colleges of education took part in the school assessment. 40 schools were selected by each college from across the respective province depending on the location of the school Two hundred and eighty five (285) schools from across the country were assessed by the lecturers Data was collected and analyzed using SPSS

7 3.0 DATA ANALYSIS Geographical distribution of schools The table below illustrate the distribution of institution by type. The institutions were categorised into seven categories as indicated in the table Institution count Institution Frequency Percent Primary % Basic school % Secondary school % college 1.4% special school % community school 3 1.1% private school 3 1.1% Total % Table 1: Count of institution type Distribution by province Province Frequency Valid Percent Eastern % Lusaka % Central 4 1.4% Copperbelt % Northern 1.4% Southern 7 2.5% Luapula % Western % North western % Total % Table 2: Distribution if institution by province Nine Colleges of education completed the assessment of school with an average of 35 schools. 6

8 3.2.0 HIV AND AIDS POLICY ISSUES MESVTEE HIV/AIDS work place policy MESVTEE HIV/AIDS POLICY 40.4% 59.6% YES NO Figure 1: MESVTEE HIV/AIDS work place policy From the above diagram, it was deduced that, from the total of 285 schools that answered this question concerning the institution having the Ministry of Education, Science, Vocational Training and Early Education HIV/AIDS work place policy, 60% schools confirmed that they had the work place policy and 40% did not have. The table below illustrate the distribution by type of institution. Does the institution have the MESVTEE HIV and AIDS workplace policy? Yes No Total Primary school 36.50% 27.00% 63.50% Basic 6.70% 6.00% 12.80% Secondary 13.80% 3.50% 17.40% College 0.40% 0.00% 0.40% Special education school 1.80% 2.10% 3.90% Community school 0.00% 1.10% 1.10% Private school 0.40% 0.70% 1.10% Total 59.60% 40.40% % Table 3 institution with the MESTVEE workplace by type of school Staff access to the HIV Policy (a) Has the institution got the MESVTEE HIV and AIDS workplace policy? (b) Has the policy been accessed by members of staff? Yes No (b)total Yes 48.9% 2.1% 51.1% No 10.6% 38.3% 48.9% (a) Total 59.6% 40.4% 100% Table 4: cross tabulation MESVTEE HIV/AIDS work place policy and accessibility to members of staff 7

9 The implementation of HIV activities in the institution is dependant of the availability of the policy document that is made available for all teachers to use. However, some schools are still not in possession of the document. This has led to a number of institutions not prioritizing the standards in the schools. 168 (59.6%) institutions had the policy, 138(48.9%) said they had the policy available and accessible to the staff. 30 (10.6%) did not have the policy accessible to the school staff. The institutions that had no policy available to staff said teachers accessed the document from the district office Institution that have formed the workplace HIV policy In response to the whether institutions had formulated the HIV and AIDS work place policy at their work place, 174( 62%) of the institutions had formulated the work place policy. 106(38%) had not formulated any. 5 institutions did not respond to this question. The institutions that have formed the work place policy also said they had displayed in a very central place where anyone can referee. Other comments from nonadministrative staff reviewed that there is less emphasis to the policy as it only apply to the staff member and does not necessarily incorporate activities with the young people. 70% Based on the MESVTEE HIV and AIDS Workplace Policy, have you formulated an HIV and AIDS Workplace programme for the institution? 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Yes No Figure 2: institution who have formulated the work place policy Institution s with work place programme containing the essential elements of the policy The institutions who had formed the work place policy were also asked if the policy contained the essential elements of the MESTVEE policy, i.e. prevention, treatment, care and support. 63% of the institutions surveyed said that their work place programme contained the vital elements of care, treatment, prevention and support, while the remaining 37% of the institutions surveyed alluded that their work place programme did not contain the essential elements of the work place policy. From the comments raised, most of the institutions seemed to have only concentrated on prevention parts of the policy and neglected the others. DOES THE WORK PLACE PROGRAMME CONTAIN THE ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS OF THE POLICY 37% 63% yes no Figure 3: work place programme contain the essential elements of the policy 8

10 3.3.0 MESVTEE MINIMUM STANDARDS ON HIV AND AIDS Dissemination of HIV and AIDS messages in class, during assembly and other gatherings to educators and learners * province cross tabulation Dissemination of HIV/AIDS mesages YES NO Figure 4: Dissemination of HIV/AIDS messages The figure above shows institutions surveyed tabulated in provinces indicating frequency of institution disseminating HIV/AIDS messages; Eastern province accounting for 19% Lusaka accounting for 6% Central accounted for only1% Copperbelt accounted for a majority of 42% Northern Province accounting for 0.4% Southern province accounted for 2% Luapula province accounted for 12% Western province accounted for only 4% North Western province accounted for 13%. On the contrary, of those that responded with no; Eastern province accounted for 13%, Lusaka 19%, Western, Northern and Central provinces each accounted for 0%, Copperbelt and Luapula each accounted for 19% respectively, while Southern Province accounted for 6% and North Western accounting for 25%. 9

11 3.3.2 Availability of counselling services including behaviour change communication (Bcc) material 100% 80% 60% 40% Figure 5: behavioural change communication (BCC) material 20% 0% Yes No Availability of counseling services including; Behavioral change communication(bcc) The figure above represents a total of 285 institutions assessed, 229 (81.8%) had counselling services including Behavioural change communication (BCC) materials available. On the other hand, counselling services including BCC material were not available. 18.2% did not have the services and 5 (1.8%) had not responded to the question which translated into 56 institutions not having the counselling services including Behavioural Change Communication material HIV/AIDS Clubs HIV/AIDS CLUBS Figure 6: HIV/AIDS CLUBS 9% 91% YES NO Concerning the existence of HIV/AIDS clubs in the institutions, from the assessed 285 institutions, a total 258(91%) institutions had HIV/AIDS clubs; only 27 institutions said they did not have the HIV/AIDS clubs in school. This information presented in percentage was as follows; 91% of the institution had HIV/AIDS clubs in their institutions whereas 9% of the institution said they did not. 10

12 3.3.4 WORK PLACE HIV/AIDS COMMITEE 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% Yes NO Missing 20% 10% 0% Yes NO Missing Figure 7: work place HIV/AIDS committee From the figure above, it was observed that, out of 285 institutions assessed, 75% had HIV/AIDS work place committees in their institutions, and 25% did not have a work place HIV/AIDS committee. In addition, some of the institution assessed admitted having the HIV/AIDS work committees but were non-functional. The HIV/AIDS work place committee in some schools was made up of females only and need the support of men for activities to be a success. It was further observed that regardless of the HIV committee in the school, the committee does not coordinate HIV activities. Five institution did not respond to the question and were recorded missing HIV/AIDS Awareness raising events HIV and AIDS awareness Raising Events Yes No Missing total Yes No Missing total Figure 8: HIV/AIDS awareness raising events Out of 285 institutions assessed, 206(75%) Confirmed holding awareness raising events, while 70(25%) of them said they do not hold awareness raising events. Further analysis indicates that schools that held awareness raising events conducted them during sporting events in the institution. Institution s that did not hold any event, was because of lack of resources to support the hosting of such activities. 11

13 3.3.6 Care treatment and support It was observed that in some institutions the care and support was given through the School Health Nutrition program, which is a feeding program run by individual schools. On the other hand, other institutions supported the infected and affected educators and learners by including them on government and non-government sponsored programs such as; government or NGO s paying school fees for the affected and infected respectively. Although some schools were able to sponsor infected and affected learners, it was observed that some schools had only concentrated on prevention messages and giving referrals to persons who had opened up and declared their HIVAIDS status. On the extreme contrary, some schools did not have any interventions concerning care, treatment and support Presence of Guidance and Counselling Educators 80.0% 70.0% 60.0% 50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0% Yes No Do you have trained Guidance & Counseling Educators in your Institution? Figure 9: guidance and counselling educators Guidance and counselling units in the institution of learning is key to supporting the welfare of learners. Ministry of education mandate is for each institution of learning to have a trained councillor to handle career related issues as well as SRH issues to young leaders. In the assessment tool, the institutions were asked if they had a trained Guidance and counselling teacher. Overwhelming, 73.5% said they had trained guidance and counselling educators in their institutions. 26.5% did not, but had untrained teachers who were handling guidance issues to the learners, the situation that could be deemed challenging to the school talking about the standard of guidance and counselling by trained personnel MESVTEE LIFE SKILLS Institution with the MESVTEE life skills framework The assessment also measured the presence of the Lifeskills framework in the schools. Of the 285 assessed, just average institution 52%, had indicated having the framework. 48% did not have the life skills framework. Further it was observed that among those that had indicated having the life skills framework, they referred it to the life skills topics found in the curricular individual subjects acknowledged as life skills and not necessarily the MESVTEE life skills manual. The figure below show the figures 12

14 Has the institution got the MESTVEE Life skills frame work 48% 52% Yes No Figure 10: Institutions with MESVTEE life skills framework in MESVTEE life skills framework and has the life skills framework been circulated to all educators A cross tabulation was done to ascertain the relationship of variables. The above figure illustrates the relationship of the variable. In the figure, it shows the relationship between institution who indicated having the Lifeskills frames and those who shared. 52% of the institutions assessed indicated having the Framework 47.7% did not. Within the institution that indicated having the framework, 42% had shared the framework with the educators and were using the document, and 9.7percentage did not share the document with the educators due to the unavailability of the document enough to share with the school staff (educators). The table below shows statistics of institution by type that had shared the frame work with the educators. 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Yes No yes No Has the Institution got the MESVTEE Life skills framework? Has the Lifeskills framework been circulated to all Educators Do your teacher have access to the Lifeskills framework? Figure 11: Cross tabulation, MESVTEE life skills frame work and circulating life skills frame work to all educators 13

15 Has the Lifeskills framework been circulated to all Educators? Do the teachers have access to the Lifeskills framework? Type of school Yes No Total Primary 92 (33.2%) 82 (29.6) 174 (62.8) Basic school 11 (4.0%) 24 (8.7%) 35 (12.6%) Secondary school 18 (6.5%) 32 (11.6%) 50 (18.1%) College 1 (0.4%) 0 1 (0.4%) Special school 4 (1.4%) 7 (2.5%) 11 (4.0%) Community school 0 3 (1.1%) 3 (1.1%) Private school 1 (0.4%) 2 (0.7%) 3 (1.1%) Total 127 (54.8%) 150(54.2) 277(100%) Table 5: institution by type who have circulated to the teachers Availability of Life skills materials for educators and learners Effective Lifeskills implementation in the school requires update materials for both learners and educators. An assessment was done to the institution to ascertain whether this was the case. From the above diagram, 63% of the institutions assessed had life skills material for educators and learners, whereas only 37% institutions indicated not having the life skills material. It was concluded that among the institutions who had materials for educators and learner, some had out dated materials, which lacked essential information to conduct full life skills lessons. Does the institution have life skills materials for educators and learners 37% 63% Yes No Figure 12: Life skills material for educators and learners 14

16 3.4.4 Institutions integrating life skills in their lessons Integration of life skill educators play an important role in ensuring that learners are equipped with relevant information that will help young people confidence to survive the school lifetime. The life skills framework and materials help the educators integrate the information in the lessons plans. The assessment was done to verify if at all the institution were integrating the life skills in the lessons. The table below indicate the outcome of the assessment. INTEGRATING LIFESKILLS IN LESSONS YES NO 80% 20% RESPONSES Figure 13: integrating life skills in lessons Eighty percent (80%) of the institutions assessed were integrating life skills in their lessons however the only on primary schools were integrating the skills through subjects such as Creative and Technology Studies and social development studies. In rare circumstances, the integration was done in other subjects such as sciences SEXUALITY AND PROTECTION Institution with Teachers trained to implement Sexuality Education The figure below indicates the institution that has teachers trained to implement sexuality education to young people in the school. 63% admitted having teachers trained to facilitate sexuality education, 37% did not have and relied on the basic knowledge on 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Does the institution have trained teachers to implement SRH 63% Yes 37% Do you have teachers that have been trained in the implementation of SRH and Lifeskills? peer education. The training of teachers in the SRH implementation aims at improving knowledge in teachers to integrate SRH in lessons plans. N0 Figure 14: institution with trained teacher 15

17 3.5.2 Integrating sexuality education in lessons Sexuality education plays d equivalent role as life skills do to the young people in school. With the escalating number of teenage pregnancies in school, sexuality education remains vital to the leaners to equip them on any challenges regarding their biological changes. The assessment results indicated only 22% of the institutions integrating sexuality education in their lesson plans, 78% did not. It was observed that most of the integration where being done in environmental sciences in primary school and sciences in the secondary schools. This is because teachers find it easy to implement in science subject due to the nature of the subjects. The figure below indicates the statistics. INTEGRATING SEXUALITY EDUCATION IN LESSONS 22% 78% YES NO Figure 15: integrating sexuality education in lessons Girls dropping out due to early pregnancy Teenage pregnancy has continued to be a challenge in the Zambian education system and Government effort to improve the literacy of the Zambians. The rate of teenage pregnancies in the school among learners is one of the major issues faced by the school administrations. The assessment result show that 85% of institutions have experienced girls dropping out due to early pregnancies in the last one year 15% of the institutions did not experience drop out Further, it was observed that among the schools that experienced early pregnancies, most pregnancies were recorded in primary and basic schools respectively. Among the school that had not experienced pregnancy cases were the single sex school and community school with pupils in early education. 16

18 schools with girl drop out due to early pregnancy 15% 85% YES NO Figure 16: Girls drop out due to early pregnancy The table below shows statistics of school drop outs by province and by type of institution. Proportionally, Eastern and Northwester provinces indicated the highest number of institutions affected by dropouts because of pregnancy followed by western province. The remaining has an average of 75% of reported pregnancy. On the type of Institution with most dropouts are the basic school then primary and high school respectively. Has the institution experienced girls dropping out due to early pregnancies? Has the institution experienced girls dropping out due to early pregnancies? Province Type of school Yes No Total Eastern Lusaka Central Copperbelt Northern Southern Luapula Western North western Yes No Total Primary Basic school Secondary school college special school community school private school Table 6: cross tabulation of institution reporting pregnancy by province and by school type 17

19 3.5.4 Institution with readmission of girls who dropped out of school due to early pregnancies READMISSION OF GIRLS WHO DROPPED OUT DUE TO EARLY PREGNANCY 94% YES NO 6% RESPONSES Figure 17: readmission of girls who drop out due to early pregnancy 94% of the institutions indicated they had had readmitted girls who dropped out of school due to pregnancy. Comments from the school heads indicated that of the girls that were readmitted, majority were not from the same school; Explaining that girls who fall pregnant do not retain to the same school for fear of discrimination from the peers. Six% of the institutions that said they have experienced girl s dropout did not record readmissions. These schools are in high tradition areas where young people are married off at young age. In Addition, it can be concluded that most institutions that had experienced girls dropping out and it did not readmit them were GRANT AIDED schools and that in such a case when a girl fell pregnant, the school authorities transferred the girl to another school Institutions collaborating with the community on SRH Sexuality education is a two-way thing that requires parents and the community corroborate with the school to ensure that the norms and behaviour of young people are shaped. Community plays a very primary role in teaching the traditional part of sexuality to the young people at puberty age. In the monitoring process the institution were asked to find out if they have been working hand in hand with the community on issues affecting young people specifically on sexuality education and other related issues. 18

20 COLLABORATION WITH THE COMMUNITIES 22% 78% YES NO Figure 18: Institutions collaborating with community on issues affecting learners 78% of the institutions monitored had collaborated with the communities on issues of SRH, early marriages defilement and teenage pregnancy in the last 12 months. 22% did not collaborate. Analysis indicate that most of the collaborations between the institutions and the community were made possible through various PTA meetings that the schools held with their communities and through work with community based organisation that extend services to the institution environment. Other areas identified individual organisation as community institution they are working with to reach out to the communities Cases of Child Sexual Abuse Child protection the school has remained a concept in most of the institution as there are few teachers trained to provide support to young people who are abused. The assessment indicate only 40% of the institutions who have received reports of child sexual abuse 60% other institutions said they did not experience reports of cases of child sexual abuse. The institutions that did not receive reports of child abuse explained that the cases are there but are not on record. Institutions that Reported cases of child sexual abuse Figure 19: reported cases of child sexual abuse s YES NO 60% 40% RESPONSES 19

21 4.0 LEARNING AND RECOMMENDATIONS Key Learnings Notably, it has been concluded that, regardless of institution implementing HIV activities, many of them did not know much about the MESVTEE HIV/AIDS work place policy. The Lifeskills materials are not available in most of the schools that has led to most of the school teachers not integrating the Lifeskills in their lessons. From the observers point of view, there was less support of the HIV activities ion the school from school staff who were not trained to implement the activities Furthermore, it was observed that, in most institutions, child sexual abuse was occurring but the communities were silent about it, this made it difficult for the institutions to help the pupils and community youths who were experiencing the sexual abuse Recommendations Most of the institution monitored indicated lack of accessibility to the Ministry s HIV /AIDS policy within the school and to the educators. A situation that can lead educators ignorance on the standards of the policy as a result them not implementing any of them. It is there for recommendations that; the MESVTEE consider redistributing the HIV/AIDS work place policy to the schools across the nation. The Ministry of Education, Science Vocational Training and Early Education is in its third year of education sector National implementation framework and still teachers are far from owning the HIV and Aids Policy and the Lifeskills framework. It is therefore recommended that an extensive sensitization in the schools about the MESVTEE HIV/AIDS work place policy to the teachers first and then to the school administrators. It was further recommended that the sensitisation should as well be focused community parents on issues of child sexual abuse. It was further recommended that the schools needed to acquire the necessary skills framework material that will help the apply information in their lessons planning accordingly. This acquisition of the skills framework material could be made possible through liaison with the District Board Secretary s Office.(DEBS) A special recommendation from special schools was made, which advocated for government to develop various HIV/AIDS material in Braille for special schools so that they too would benefit from such information. As restless development continues building capacity of student teachers to effectively run the SRH activities in the schools, it is recommended that government through the MESVTEE training more teachers to implement these standards. Considering the number of institution that said they did not have a trained teacher for this particular activity. The ministry should consider running in house training to raise awareness of the policy document as well as how to implement the standards. 20

22 5.0 Conclusion The activation of the monitoring tool will be instrumental in assessing the levels of activities being delivered on the ground and the quality standards for the work. The findings in this report will help with planning for the finalisation of the Monitoring tool. The final tool will be shared with the Ministries standard directorates. It is important to note that the recommendations provided in this tool are based on the observations of the monitoring officers (lecturers from the Colleges of education. The report will be shared with the Colleges of education and the provincial offices from all the provinces that are represented in this report. 21

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