Memory Access Control in Multiprocessor for Real-time Systems with Mixed Criticality

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1 Memory Access Control in Multiprocessor for Real-time Systems with Mixed Criticality Heechul Yun +, Gang Yao +, Rodolfo Pellizzoni *, Marco Caccamo +, Lui Sha + University of Illinois at Urbana and Champaign + Univerity of Waterloo *

2 Multi-core Systems Mainstream in smartphone Dual/quad-core smartphones More performance with less power Tegra 3 (4 cores) Traditional embedded/real-time domains Avionics companies are investigating [Nowotsch12] 8 core P4080 processor from Freescale [Nowotsch12] Leveraging Multi-Core Computing Architectures in Avionics, EDCC,

3 Challenge Core1 Core2 Core3 Core4 System bus DRAM Timing isolation is hard to achieve 3

4 Challenge Appl1 App2 App 3 App 4 Core1 Core2 Core3 Core4 System bus DRAM Cores compete for shared HW resources System bus, DRAM controller, shared cache, 4

5 Effect of Memory Contention 70% 60% 50% Run-time increase (%) 60% WCET increase is unacceptable 40% App. membomb 30% 20% 10% Core Core Shared system bus Memory 0% 429.mcf 471.omnetpp 473.astar 433.milc 470.lbm Run-time increase due to contention Five SPEC2006 benchmarks Compared to solo execution 5

6 Goal Mechanism to control memory contention Software based controller for COTS multi-core processors Response time analysis accounting memory contention effect Based on proposed software based controller 6

7 Outline Motivation Memory Access Control System Response Time Analysis Evaluation Conclusion 7

8 System Architecture Core1 Core2 Core3 Core4 Memory bandwidth controllers (Part of OS) 20% 30% 10% 40% System bus DRAM Assign memory bandwidth to each core using per-core memory bandwidth controller 8

9 Memory Bandwidth Controller Periodic server for memory resource Periodically monitor memory accesses of the core and control user specified bandwidth using OS scheduler Monitoring can be efficiently done by using per-core hardware performance counter Bandwidth = # memory accesses X avg. access time 9

10 Memory Bandwidth Controller Period: 10 time unit, Budget: 2 memory accesses memory access takes 1 time unit Budget 2 1 Enqueue tasks Task Dequeue tasks Dequeue tasks computation memory fetch 10

11 Outline Motivation Memory Bandwidth Control System Response Time Analysis Evaluation Conclusion 11

12 System Model Critical core Interfering cores Core1 Core2 Core3 Core4 Memory bandwidth controller System bus DRAM Cores are partitioned based on criticality Critical core runs periodic real-time tasks with fixed priority scheduling algorithm Interfering cores run non-critical workload and regulated with proposed memory access controller 12

13 Assumptions Critical core Interfering cores Core1 Core2 Core3 Core4 Memory bandwidth controller System bus DRAM Private or partitioned last level cache (LLC) Round-robin bus arbitration policy Memory access latency is constant 1 LLC miss = 1 DRAM access 13

14 Simple Case: One Interfering Core Critical Core Interfering Core Memory bandwidth controller System bus DRAM Critical core - core under analysis Interfering core generating memory interference 14

15 Problem Formulation For a given periodic real-time task set T = {τ 1, τ 1,, τ n } on a critical core Problem: Determine T is schedulable on the critical core given memory access control budget Q and period P on the interfering core 15

16 Task Model CM C time computation memory fetch (cache stall) C : WCET of a task on isolated core (no interference) CM: number of last level cache misses (DRAM accesses) L: stall time of single cache miss 16

17 Memory Interference Model P : memory access controller period Q: memory access time budget α u (t): Linearized interfering memory traffic upper-bound 17

18 Background [Pellizzoni07] Accounting Memory Interference Cache bound: maximum interference time <= maximum number cache-accesses (CM) * L of the task under analysis Traffic bound: maximum interference time <= maximum bus time requested by the interfering core Cache-bound Traffic bound C: WCET account memory stall delay L: stall time of single cache miss [Pellizzoni07] Toward the predictable integration of real-time cots based systems, RTSS,

19 Classic Response Time Analysis R i k+1 = C i + j<i R i k T j C j Tasks are sorted in priority order low index = high priority task C i : WCET of task i (in isolation w/o memory interference) R i : Response time of task i T j : Period of task I 19

20 Extended Response Time Analysis R i k+1 = C i + j<i R i k T j N t : aggregated cache misses over time t α u (t): interfering memory traffic over time t P: memory access control period Q: memory access time budget C j + min N R k L, α u R k where N t = α u t = t Q P Proposed method achieves tighter response time than using C j i t T j CM j + 2 Q(P Q) P 20

21 Outline Motivation Memory Bandwidth Control System Response Time Analysis Evaluation Conclusion 21

22 Linux Kernel Implementation Extending CPU bandwidth reservation feature of group scheduler Specify core and bandwidth (memory budget, period) mkdir /sys/fs/cgroup/core3; cd /sys/fs/cgroup/core3 echo 3 > cpuset.cpus core 3 echo > cpu.cfs_period_us echo > cpu.cfs_quota_event period cache-misses budget Added feature Monitor memory usage at every scheduler tick and context switch 22

23 Experimental Platform Intel Core2Quad Core 0 Core 1 Core 2 Core 3 L1-I L1-D L1-I L1-D L1-I L1-D L1-I L1-D L2 Cache L2 Cache System Bus DRAM Core 0,2 were disabled to simulate a private LLC system Running a modified Linux 3.2 kernel 23

24 Synthetic Task App. membomb Core1 Core3 Shared system bus Memory Core under analysis runs a synthetic task with 50% memory bandwidth Vary throttling budget of the interfering core from 0 to 100% Two findings: (1) we can control interference, (2) analysis provide an upper bound (albeit still pessimistic) 24

25 H.264 Movie Playback Cache-miss counts sampled over every 100ms Some inaccuracy in regulation due to implementation limitation Current version is improved accurate by using hardware overflow interrupt 25

26 Conclusion Shared hardware resources in multi-core systems are big challenges for designing real-time systems We proposed and implemented a mechanism to provide memory bandwidth reservation capability on COTS multi-core processors We developed a response time analysis method using the proposed memory access control mechanism 26

27 Thank you. 27

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