2 Previewing concepts (1) Define the steps in designing a customerdriven marketing strategy: market segmentation, market targeting, differentiation, and positioning (STP) List and discuss the major bases for segmenting consumer and business markets
3 Previewing concepts (2) Explain how companies identify attractive market segments and choose a market targeting strategy Discuss how companies position their products for maximum competitive advantage in the marketplace
4 WHAT IS SEGMENTATION ABOUT? The identification of subsets of buyers within a market who share similar needs and who have similar buying processes Companies aim to satisfy the needs of specific market segments better than anybody else
5 S.T.P The basics of a Marketing Strategy Most companies have moved away from mass marketing and toward market segmentation and targeting identifying market segments, selecting one or more of them, and developing products and marketing programmes tailored to each.
6 The Segmentation Process Source: Kotler et al, 2003.
7 S.T.P The first is market segmentation dividing a market into smaller groups of buyers with distinct needs, characteristics, or behaviours who might require separate products or marketing mixes. The second step is target marketing evaluating each market segment s attractiveness and selecting one or more of the market segments to enter. The third step is differentiation differentiating the firm s market offering to create superior customer value. The fourth and final step is market positioning setting the competitive positioning for the product and creating a detailed marketing mix.
8 Figure 9.1 Steps in market segmentation, targeting and positioning
9 What is market segmentation? Market segmentation involves dividing large, heterogeneous markets into smaller segments that can be reached more efficiently and effectively with products and services that match their unique needs.
11 Tesco Tesco caters for two market segments: consumers looking for value and those who are more quality conscious.
12 eg business and consumer travel markets
13 Segmenting the ice-cream market These could include: Benefits sought Purchase occasion Usage Age Gender Life cycle Income
14 Benefit Segmentation The Toothpaste Market Source: Kotler et al, 2003.
15 Exercise Go to a retail bookstore or newsstand and survey the magazine section. What unique market segments appear to be the target of specialty magazines? How did you determine the segments?
16 Source: Kotler et al, 2003
19 What is geographic segmentation? Geographic segmentation means dividing the market into different geographical units such as nations, regions, states, counties, cities, or neighbourhoods.
20 Geographic segmentation Tesco Metro Tesco Express One Stop
21 What is demographic segmentation? Demographic segmentation means dividing the market into groups based on variables such as age, gender, family size, family life cycle, income, occupation, education, religion, race, generation and nationality.
22 Demographic segmentation Demographic factors are the most popular basis for segmenting customers One reason is that consumer needs, wants, and usage rates often vary closely with demographic variables. Another is that demographic variables are easier to measure than most other types of variables.
23 What is psychographic segmentation? Psychographic segmentation means dividing the market into groups based on social class, lifestyle or personality characteristics.
24 Think-Pair-Share Q. Is gender segmentation discriminatory? Explain. Q. What about segmentation based on ethnicity? Explain.
25 Duck Head targets with lifestyle segmentation
26 Psychographic Age and Lifestyle Some companies use age and life-cycle segmentation, offering different products or using different marketing approaches for different age and life-cycle groups. But, Marketers must be careful to guard against stereotypes when using age and lifecycle segmentation. Age is often a poor predictor of a person s life cycle, health, work or family status, needs, and buying power.
27 What is behavioural segmentation? Behavioural segmentation means dividing the market into groups based on their knowledge, attitudes, uses or responses to a product.
28 Behavioural segmentation» Buyers can be grouped according to occasions when they get the idea to buy, actually make their purchase, or use the purchased item.» Markets can be segmented into groups of nonusers, ex-users, potential users, first-time users, and regular users of a product. Markets can also be segmented into light, medium, and heavy product users.» A market can additionally be segmented by consumer loyalty.
29 Forms of behavioural segmentation Occasions User status Usage rate Loyalty status
30 Loyalty Segments Current loyal user, continuing purchase Current customer, switching possible Occasional user, could become loyal Occasional user, switching possible Non-user, could become user Non-user, unlikely to become user
31 Geodemographic segmentation Marketers can use multiple segmentation bases to identify smaller, betterdefined target groups
32 Behaviour Segmentation - Usage eg usage segmentation in the soup market Dinner party starter Warming snack Meal replacement Recipe ingredient Easy office lunch
33 Exercise A convenience store in Measham (postcode DE12 7GF) has a chance to purchase a second store in nearby Appleby Magna (postcode DE12 7AQ). Visit to view the ACORN geodemographics of the two locations and suggest how the convenience store s merchandise and promotions should be adjusted to meet the needs of Appleby Magna.
34 GEODEMOGRAPHIC SEGMENTATION Combines many approaches to segmentation Based on postcode analysis Where we live is correlated with many aspects of buying behaviour
35 eg Geodemographic Segmentation and Mosaic The analysis of people by where they live Micro-targeting system Targets by neighourhood Source: Experian Ltd, Experian Ltd. All rights reserved. The word Experian is a registered trademark in the EU and other countries and is owned by Experian Ltd and/or its associated companies
36 How segmentation variables? Marketers rarely limit their segmentation analysis to only one or a few variables. They are increasingly using multiple segmentation bases in an effort to identify smaller, better defined target groups.
37 Calvin Klein uses several layers of segmentation
38 Segmenting Business Markets Consumer and business marketers use many of the same variables to segment their markets. Business buyers can be segmented geographically, demographically (industry, company size), or by benefits sought, user status, usage rate, and loyalty status. Yet, business marketers also use some additional variables, such as customer operating characteristics, purchasing approaches, situational factors, and personal characteristics.
39 Requirements for effective segmentation Measurable Accessible Substantial Differentiable Actionable
40 Effective segmentation Measurable: The size, purchasing power, and profiles of the segments can be measured. Accessible: The market segments can be effectively reached and served. Substantial: The market segments are large or profitable enough. Differentiable: The segments are conceptually distinguishable and respond differently to different marketing mix elements and programmes. Actionable: Effective programmes can be designed for attracting and serving the segments.
41 Segmentation for financial services. Who do you wish to target? (target segment) How did you measure the size, purchasing power, and profiles of the segment? (measurable) How will you reach this segment effectively and efficiently? (accessible) Just how large is this market in annual sales dollars? (substantial) How have you differentiated this product from others? (differentiable) Explain again why you believe we can, and should, pursue this idea? (actionable)
42 What is market targeting? Market targeting involves evaluating the various segments identified during the segmentation process and deciding how many and which segments it can serve best.
43 Targeting - Evaluating market segments In evaluating different market segments, a firm must look at three factors: segment size and growth segment structural attractiveness and company objectives and resources.
44 Factors used to assess market/segment attractiveness Market attractiveness Market factors Competitive factors Political, social and environmental factors
45 Market/Segment attractiveness Segment size Segment growth rate Segment profitability Market factors Price sensitivity Bargaining power of customers Bargaining power of suppliers Barriers to market segment entry Barriers to market segment exit
46 Market/Segment attractiveness Nature of competition Competitive factors New entrants Competitive differentiation
47 Market/Segment attractiveness Political issues Political, social and environmental factors Social trends Environmental issues
48 In summary - factors affect segment attractiveness. A segment is less attractive if it already contains many strong and aggressive competitors. The existence of many actual or potential substitute products may limit prices and the profits that can be earned in a segment. The relative power of buyers also affects segment attractiveness. A segment may be less attractive if it contains powerful suppliers who can control prices or reduce the quality or quantity of ordered goods and services.
58 Example of Customized Strategy Business markets ORGANISATION INDIVIDUAL MIXES Marketing Mix 1 INDIVIDUAL CUSTOMERS Nissan Industrial Electronic Systems Supplier Marketing Mix 2 Marketing Mix 3 Birdseye Heinz Marketing Mix 4 Levis
59 Individual marketing
60 Micromarketing Rather than seeing a customer in every individual, micro-marketers see the individual in every customer. In the extreme, micromarketing becomes individual marketing tailoring products and marketing programmes to the needs and preferences of individual customers. Individual marketing has also been labeled oneto-one marketing, mass customisation, and markets-of-one marketing.
61 Think-Pair-Share Consider this scenario: You ve gone to work for a shoe designer who is just launching her business. Each group should then answer the following questions: Suggest a way to segment the market for her. Then, select a target market to go after, keeping in mind segment size and growth, structural attractiveness, and probable company resources. What target marketing strategy would you use? Explain your answers.
62 Factors affecting the choice of market targeting strategy Company resources Product variability Product s life cycle stage Market variability Competitor s marketing strategy
63 Choosing a target-marketing strategy. When the firm s resources are limited, concentrated marketing makes the most sense. Products that can vary in design, such as cameras and automobiles, are more suited to differentiation or concentration. The product s life-cycle stage also must be considered. When a firm introduces a new product, it may be practical to launch only one version, initially. Market variability - If most buyers have the same tastes, buy the same amounts, and react the same way to marketing efforts, undifferentiated marketing is appropriate. Finally, competitors marketing strategies are important. When competitors use differentiated or concentrated marketing, undifferentiated marketing may be unadvisable.
64 Differentiation and positioning Companies must decide on a value proposition how it will create differentiated value for targeted segments and what positions it wants to occupy in those segments. A product s position is the way the product is defined by consumers on important attributes.
65 Bang & Olufsen Bang & Olufsen targets upmarket consumers.
66 Positioning maps Marketers often prepare perceptual positioning maps that show consumer perceptions of their brand versus competing products on important buying dimensions. Figure 9.3 shows a positioning map. The position of each circle on the map indicates the brand s perceived positioning on two dimensions price and orientation. The size of each circle indicates the brand s relative market share.
67 Figure 9.3 Positioning map of large luxury SUVs
69 Perceptual map - breakfast cereal market Identify all competing brands in the breakfast cereal market Discuss the important attributes consumers use when choosing between brands e.g. price, taste, and calorie content. Score each brand on these key attributes Plot the brands on a two dimensional map (or maps)
70 Steps in choosing a differentiation and positioning strategy Identify possible value differences and competitive advantages Choose the right competitive advantages Select an overall positioning strategy Develop a positioning statement
71 Sources of differentiation Product Services Channels People Image
72 Criteria for choosing which differences to promote Important Distinctive Superior Communicable Pre-emptive Affordable Profitable
73 What is a positioning statement? A positioning statement is a statement that summarises company or brand positioning. It takes this form: To (target segment ad need) our (brand) is (concept) that (point of difference).
74 Mountain Dew s positioning statement To young, active softdrink consumers who have little time to sleep, Mountain Dew is the soft drink that gives you more energy than any other brand because it has the highest level of caffeine.
75 Discussing the concepts (1) What are the benefits of mass marketing versus market segmentation for a business? Is the EU an attractive and distinctive geographic market segment? Can businesses market in the same way to different consumers in member states? How can financial service providers segment their markets and implement targeting strategies?
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