1 Journal of Health Economics 24 (2005) Implicit versus explicit ranking: On inferring ordinal preferences for health care programmes based on differences in willingness-to-pay Jan Abel Olsen a,b,, Cam Donaldson c, Phil Shackley d EuroWill Group 1 a Institute of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, 9037 Tromsø, Norway b Health Economics Research Programme, University of Oslo, Norway c Centre for Health Services Research and Business School (Economics), University of Newcastle upon Tyne, UK d Centre for Health Services Research, School of Population and Health Sciences, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, UK Received 1 March 2004; received in revised form 1 March 2005; accepted 1 April 2005 Available online 12 May 2005 Abstract The paper explores the merit of the willingness-to-pay (WTP) method as a way to elicit public preferences regarding health care priorities. The aim is to test the extent to which the implicit ranking inferred from the ordinal differences in WTP-values corresponds with respondents explicit ranking of the same programmes. This issue of convergent validity is explored by face-to-face interviewing of population samples in six European countries in total 1240 respondents. The most consistent result is the inconsistency of WTP and explicit ranking in all six countries. The convergent validity of WTP is low, particularly among those who did not state different WTP-values on the three programmes being considered Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. JEL classification: C9; D7; I1 Keywords: Willingness-to-pay; Ranking preferences; Health care priorities Corresponding author. Tel.: ; fax: address: (J.A. Olsen). 1 Listed in Appendix A /$ see front matter 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. doi: /j.jhealeco
2 J.A. Olsen et al. / Journal of Health Economics 24 (2005) Introduction There are principally two different contexts in which the willingness-to-pay (WTP)- method becomes useful for health care decision makers; to provide the benefit-measure in a partial cost benefit analysis when one new programme is considered, and; to compare the relative values of alternative programmes when several programmes are competing for the same resources within a fixed health care budget. This paper is concerned with the latter context; in that, it explores the merit of the WTP-method as a way to elicit public preferences regarding health care priorities. In publicly financed health services, where health care managers lack fiscal discretion to finance the programme in question by raising the revenues that people say they would be prepared to pay, the cost benefit motivation for obtaining WTP-values becomes futile. Under such policy restrictions, the usefulness of the method lies in considering the differences in the obtained WTP-values as expressions of respondents preferred ordinal ranking of alternative programme options. While this way of inferring implicit ranking based on differences in partially stated WTP-values represents an indirect way of obtaining ranking preferences, a more explicit way is to present the alternative programmes and ask the respondent to compare them and give her preferred ranking of their importance. In theory, rational respondents would reveal consistent rankings between the two methods, but do they? The aim of this paper is to test the extent to which the implicit ranking inferred from the ordinal differences in WTP-values corresponds with respondents explicit ranking of the same programmes. This is an issue of consistency, or a test of convergent validity, which measures the degree to which concepts that should be related theoretically are interrelated in reality. One reason why this issue has not yet received much attention in the literature is that nearly all applied WTP-studies in health care have been partial studies of one programme in isolation (Olsen and Smith, 2001; Smith, 2003). An exception was a study of three programmes that showed a substantial discrepancy between the explicit ranking and the ranking implied from the partial WTP-values (Olsen and Donaldson, 1998; Olsen, 1997). These findings raised doubts over the use of WTP in this health policy context. Thus, further investigation of convergent validity was called for, and the EuroWill project was established in part to address this issue (see Donaldson, 1999 and Donaldson and Shackley, 2003 for a presentation of the project). Up to now, only single (and at most, double-) country investigations of other important methodological issues addressed by EuroWill have been published (Stewart et al., 2002; Protière et al., 2004; Ryan et al., 2004; Olsen et al., 2004a,b). This note is the first to publish findings based on the population surveys in all six European countries in which this project took place, addressing the convergent validity issue across all of these countries. 2. Empirical evidence for convergent invalidity The results reported below refer to representative population samples in which three different health care programmes were presented in face-to-face interviews. Respondents
3 992 J.A. Olsen et al. / Journal of Health Economics 24 (2005) were asked: to rank the three programmes in terms of how important you think they are. After this, explicit ranking (ER) exercise, they were asked partial WTP-valuations of the same programmes in the same order (independently of their earlier explicit ranking of the programmes); firstly, asking if respondents would be willing to pay, and, if so, how much was the maximum their household would be willing to contribute each year for each of the programmes. In accordance with microeconomic theory, we would expect consistency between the ranking implied from WTP and their previously stated explicit ranking. When a respondent had ranked A before B, she would be expected to signal this preference by being willing to sacrifice more money (i.e. higher WTP) in order to get A. Thus, we would hypothesise that WTP shows convergent validity with explicit ranking. The implied rankings from the WTP-answers depend on the level of differences in the values provided. If three different WTP-values were given, it means strong ranking, i.e. one programme was strictly preferred to a second that was strictly preferred to the third. If two equal values and one different, there is a weak ranking, i.e. respondents preferred one programme to the other two, between which they were indifferent, or, they were indifferent to the first two, both of which were preferred to the third. No rankings are of two kinds, either three identical positive WTP-values or three zeros. Table 1 shows the numbers from each country. The first column shows the implied rankings based on the WTP-answers, where the different degrees of ranking is referred to as strong, weak, and no. The subsequent columns show which degree of ranking the respondents within each of these groups had stated on the explicit ranking question. Thus, each number in the WTP-column represents the corresponding row sum under ER. Complete convergent validity would be revealed if numbers were seen in the diagonal only, i.e. combination strong in WTP and strong in ER; combination weak in WTP and weak in ER; combination no in WTP and no in ER. As can be seen from the six country tables, the figures are concentrated in vertical lines under strong, particularly so for three countries. First, the only consistent group of respondents appears to be those who stated strong in WTP, where nearly all had stated strong in ER. The inconsistency for the other groups could be conceived of as a weakening up of respondents willingness to rank between the programmes as the preference elicitation exercise went from ER to WTP, in that there is a shift towards the left of the diagonals in Table 1, i.e. lower degree of ranking from WTPresponses. However, if we modify the complete convergent validity criterion of numbers in the diagonals only, we note from the box combinations [(weak row) and (strong column)] that many who should be expected to state three different WTP-values have still stated two different values, i.e. they used WTP to discriminate between two rather than three programmes. Table 2 summarises the results across the six countries. First, the (unweighted) country average shows that only 23% stated strong rankings in their WTP-answers, while 73% had done so in their explicit ranking. Second, respondents are most reluctant to rank the programmes through WTP; the country average showed that 41% were indifferent to the three programmes. Third, an important type of inconsistency is the proportion of respondents who stated indifference (no ranking) through WTP, but who in the previous preference elicitation exercise had stated strong ranking. The reason for the
4 J.A. Olsen et al. / Journal of Health Economics 24 (2005) Table 1 Comparing the degree of explicit ranking (strong, weak, no) with the degree of ranking as implied from WTP WTP-ranking Explicit ranking Strong Weak No Missing Norway Strong Weak No poswtp No zeros Total Denmark Strong Weak No poswtp No zeros Total France Strong Weak No poswtp No zeros Total Portugal Strong Weak No poswtp No zeros Total Scotland Strong Weak No poswtp No zeros Total Ireland Strong Weak No poswtp No zeros Total lower proportion of inconsistent respondents in Scotland and Ireland can be ascribed to the much smaller groups who had given strong in the initial explicit ranking exercise. Lastly, the column Convergent validity shows the percentages of respondents in the diagonals of Table 1.
5 994 J.A. Olsen et al. / Journal of Health Economics 24 (2005) Table 2 Country comparisons of WTP-ranking with explicit rankings (ER) (missing included) Strong in WTP (%) Strong in ER (%) No in WTP (%) No in ER (%) % of no in WTP giving strong in ER Norway Denmark France Portugal Scotland Ireland Country average Convergent validity (%) The most notable differences between countries lie in the explicit rankings, in that the Scottish and Irish were less prepared to discriminate. As compared with the other four countries, there were relatively less respondents to state strong ranking, and relatively more to state no ranking. Reasons for such inter country differences might reflect anything from cultural factors (i.e. true preferences differences) to differences in survey administration. It might seem that the Irish respondents have a stronger aversion in general to rank health care programmes. As for the Scottish survey, respondents were recruited in a shopping centre rather than in their homes something which might involve less focus in this cognitively fairly demanding exercise; compare information in three health care programmes before stating an ordinal ranking. 3. Discussion Complete agreement cannot be expected between two different preference elicitation techniques. Even in the relatively simpler explicit ranking technique people make mistakes; they misread or they rank in the wrong direction. However, such inaccuracies in the answers stated on the underlying ER-yardstick were sought reduced by comparing three programmes only, and by having this as the first exercise in the interview, when respondents presumably had a fresh mind. The most consistent result of these findings is the inconsistency of WTP and explicit ranking in all six countries. The convergent validity of WTP is low, particularly among those who did not state different WTP-values on the three programmes. When these results became evident from the first country surveys, the EuroWill group decided to try a different approach in Ireland. A so-called incremental approach was developed (and used alongside the standard approach reported from in this paper), whereby WTP was first asked for the lowest ranked programme, followed by WTP being asked for the second ranked in terms of how much more they would be willing to pay to have that rather than their less preferred option, with the same incremental procedure being followed for their first ranked option (Shackley and Donaldson, 2002). However, this incremental version did not give a higher proportion of consistent respondents when comparing explicit ranking with the ranking
6 J.A. Olsen et al. / Journal of Health Economics 24 (2005) implied from WTP than the standard version did. One note of caution, though, is that respondents in Ireland seemed to perform better than in most other countries in terms of consistency in the standard version. Therefore, the scope for the incremental version to improve things was less in that country. The chosen yardstick against which the convergent validity of WTP was tested can be criticised for its bias towards encouraging the respondents to make strong rankings, although equal ranks were allowed. However, this is exactly the type of choices that decision makers themselves are forced to make and which, it is claimed, WTP assists them in doing. Rather, the question is whether preferences expressed on this ER-yardstick can be interpreted as reflecting the true underlying preferences of relevance in this policy context. The case for this would be that explicit ranking is cognitively relatively simple: (i) it has a clear connotation to real life in health policy, i.e. resources are limited, and one must prioritise between competing programmes ; (ii) the actual choice calls for ordinal rather than cardinal valuations; (iii) the valuation involves a direct comparison of alternative programmes, rather than indirect via one s willingness to sacrifice own income. Three partial money trade-offs are cognitively more difficult, in that it changes people s frame of reference to a choice between own income versus the existence of each of the described public programmes. While ER may force respondents to make priorities, it would be fairly easy in theory to back up one s preference ordering in the subsequent WTP-exercise by stating different values. However, the majority of respondents weakened up their rankings, when they came to the WTP-exercise despite the interviewer made them aware of any inconsistencies between the two approaches and also gave them the option of changing any such inconsistencies. In the Norwegian survey, those respondents whose explicit ranking did not match their implied ranking, and who thought that surveys of this type should be used in the health service to help set priorities, were subsequently asked: which of the two methods would you like to be used? The option the one based on your ranking of the programmes received 75% support, while the option the one implied by your WTP-values received 19% support. The remaining 6% did not know. Hence, the vast majority of respondents consider their answers to the explicit ranking exercise as the best reflection of their underlying priority preferences. The high proportions of respondents stating the same positive WTP-values on three different programmes is a striking result, because there is no theoretical reason, a priori, why consumers should be prepared to sacrifice exactly the same level of income for three randomly selected goods. Thus, it seems like such respondents express a generally positive attitude to all programmes rather than well-behaved preferences. It is worth noting that such difficulties in obtaining well-behaved consistent preferences are not restricted to WTP-surveys. Other preference elicitation methods used in economic evaluations, e.g. conjoint analyses and the various health status valuation techniques, appear to have problems with consistency (see. e.g. Lloyd, 2003; Bleichrodt and Johannesson, 1997). The question that remains is which methods should we use to elicit people s preferences in priority setting contexts. The evidence presented in this paper poses serious challenges for WTP in this respect. Whilst convergent validity remains a key issue, an important, and parallel strand of research would be to establish more rigorously why these methods arrive at different results.
7 996 J.A. Olsen et al. / Journal of Health Economics 24 (2005) Appendix A. EuroWill partners and researchers Professor Cam Donaldson, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, UK [EuroWill Coordinator] Professor Jan Abel Olsen, University of Tromsø, Norway Dr Phil Shackley, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, UK Dr Kristian Kidholm, Odense University Hospital, Denmark Professor Andrew Jones, University of York, UK Professor Michael Jones-Lee, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, UK Professor Graham Loomes, University of East Anglia, UK Professor Jean-Paul Moatti, Inserm Research Unit 379, Marseilles, France Dr Eamon O Shea, National University of Ireland Galway, Republic of Ireland Dr Joao Pereira, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal Dr Christel Protiere, Inserm Research Unit 379, Marseilles, France Professor Mandy Ryan, University of Aberdeen, UK Dr David Scott, Fourth Hurdle Consulting, London, UK Dr Jennifer Stewart, McMaster University, Ont., Canada References Bleichrodt, H., Johannesson, M., Standard gamble, time trade-off and rating scale: experimental results on the ranking properties of QALYs. Journal of Health Economics 16, Donaldson, C., Developing the method of willingness to pay for assessment of community preferences for health care. Final Report to Biomed 2 Programme (PL950832) of the European Commission. Health Economics Research Unit, University of Aberdeen and Departments of Economics and Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary (available at website address: available by ing the author: Donaldson, C., Shackley, P., Willingness to pay for health care. In: Scott, A., Maynard, A., Elliott, R. (Eds.), Advances in Health Economics. John Wiley, London. Lloyd, A.J., Threats to the estimation of benefit: are preference elicitation methods accurate? Health Economics 12, Olsen, J.A., Aiding priority setting in health care: is there a role for the contingent valuation method? Health Economics 6, Olsen, J.A., Donaldson, C., Helicopters, hearts and hips: using willingness to pay to set priorities for public sector health care programmes. Social Science and Medicine 46, Olsen, J.A., Smith, R., Theory versus practice: a review of willingness-to-pay in health and health care. Health Economics 10, Olsen, J.A., Donaldson, C., Periera, J., 2004a. The insensitivity of willingness to pay to the size of the good: new evidence for health care. Journal of Economic Psychology 25, Olsen, J.A., Kidholm, K., Donaldson, C., Shackley, P., 2004b. Willingness to pay for public health care: a comparison of two approaches. Health Policy 70, Protière, C., Donaldson, C., Luchini, S., Moatti, J.P., Shackley, P., The impact of information on nonhealth attributes on willingness to pay for multiple health care programmes. Social Science and Medicine 58, Ryan, M., Scott, D., Donaldson, C., Valuing health care using willingness to pay: a comparison of the payment card and dichotomous choice methods. Journal of Health Economics 23, Shackley, P., Donaldson, C., Using willingness to pay to elicit community preferences for health care: is an incremental approach the way forward? Journal of Health Economics 21, Smith, R.D., Construction of the contingent valuation market in health care: a critical assessment. Health Economics 12, Stewart, J., O Shea, E., Donaldson, C., Shackley, P., Do ordering effects matter in willingness to pay studies of health care? Journal of Health Economics 21,
Well-being and the value of health Happiness and Public Policy Conference Bangkok, Thailand 8-9 July 2007 Bernard van den Berg Department of Health Economics & Health Technology Assessment, Institute of
Insurance Demand and Prospect Theory by Ulrich Schmidt No. 1750 January 2012 Kiel Institute for the World Economy, Hindenburgufer 66, 24105 Kiel, Germany Kiel Working Paper No. 1750 January 2012 Insurance
Will 16 and 17 year olds make a difference in the referendum? 1 Author: Jan Eichhorn Date: xx/11/2013 Comparisons between the newly enfranchised voters and the adult population 2 ScotCen Social Research
WORKING PAPER 38 The Person Trade-Off Approach to Valuing Health Care Programs Erik Nord Dr, National Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway April, 1994 ISSN 1038-9547 ISBN 1 875677 33 X CENTRE PROFILE
Is Something Wrong with Work-Life Balance? A Look at International Data David Blanchflower (Dartmouth College, US) and Andrew Oswald (Warwick University, UK) June 2000 Many people argue that western society
Measuring long-run equilibrium exchange rates using standardized products with different specifications James Laurenceson & Kam Ki Tang*, Measuring long-run equilibrium exchange rates using standardized
Keep It Simple: Easy Ways To Estimate Choice Models For Single Consumers Christine Ebling, University of Technology Sydney, firstname.lastname@example.org Bart Frischknecht, University of Technology Sydney,
Working Paper No 7/07 Pricing of on-line advertising: Pay-per-view or pay-per-click? by Kenneth Fjell SNF project no 303 Konvergens mellom IT, medier og telekommunikasjon: Konkurranse- og mediepolitiske
Appropriate discount rates for long term public projects Kåre P. Hagen, Professor Norwegian School of Economics Norway The 5th Concept Symposium on Project Governance Valuing the Future - Public Investments
May 2015 The economic impact of the UK Maritime Services Sector: Business Services Contents 1 Executive summary... 2 2 Introduction... 4 2.1 The channels of economic impact... 4 2.2 Report structure...
Expenditure and Outputs in the Irish Health System: A Cross Country Comparison Paul Redmond Overview This document analyzes expenditure and outputs in the Irish health system and compares Ireland to other
WestminsterResearch http://www.wmin.ac.uk/westminsterresearch Higher and further education students' income, expenditure and debt in Scotland. Claire Callender 1 David Wilkinson 2 Karen MacKinnon 2 Sandra
Project Evaluation Guidelines Queensland Treasury February 1997 For further information, please contact: Budget Division Queensland Treasury Executive Building 100 George Street Brisbane Qld 4000 or telephone
Lecture 11 Uncertainty 1. Contingent Claims and the State-Preference Model 1) Contingent Commodities and Contingent Claims Using the simple two-good model we have developed throughout this course, think
Understanding Financial Management: A Practical Guide Guideline Answers to the Concept Check Questions Chapter 8 Capital Budgeting Concept Check 8.1 1. What is the difference between independent and mutually
Sage business index Global Trends The Sage Business Index is an annual global measure of confidence across small and medium sized businesses (SMBs), giving us a clear picture of the pressures and challenges
Corporate Income Taxes and Investment: A Comparative Study Final Report: 7 February 2000 Stephen Bond and Lucy Chennells The Institute for Fiscal Studies 7 Ridgmount Street, London, WC1E 7AE, UK Acknowledgement:
Red Herrings: Some Thoughts on the Meaning of Zero-Probability Events and Mathematical Modeling By Edi Karni* Abstract: Kicking off the discussion following Savage's presentation at the 1952 Paris colloquium,
1 Summary Second-generation mobile coverage in the UK is high. Figures from the Ofcom 2013 Infrastructure Report 1 show that 99.6 per cent of UK premises and 87 per cent of the UK land mass have 2G coverage
UK Youth Parliament Procedures Book 2013-14 Version 11 1 Contents 1. Name, status, aims and objectives... 4 2. Members of the Youth Parliament (MYPs)... 4 2.1. Membership... 4 2.2. Allocations... 4 2.3.
March 2016 2 Renewal of Private Health Insurance Consumer Research CONTENTS FOREWORD... 3 KEY FINDINGS... 4 1 INTRODUCTION... 6 2 PROFILE OF RESEARCH RESPONDENTS... 8 3 RENEWING AND SWITCHING HEALTH INSURANCE...11
PRESS KIT Pan-European opinion poll on occupational safety and health Results across 36 European countries Press kit Conducted by Ipsos MORI Social Research Institute at the request of the European Agency
Rank dependent expected utility theory explains the St. Petersburg paradox Ali al-nowaihi, University of Leicester Sanjit Dhami, University of Leicester Jia Zhu, University of Leicester Working Paper No.
Choice under Uncertainty Part 1: Expected Utility Function, Attitudes towards Risk, Demand for Insurance Slide 1 Choice under Uncertainty We ll analyze the underlying assumptions of expected utility theory
Fees & Funding Guide For English, Welsh & Northern Irish Students Thank you for your interest in the University of Aberdeen. In order to help you make an informed decision about your future, we want to
Measuring Latent Entrepreneurship Across Nations David Blanchflower Department of Economics Dartmouth College and NBER USA email@example.com Andrew Oswald Department of Economics Warwick University
April 2006 Comment Letter Discussion Paper: Measurement Bases for Financial Accounting Measurement on Initial Recognition The Austrian Financial Reporting and Auditing Committee (AFRAC) is the privately
Is winning medals in international sport simply a matter of money? An international comparison in 15 countries Why do some countries win more medals than others? How much do countries invest in elite sport?
Tax-adjusted discount rates with investor taxes and risky debt Ian A Cooper and Kjell G Nyborg October 2004 Abstract This paper derives tax-adjusted discount rate formulas with Miles-Ezzell leverage policy,
OUTSOURCING YOUR GUARD SERVICE A Strategy for Success! A Complimentary WHITE PAPER from www.minieriassociates.com Independent, Professional Security Consulting & Engineering Services Worldwide Contact:
ISSN 1178-2293 (Online) University of Otago Economics Discussion Papers No. 1504 JUNE 2015 Does Charity Begin at Home or Overseas? Stephen Knowles 1 and Trudy Sullivan 2 Address for correspondence: Stephen
Special Eurobarometer 425 PATIENTS RIGHTS IN CROSS-BORDER HEALTHCARE IN THE EUROPEAN UNION REPORT Fieldwork: October 2014 Publication: May 2015 This survey has been requested by the European Commission,
Final Report Carried out by Sponsored by Contents 1 Introduction 2 Our approach 1 3 Executive summary 3 4 Involvement in corporate citizenship 5 5 Involvement in volunteering 11 6 Impact of volunteering
Inaccurate and Biased: Cost-Benefit Analyses of Transport Infrastructure Projects Presentation at the workshop Critically Examining the Current Approaches to Transport Appraisal Petter Næss Professor in
IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM) e-issn: 2278-487X, p-issn: 2319-7668. Volume 16, Issue 8. Ver. I (Aug. 2014), PP 27-36 The Role of Motivation in Human Resources Management: The Importance
UK INVESTMENT: HIGH, LOW, RISING, FALLING? Nicholas Bloom Stephen Bond THE INSTITUTE FOR FISCAL STUDIES Briefing Note No. 18 Published by The Institute for Fiscal Studies 7 Ridgmount Street London WC1E
CIIL An IESE-Mecalux Initiative STUDY-62 February, 2008 THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOGISTICS ALLIANCES EUROPEAN RESEARCH ON THE MEASUREMENT AND CONTRACTUAL SUCCESS FACTORS IN LOGISTICS PARTNERSHIPS Joan Jané
Determinants of Alcohol Abuse in a Psychiatric Population: A Two-Dimensionl Model John E. Overall The University of Texas Medical School at Houston A method for multidimensional scaling of group differences
OECD Economic Studies No. 29, 1997/II INTERNATIONAL COMPARISONS OF PART-TIME WORK Georges Lemaitre, Pascal Marianna and Alois van Bastelaer TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction... 140 International definitions
A Guide to Understanding and Using Data for Effective Advocacy Voices For Virginia's Children Voices For V Child We encounter data constantly in our daily lives. From newspaper articles to political campaign
THE REVENUE EFFECT OF CHANGING ALCOHOL DUTIES Zoë Smith THE INSTITUTE FOR FISCAL STUDIES Briefing Note No. 4 Published by The Institute for Fiscal Studies 7 Ridgmount Street London WC1E 7AE Tel 020 7291
Working paper Belief Formation in the Returns to ing Jim Berry Lucas Coffman March 212 Belief Formation in the Returns to ing March 31, 212 Jim Berry Cornell University Lucas Coffman Ohio State U. & Yale
4. Work and retirement James Banks Institute for Fiscal Studies and University College London María Casanova Institute for Fiscal Studies and University College London Amongst other things, the analysis
In this chapter, we present the theory of consumer preferences on risky outcomes. The theory is then applied to study the demand for insurance. Consider the following story. John wants to mail a package
Working Paper Series No. 12 Hypothetical, real, and predicted real willingness to pay in open-ended surveys: experimental results Anabela Botelho Lígia Costa Pinto September 2001 Published in Applied Economics
A GENERALIZATION OF THE PFÄHLER-LAMBERT DECOMPOSITION Jorge Onrubia Universidad Complutense Fidel Picos REDE-Universidade de Vigo María del Carmen Rodado Universidad Rey Juan Carlos XX Encuentro de Economía
Economics Letters 70 (2001) 175 181 www.elsevier.com/ locate/ econbase Are adults better behaved than children? Age, experience, and the endowment effect William T. Harbaugh *, Kate Krause, Lise Vesterlund
REVIEW OF STATED PREFERENCE AND WILLINGNESS TO PAY METHODS Introductory note by the Competition Commission 1. The Competition Commission (CC) commissioned the market research organization, Accent, in association
SURVEY OF ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE TO THE FISHING SECTOR Types of measures (Paper submitted by the Spanish authorities) Several methods have been proposed for assessing economic assistance to the fishing sector,
The past and future of health care priority setting in Canada Craig Mitton, PhD Associate Professor Centre for Clinical Epidemiology and Evaluation School of Population and Public Health, UBC Michael Smith
Statistical Analysis on Relation between Workers Information Security Awareness and the Behaviors in Japan Toshihiko Takemura Kansai University This paper discusses the relationship between information
2011 Global Customer Service Barometer Market Comparison of Findings A research report prepared for: Research Method This research was completed online among a random sample of consumers aged 18+ in: Australia,
Indicator What Proportion of National Wealth Is Spent on Education? In 2008, OECD countries spent 6.1% of their collective GDP on al institutions and this proportion exceeds 7.0% in Chile, Denmark, Iceland,
The Scottish Housing Regulator The Priorities of Gypsies/Travellers and Factored Owners Report August 2012 CONTENTS SUMMARY FINDINGS... I 1. INTRODUCTION... 1 Background and Objectives... 1 Study Methodology...
5 August 2009 The Social Value of the Post Office Report for Postcomm Project Team NERA Stuart Holder Paul Metcalfe Helen Webb Orjan Sandewall Kenneth Train Accent Rob Sheldon Alison Lawrence Peer Review
Scotland s Balance Sheet April 2013 Contents Executive Summary... 1 Introduction and Overview... 2 Public Spending... 5 Scottish Tax Revenue... 12 Overall Fiscal Position and Public Sector Debt... 18 Conclusion...
Attitudes towards Financial Planners Factuality research October 2014 Main findings 2 Main findings v v v v v The image of financial planners remains problematic, with 27% expressing a positive opinion
SHORT-SELLING AND THE WTA- WTP GAP Shosh Shahrabani, Tal Shavit and Uri Ben-Zion Discussion Paper No. 07-06 July 2007 Monaster Center for Economic Research Ben-Gurion University of the Negev P.O. Box 653
IT governance and business organization: some trends about the management of application portfolio Roberto Candiotto, Silvia Gandini 1 1 Dipartimento di Studi per l Economia e l Impresa (Università del
Policy Discussion Briefing January 27 Composite performance measures in the public sector Rowena Jacobs, Maria Goddard and Peter C. Smith Introduction It is rare to open a newspaper or read a government
IS YOUR DATA WAREHOUSE SUCCESSFUL? Developing a Data Warehouse Process that responds to the needs of the Enterprise. Peter R. Welbrock Smith-Hanley Consulting Group Philadelphia, PA ABSTRACT Developing
Hong Kong s Health Spending 1989 to 2033 Gabriel M Leung School of Public Health The University of Hong Kong What are Domestic Health Accounts? Methodology used to determine a territory s health expenditure
Europe Economics Report to DCMS Independent Review: Government Cost Benefit Analysis of Digital Radio Switchover Summary Europe Economics Chancery House 53-64 Chancery Lane London WC2A 1QU Tel: (+44) (0)
Statistical & Technical Team A Practical Guide to Sampling This guide is brought to you by the Statistical and Technical Team, who form part of the VFM Development Team. They are responsible for advice
LSE Research Online Article (refereed) Adam J. Oliver Testing the internal consistency of the standard gamble in success and failure frames Originally published in Social science & medicine, 58 (11). pp.
Critical and creative thinking (higher order thinking) refer to a set of cognitive skills or strategies that increases the probability of a desired outcome. In an information- rich society, the quality
Question Bank FACTSHEET 5 Survey Interviewing Introduction: The Survey Interview This factsheet will describe the processes involved in the Survey interview. It will focus only on the face to face interview
Deflation Methodology for Regional Gross Value Added (Production Approach) Introduction A measure of regional Gross Value Added (GVA) using the production approach, giving estimates of GVA on a consistent
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License. Your use of this material constitutes acceptance of that license and the conditions of use of materials on this
Dental Care Professionals pay survey 2010 Introduction Since 2001, the BDA has conducted quantitative research on market pay rates for Dental Care Professionals (DCPs) across the UK. Members can use this
PS035 Original research completed in 2010 Briefing Paper Introduction: Principal Investigator: Professor John Clarkson Should the NHS adopt a new system for predicting possible risks to patient safety?
UNIVERSITY OF READING FRAMEWORK FOR CLASSIFICATION AND PROGRESSION FOR FIRST DEGREES (FOR COHORTS ENTERING A PROGRAMME IN THE PERIOD AUTUMN TERM 2002- SUMMER TERM 2007) Approved by the Senate on 4 July
Family and Parenting Support The role of public services ESN Survey on Family and Parenting Support December 2012 The European Social Network (ESN) brings together people who design, manage and deliver
Research and Development Expenses: Implications for Profitability Measurement and Valuation Aswath Damodaran Stern School of Business 44 West Fourth Street New York, NY 10012 firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract
Retirement routes and economic incentives to retire: a cross-country estimation approach Martin Rasmussen Welfare systems and policies Working Paper 1:2005 Working Paper Socialforskningsinstituttet The
3 Guidance for Successful Evaluations In developing STEP, project leads identified several key challenges in conducting technology evaluations. The following subsections address the four challenges identified
Applying Behavioural Insights to Organ Donation: preliminary results from a randomised controlled trial Introduction Last year over one million people registered to join the NHS Organ Donor Register, bringing
1 Appendix Commentary 434 Appendix Value for Money? Teacher Compensation and Student Outcomes in Canada s Six Largest Provinces Introduction This Appendix contains two additional lines of analysis as robustness
MAKING BETTER DECISIONS MISTAKES, BIASES, IRRATIONAL EFFECTS, AND INSPIRED GENIUS! One Day Workshop Saturday 8 September 2007 (9am 4pm) Diana Plaza Hotel, Brisbane Qld (Annerley Road, Woolloongabba) Unexpected
telephone numbers New sub-range for : (020) 3 Research report, November 2004 Publication date: 16 November 2004 Contents Section 1 Introduction 1 2 Awareness of the introduction of the (020) 3 sub range
Debt Management Guidance Compliance Review: Mystery Shopping March 2010 OFT1265 Crown copyright (2010) This publication (excluding the OFT logo) may be reproduced free of charge in any format or medium
Application of the distance method when estimating a lump-sum value for 900MHz spectrum 13 June 2014 1 Introduction In January 2014, Analysys Mason Ltd (Analysys Mason) and Aetha Consulting Ltd (Aetha)
Teaching programmes: Master of Public Health, University of Tromsø, Norway HEL-3007 Health Economics and Policy Master of Public Health, Monash University, Australia ECC-5979 Health Economics Master of
C. Wohlin, "Is Prior Knowledge of a Programming Language Important for Software Quality?", Proceedings 1st International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering, pp. 27-36, Nara, Japan, October 2002.
Management & Communication Skills Author: David White This guide was prepared for the University of London by: D. White We regret that the author(s) is/are unable to enter into any correspondence relating
Your consent to our cookies if you continue to use this website.