2 Whilst the rest of the world was partying in 1969, Dr. Abraham Maslow was studying monkeys. Monkeys, he found, always made sure they weren t thirsty before looking for shelter, and always ensured they had shelter before they looked for love and companionship. Dr Maslow then went on to study the human beings around him. Humans, he found, acted in much the same way. No human worried about love before they felt secure. No human sought control before they felt respected by their peers. Thus was born Dr Maslow s famous Hierarchy of Needs. Young and Rubicam took this hierarchy, and designed a probing research tool to find out where people stood within it. Dr Maslow started by watching monkeys.
3 The basic motivations within Maslow s Hierarchy of Needs The result was a segmentation system powerful enough to segment all mankind, and deep enough to understand all mankind s basic motivations. Because Young & Rubicam also asked what brands people bought and how they felt about them, the system also became a way of understanding the deeper appeals of those brands. The system accepted that people from different countries were influenced by their differing cultural backgrounds, and removed the effect of those backgrounds. And so it was named the Cross Cultural Consumer Characterisation, or 4Cs for short. 4Cs divides people into seven types, depending on their core motivation. Shades of grey within the types come from the secondary motivations of their members. This booklet describes the seven types. You can find out what type you are by taking the short online test at
4 THE EXPLORER These people are driven by a need for discovery, challenge and new frontiers. Young in nature, if not in reality, Explorers are often the first to try out new ideas and experiences. They respond to brands that offer new sensations, indulgence and instant effects. In short, difference is what they seek out. Their core need in life is for discovery. Explorers search for new sensations.
5 THE ASPIRER Materialistic, acquisitive people, who are driven by others perceptions of them rather than by their own values. As a result, they respond to what others perceive as being superficial: image, appearance, persona, charisma and fashion. An attractive pack is as important to them as its contents. Their core need in life is for status. With Aspirers, image counts.
6 THE SUCCEEDER Succeeders possess self-confidence, have a strong goal orientation and tend to be very organised. As a result, they tend to occupy positions of responsibility in society. Their investment in the status quo means they tend to support it. When it comes to brands, they seek reward and prestige, and will often seek out the best, because that is what they feel they deserve. On the other hand, they also seek out caring and protective brands their aggressive attitude to life means they need to relax occasionally. Their core need in life is for control. Succeeders need to get to the top.
7 THE REFORMER Don t tell me what to do or what to think says the Reformer, valuing their own independent judgement. Reformers are the most anti-materialistic of the seven groups, and are often perceived as intellectual. They are socially aware, and pride themselves on tolerance. Reformers seek out the authentic and the harmonious, and are often at the leading edge of society. However, unlike Explorers, they will not buy things just because they are new. Their core need in life is for enlightenment. Reformers search for inner enlightenment.
8 THE MAINSTREAM These are people who live in the world of the domestic and the everyday. A daily routine is fundamental to the way they live their lives. Their life choices are we rather than me. As their name implies, they are the mainstream of society. They are the largest group of people within 4Cs across the world. They respond to big established brands, to family brands and to offers of value for money. Their core need in life is for security. Mainstreamers centre themselves within their extended families.
9 THE STRUGGLER Strugglers live for today, and make few plans for tomorrow. Others often see them as victims, losers and wasters - aimless, disorganised people with few resources apart from their own physical skills. If they get on in life, it will depend more on a winning lottery ticket than anything they do themselves. They are heavy consumers of alcohol and junk food. Visual impact and physical sensation are an important element of their brand choices. In essence, they seek escape. Strugglers often see no way out.
10 THE RESIGNED These are predominantly older people with constant, unchanging values built up over time. For them, the past is bathed in a warm nostalgic glow. They respect institutions and enjoy acting in traditional roles. Their brand choices are driven by a need for safety and for economy. They choose above all what is familiar to them. In life, their aim is basic: it is to survive. The Resigned celebrate the past. THE ABLE VERSION OF THIS BOOKLET IS AVAILABLE AT
11 Young & Rubicam EUROPE, MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA GREATER LONDON HOUSE, HAMPSTEAD ROAD, LONDON NW1 7QP TEL: FAX:
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