APA Div. 16 Working Group Globalization of School Psychology Thematic Subgroup: Transnational/Multicultural School Psychology Annotated Bibliography

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1 APA Div. 16 Working Group Globalization of School Psychology Thematic Subgroup: Transnational/Multicultural School Psychology Annotated Bibliography Subgroup Coordinator: Chryse (Sissy) Hatzichristou University of Athens, Greece 53

2 MEMBERS & REVIEWERS: Chryse (Sissy) Hatzichristou, George Georgouleas, Katerina Lampropoulou & Eirini Adamopoulou University of Athens, Greece Judith Kaufman, Justin Kohlhagen & Shai Tabib Fairleigh Dickinson University, USA Bonnie Nastasi & Amanda Borja Tulane University, USA Shane Jimerson University of California, Santa Barbara, USA Markeda Newell & Schevita Persaud University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, USA Chieh Li & Laura Masciulli Northeastern University, USA 54

3 Preface The annotated bibliography of the Transnational/Multicultural School Psychology Subgroup is part of a larger project of the APA Division 16 Working Group- Globalization of School Psychology with the goal to present key articles and literature valuable for scholars, faculty members, students, professionals, and researchers around the world interested in the school psychology theory, research, and practice as a transnational/multicultural discipline. This annotated bibliography was prepared with the help of faculty members and graduate students in school psychology programs (both within the U.S. and international). The scope of this annotated bibliography is to present in themes contemporary issues of transnational/multicultural school psychology that will promote a future conceptual framework in this area of inquiry as well as collaborative projects and course work among professors and students from different countries. This bibliography is organized into four major sections, which reflect the major themes of inquiry that have accumulated in the area of transnational/multicultural school psychology. The sub-themes are: Conceptualization Theoretical Issues. This section in the bibliography addresses conceptualization and theoretical models in ethnic minority psychology, international school psychology, cross-cultural psychology, cultural psychology, indigenous psychology, global psychology, as well as issues of multicultural education, diversity, and cultural competence in school psychology research, training, and practice. Training in Multicultural and International School Psychology. This section presents applied models of multicultural training in school psychology graduate programs, recommendations for increasing multicultural competence in training of school psychologists, and transnational considerations in linking theory, research, and practice of school psychologists. Multicultural Competency. The intent of this section is to present research and identify resources on training and practice of multicultural competence not only for school psychologists but in general for mental health professionals. It is divided in the following categories: a) Articles, b) Practicum competencies, c) Internship training, and d) Textbooks. School Psychology Service Delivery Systems in International Communities. The last section includes literature on inclusive education in South Africa and school psychology services in diverse communities from Europe, Australia, Asia, and Middle East. This annotated bibliography is designed to give readers a comprehensive indication of readings regarding transnational/multicultural theory, research, and practice in school psychology from international scholarly literature. 55

4 Conceptualization Theoretical Issues American Psychological Association (2003). Guidelines on multicultural education, training, research, practice, and organizational change for psychologists. American Psychologist, 58, Clare, M. M. (2009). Thinking diversity: A habit of mind for school psychology. In T. B. Gutkin & C. R. Reynolds (Eds.), The handbook of school psychology (4th ed., pp ). New York, NY: Wiley. Farrell, P. T., Jimerson, S. R., & Oakland, T. D. (2007). School Psychology Internationally: A Synthesis of Findings. In S. Jimerson, T. Oakland, & P. Farrell. (Eds.), Handbook of International School Psychology. London: SAGE publishing. Frisby, C. (2009). Cultural competence in school psychology: Established or elusive construct? In T. B. Gutkin & C. R. Reynolds (Eds.), The handbook of school psychology (4th ed., pp ). New York, NY: Wiley. Jimerson, S. R., Graydon, K., Curtis, M., & Staskal, R. (2007). The International School Psychology Survey: Insights from school psychologists around the world. In S. Jimerson, T. Oakland, & P. Farrell. (Eds.), Handbook of International School Psychology. London: SAGE publishing. Jimerson, S. R., Oakland, T. D., & Farrell, P. T. (Eds) (2007). The Handbook of International School Psychology. London: SAGE. Online at Oakland, T. D. & Jimerson, S. R. (2007). School Psychology Internationally: A retrospective view and influential conditions. In S. Jimerson, T. Oakland, & P. Farrell. (Eds.), Handbook of International School Psychology. London: SAGE publishing. Potts & Watts (2003). Conceptualization and models: The meaning(s) of difference in racial and ethnic minority psychology. In G. Bernal, J. E. Trimble, A. K. Burlew, & F. T. L. Leong (Eds.) Handbook of racial and ethnic minority psychology, pp Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publication. Yang, K. S. (2000). Monocultural and cross-cultural indigenous approaches: The royal road to the development of a balanced global psychology. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 3, Training in Multicultural and International Psychology Bernal, G., Trimble, J. E., Burlew, A. K., & Leong, F. T. L. (Eds.) (2003). On teaching multiculturalism (Chapter 5). In: Handbook of Racial or Ethnic Minority Psychology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Hatzichristou, C., Lampropoulou, A. Lykitsakou, K., & Dimitropoulou, P. (2010). Promoting university and schools partnership: Transnational considerations and future directions. In J. Kaufman & T. Hughes (Eds.) Handbook of Education, Training and 56

5 Supervision of School Psychologists in School and Community, (Vol. II, pp ). New York: Taylor & Francis/ Routledge. Newell, M. L., Nastasi, B. K., Hatzichristou, C., Jones, J. M., Schanding, G. T., & Yetter, G. (2010). Evidence on multicultural training in school psychology: Recommendations for future directions. School Psychology Quarterly, 25, doi: /a Multicultural Competency A. Articles Lopez, E. C. & Rogers, M. R. (2001). Conceptualizing cross-cultural school psychology competencies. School Psychology Quarterly, 16(3), Pederson, P. B. (2003) Cross-cultural counseling developing culture-centered interactions. In Bernal G., Trible, J. E., Burlew, A. K. & Leong, F.T. L., Handbook of Racial & Ethnic Minority Psychology (pp ). Sage Publications: Thousand Oaks ( ) Rogers, M. R. & Lopez, E. C. (2002). Identifying critical cross-cultural school psychology competencies. School Psychology, 40(2), Sehgal, R., Saules, K., Young, A., Grey, M.J., Gillem, A.R., Nabors, N.A., Byrd, M. R., & Jefferson, S. (2011). Practicing what we know: Multicultural counseling competence among clinical psychology trainees and experienced multicultural psychologists. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 17(1), B. Practicum Competencies (including multicultural) Caterino, L., Li, C., Hansen, A., Forman, S., Harris, A., Miller, G., & CDSPP (Council of Directors of School Psychology Programs) Practicum Taskforce. (2012). Practicum competencies outline: A reference for school psychology doctoral programs. The School Psychologist, 66(2), Also available at CDSPP Website: C. Internship Training Magyar-Moe, J. L., Pedrotti, J., Edwards, L. M., Ford, A., Petersen, S. E., Rasmussen, H. N., & Ryder, J. A. (2005). Perceptions of Multicultural Training in Predoctoral Internship Programs: A Survey of Interns and Training Directors. Professional Psychology: Research And Practice, 36(4), doi: / D. Textbooks Esquivel, G. B., Lopez, E. C. & Nahari, S. (Eds.). (2007). Handbook of multicultural school psychology: An interdisciplinary perspective. New York: Taylor & Francis, Inc. Frisby, C. L. & Reynolds, C.R. (2005). Comprehensive handbook of multicultural school psychology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. 57

6 Jones, J. (2009). The psychology of multiculturalism in the schools: A primer for practice, training, and research. Bethesda, MD: NASP. Schools Psychology Service Delivery Systems in International Communities Benson, N., & Oakland, T. (2011). International classification of functioning, disability, and health: Implications for school psychologists. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 26, doi: / Daniels, B. (2010). Developing inclusive policy and practice in diverse contexts: A South African experience. School Psychology International, 31, doi: / Ding, Y., Kuo, Y. L., & Van Dyke, D. C. (2008). School Psychology in China (PRC), Hong Kong and Taiwan: A cross-regional perspective. School Psychology International, 29, doi: / Doll, B., & Cummings, J. A. (Eds.) (2008). Transforming school mental health services: Population-based approaches to promoting the competency of children. Thousand Oaks, CA: National Association of School Psychologists and Corwin Press. Jimerson, S. R., Graydon, K., Farrell, P., Kikas, E., Hatzichristou, C., Boce, E., Bashi, G. & The International School Psychology Association Research Committee (2004). The International School Psychology Survey: Development and Data from Albania, Cyprus, Estonia, Greece and Northern England. School Psychology International, 25 (3), doi: / Jimerson, S. R., Graydon, K., Skokut, M., Alghorani, M. A., Kanjaradze, A., Forster, J., & The ISPA Research Committee (2008). The International School Psychology Survey: Data from Georgia, Switzerland, and the United Arab Emirates. School Psychology International, 29(1), doi: / Jimerson, S. R., Graydon, K., Yuen, M., Lam, S-F., Thurm, J-M., Nadejda, K., Coyne, J., Loprete, L. J., Phillips, J., & The International School Psychology Association Research Committee (2006). The International School Psychology Survey: Data from Australia, China, Germany, Italy, and Russia. School Psychology International, 27(1), doi: / Nastasi, B. K., Moore, R. B., & Varjas, K. M. (2004). School-based mental health services: Creating comprehensive and culturally-specific programs. Washington, D. C.: American Psychological Association. Nastasi, B. K., Overstreet, S., & Summerville, M. (2011). School-based mental health services in post-disaster contexts: A public health framework. School Psychology International, 32, doi: / Thielking, M., & Jimerson, S. R. (2006). Perspectives regarding the role of school psychologists: Perceptions of teachers, principals, and school psychologists in Victoria, Australia. Australian Journal of Guidance & Counseling, 16 (2),

7 Conceptualization Theoretical Issues American Psychological Association (2003). Guidelines on multicultural education, training, research, practice, and organizational change for psychologists. American Psychologist, 58, Western, Eurocentric and biological perspectives have defined the field of psychology, however as the demographics of the nation continue to change, psychologists need to be prepared to adequately assist populations in need. The APA Guidelines on Multicultural Education, Training, Research, Practice, and Organizational Change for Psychologists provides psychologists with resources to increase the use of multiculturalism in the practice. It also suggests the need for knowledge and skills in multiculturalism for all professionals in the field. The guidelines were created to aid psychologists in providing adequate services in the U.S. s vastly changing society and to create a better awareness of self as well as meeting the needs of the people they serve. The article provides professionals with definitions of terms used in multiculturalism such as culture, race, ethnicity, and culture-centered found in previous research to provide psychologists with a better understanding of the terms that are discussed in the guidelines. The guidelines include six recommendations for psychologists to use to understand and incorporate multiculturalism into their everyday practice. The main ideas of the guidelines include: commitment to cultural awareness and knowledge of self and others, inclusion of constructs of multiculturalism and diversity in psychological education, culturally centered research and practice and use of organizational change processes to support culturally informed policy development and practices. The article provides suggestions on ways psychologists can become more competent and less apt to having biases that can be detrimental to their abilities to meet the needs of their clients as well as the public. In order to better serve all people and become better agents for social justice it is pertinent that school psychologists are aware of the ways in which their biases and perspectives may hinder their practice. With a better sense of self-awareness, and increased exposure to different cultural groups, all psychologists can create systems change and provide appropriate and meaningful services and knowledge for all people. Clare, M. M. (2009). Thinking diversity: A habit of mind for school psychology. In T. B. Gutkin & C. R. Reynolds (Eds.), The handbook of school psychology (4th ed., pp ). New York, NY: Wiley. The author notes the need for school psychology to employ dynamic ways of knowing and to identify, refine and revise practice in order to respond to the current demands of diversity. The author draws from ideas that highlight the influence that individual experience, cultural values, and social circumstances have on the development and practice of school psychology profession. She suggests moving beyond postmodern perspectives to understand human diversity and to consider it as a dynamic constant influencing all areas of school psychology. She discusses contemporary responses to diversity and their implications for research, training and practice of school psychology. Specifically, she describes three concepts that emerge from postmodernism and its critical extensions for addressing diversity challenges in school psychology: situated knowledge, constructed meaning and individually 59

8 mediated understandings. The author presents illustrative examples from educational policy and practice in the United States to criticize and explain the overrepresentation of white people of European ancestry in these concepts. In addition, the author explores ways in which diversity may be understood as a dynamic constant in school psychology, a growing habit of mind, by considering possibilities for thought, research and action beyond postmodernism, integrating empirical and constructivist views and practices. To illustrate these ideas she references and describes two emerging areas of theory and practice: the growing conceptualization and advancement of decolonization and practical applications of multicontextuality. Both of these areas contain substantive scholarly advancements originating in the perspectives and experiences of scholars from historically marginalized cultural and sociopolitical backgrounds. These researchers chose consciously to apply their scholarly competence to the articulation and representation of rigorous ways of knowing that fall outside the recognized knowledge traditions of the dominant culture. The former draws on the perspective and methodologies of researchers that support the decolonization of indigenous people (e.g., Maori culture) and the latter on the multicontextuality of Latino academics and graduate students to stimulate and extend individual and collective receptivity to diversity s influence in the research and practice of school psychology. Finally, the author emphasizes listening to the experiences of people from historically and contemporarily marginalized social groups, such as colleagues, as the most robust and responsive practice for guiding professional practice in school psychology. An example is the professional organizations (e.g., American Psychological Association, National Association of Schools Psychologists) and their operational structures that increasingly address the kind of listening that acknowledges and enhances culture. In conclusion, the author urges for a synthesis of all the best ways of knowing in studying and responding to human differences and for recognizing diversity as a state of mind in school psychology research and practice. Farrell, P. T., Jimerson, S. R., & Oakland, T. D. (2007). School Psychology Internationally: A Synthesis of Findings. In S. Jimerson, T. Oakland, & P. Farrell. (Eds.), Handbook of International School Psychology. London: SAGE publishing. This concluding chapter of The Handbook of International School Psychology provides a brief synthesis of the 48 chapters in the book, highlighting some of the prominent similarities and differences among the 43 countries and drawing attention to certain challenges facing the speciality of school psychology in the coming years. The chapter begins with an overview of some educational, demographic, economic, and geographic characteristics within countries that provide a context for the work of school psychologists. This is followed by a summary of the history and current status of school psychology and its infrastructure, the preparation of school psychologists, their roles and functions, and finally some current issues impacting school psychology. The first section discusses the diverse nature of the countries in which school psychological services are delivered, noting that the contexts within which schools psychologists work varies considerably. The impact of a country s educational system, demographic characteristics, economy, and geography are reviewed in this section. 60

9 The second section discusses the Origins, History, and Current Status of School Psychology Internationally, noting that the origins of school psychology can be traced to the beginning of the 20th Century when, in some Western European countries and the United States, school officials and parents expressed concern that some children seemed less able to learn in general education classes. Hence, in many countries, the speciality of school psychology became associated with testing students and, if needed, recommending alternative educational provision. The chapter also discusses that countries with a high gross national product and a highly developed education system, including higher education, were better able to educate and employ school psychologists to fulfill these tasks. In other countries, especially those that had few testing resources, the origins of school psychology were associated less with assessment and more with services aimed at promoting the social, emotional, behavioral, and mental health of students. The third section describes the considerable variation that exists within and between countries in the entry criteria for preparing school psychologists, the length of preparation, the nature and duration of practica and internship, and the final degree required (e.g., bachelors, masters, specialist, and doctoral degrees). The chapter offers a brief overview of key considerations related to the preparation of school psychologists internationally. The fourth section explores the possible future of school psychology in various countries, including their current hopes and concerns for the specialty. Topics discussed in this section include, 1) Economic Influences on School Psychology Services, 2) Education Systems and School Psychology Services, 3) Employment Conditions of School Psychologists, and 4) Roles and Responsibilities of School Psychologists. The chapter concludes by highlighting that in many countries around the world, school psychologists are employed to enhance the mental health and educational well-being of children and youth, their schools, families, and communities. And also highlights that the work of school psychologists is underpinned by core elements of academic psychology that are relevant to understanding learning and development, child psychopathology, and methods that can encourage change. Frisby, C. (2009). Cultural competence in school psychology: Established or elusive construct? In T. B. Gutkin & C. R. Reynolds (Eds.), The handbook of school psychology (4th ed., pp ). New York, NY: Wiley. The author critically evaluates the contribution of cultural competence, both as a concept and as a movement, in school psychology by tracing the historical evolution of its content areas from 1960 through He comments on the language used, provides extensive literature and research, and discusses the educational policies as well as their implications for school psychology practice in the United States. Furthermore, the author highlights the strengths and weaknesses associated with the cultural competence movement in school psychology. In particular, he argues that the cultural competence movement has helped to focus attention on cultural diversity issues, has employed rigorous and empirical methods to ensure multicultural sensitivity and fairness of tests, has underscored the importance of well-trained bilingual school psychologists, and has emphasized the need for international crosscultural interactions and considerations. On the other hand, the cultural competence 61

10 movement has provided weak empirical support for the nature and structure of the cultural competence construct as applied to school psychology, has often supported justifications for cultural competence on ill-defined concepts, vague generalizations and unexamined assumptions, and has been dominated by ideologically driven advocacy rather than research-based evidence. The author provides a table of the school psychology cultural competences rated as most critical by a national sample of experts and an illustrated experiment of politically correct and incorrect beliefs associated with the cultural competence movement in school psychology. Jimerson, S. R., Graydon, K., Curtis, M., & Staskal, R. (2007). The International School Psychology Survey: Insights from school psychologists around the world. In S. Jimerson, T. Oakland, & P. Farrell. (Eds.), Handbook of International School Psychology. London: SAGE publishing. Understanding the characteristics, training, roles, responsibilities, challenges, and research interests of school psychologists around the world is increasingly important as the field of school psychology continues to develop in many countries. This chapter describes recent international efforts to systematically gather data from colleagues in countries around the world, including the development of the International School Psychology survey. This chapter reports valuable information regarding the profession of school psychology using data gathered in Albania, Cyprus, Estonia, Greece, Northern England, Australia, China (Hong Kong), Germany, Italy, Russia and the United States. Jimerson and the International School Psychology Association Research Committee developed the International School Psychology Survey (ISPS) through a careful process of modification and revision of the survey instrument previously used by the National Association of School Psychologists and then redistribution to international colleagues serving on the International School Psychology Association Research Committee. The International School Psychology Survey (ISPS) contains 46 items that address five domains: a) characteristics of school psychologists, b) training and regulation of the profession, c) roles and responsibilities, d) challenges to the profession, and e) research. Additionally, the survey solicits feedback regarding the potential role of the International School Psychology Association in each country. The first 20 items on the survey represent general questions asked of all participants, while the remaining 26 items are to be completed only by professionals employed in a school setting. ISPS items were predominantly multiple-choice questions, supplemented by several open-ended questions. The survey measures characteristics of the sample through the first 20 items, asking participants for information ranging from gender and age to opinions regarding most and least favorite aspects of the profession. Six items addressing educational preparation, requirements for practice, and sources of funds for employment were used to collect information about professional training and regulations. Fifteen items requesting estimates of the average number of hours respondents spent in various settings and engaging in specified tasks, as well as opinions regarding the ideal roles of a school psychologist assessed the roles and responsibilities of school psychologists. The survey measures challenges to the profession through two items asking for the identification of internal and external factors that jeopardize the delivery of school psychological services in each country. To address the topic of research, three items asked for the perceived 62

11 relevance of research to professional practice, the availability of research journals, and the most important research topics. The bulk of the content of the chapter reports descriptive analyses examining the frequency of responses from school psychologists in the 11 countries participating in this project to date were completed and summarized (including 10 Tables). The data and discussion provide information regarding demographic characteristics, training and regulations, roles and responsibilities, challenges, and research interests for school psychologists in each of the 11 countries. The results reveal both similarities and differences in the characteristics, training, roles and responsibilities, challenges, and research interests of school psychologists in these countries. Jimerson, S. R., Oakland, T. D., & Farrell, P. T. (Eds) (2007). The Handbook of International School Psychology. London: SAGE. Online at The Handbook of International School Psychology provides 49 chapters of valuable information that informs our collective understanding of the profession and practice of school psychology around the world. The innovative structure facilitates providing valuable ideas and information about school psychology. In particular, chapters focusing on school psychology in 43 specific countries use an innovative structure to ensure that each addresses: 1) the context of school psychology; 2) the origin, history, and current status of school psychology; 3) the infrastructure of school psychology; 4) the preparation of school psychologists; 5) the roles, functions, and responsibilities of school psychologists; 6) current issues impacting school psychology; and 7) seminal references. The structure of the handbook serves as an exemplar for systematically providing knowledge about specializations of psychology around the world. The Handbook of International School Psychology includes an emphasis on the science underlying the profession of school psychology. Chapters include detailed information regarding the historical origins of school psychology as well as the contemporary preparation of school psychologists. Information regarding the foundations upon which the profession of school psychology emerged in each country, and also specific coursework, and assessments used, including relevant citations, reflects the focus on understanding the science and theory underlying school psychology in countries around the world. As discussed in many chapters of the handbook, the emerging and established profession of school psychology incorporates important traditions of psychology, while focusing on the provision of services to children and youth, their teachers, and parents. The Handbook of International School Psychology offers the most comprehensive and contemporary resource for understanding school psychology as a global discipline. In addition to the country chapters, the handbook includes a section consisting of chapters that review the key considerations of school psychology internationally and trends influencing school psychology s international development. This section includes chapters that discuss the past, present, and future of the International School Psychology Association (ISPA); findings from the International School Psychology Survey that examines characteristics and responsibilities of school psychologists, and a summary and synthesis of the information in the Handbook. The Handbook of International School Psychology advances understanding of the profession of school psychology around the globe, providing a contemporary, 63

12 comprehensive resource for all persons of the world who are interested in further understanding the profession. Thus, the handbook provides valuable information for scholars, professionals, students, and leaders around the world to better understand the profession of school psychology as a global discipline. Oakland, T. D. & Jimerson, S. R. (2007). School Psychology Internationally: A retrospective view and influential conditions. In S. Jimerson, T. Oakland, & P. Farrell. (Eds.), Handbook of International School Psychology. London: SAGE publishing. This chapter by Thomas D. Oakland and Shane R. Jimerson, published in The Handbook of International School Psychology; 1) identifies some persons and events that provided a foundation for the professional practice of psychology, 2) discusses qualities that must be in place for the emergence of the profession of psychology, 3) explores important facets regarding the preparation and education of school psychologists, 4) discusses the roles and responsibilities of school psychologists, and 5) delineates important external and internal conditions that impact the development of the profession of school psychology around the world. The first section provides a succinct synthesis of the Philosophical and Experimental Foundations of Psychology, highlighting the foundations in the writings of Plato, Socrates, Aristotle, and other Greek philosophers, given their thoughtful considerations and deep insights into the nature of human behavior. Psychological theory, research, and technology began to emerge formally during the middle of the 19 th Century. The second section describes The Emergence of the Profession of Psychology Professional highlighting that practice requires at least four qualities: a need for services; a sufficiently mature discipline that provides relevant theory, research, and technology; university-based programs to prepare practitioners; and educated practitioners who are willing to devote their professional lives to gain the instrumental knowledge needed to serve the public well. These four conditions emerged during the first half of the 20th Century. The third section discusses the Preparation of School Psychologists, noting that the international survey of school psychologists found considerable similarities in their preparation. Most school psychology programs offer a curriculum that relies heavily on five areas: courses that focus on core areas of psychology, assessment and intervention, interpersonal skills, professional decision-making, and legal and ethical issues. Core areas within the discipline of psychology include psychology of learning and cognition, research design and statistics, as well as biological, developmental, educational, experimental, personality, and social psychology. The fourth section explores the Nature of School Psychology Services, highlighting that these services are determined by two broad conditions: the preparation school psychologists receive and society s need for services. This section also emphasizes that the nature of school psychological services within a country necessarily reflects the level of development and acceptance of the discipline of psychology within the country, the development of the profession of psychology, and the need for services. The fifth section articulates Conditions That Will Influence School Psychology s Future, highlighting five external conditions (i.e., a country s cultural history and current conditions, economy, geography, language, as well as national 64

13 needs and priorities) and by five internal conditions (i.e., degree of professionalism, definition of school psychology s scope and functions, its legal status, its engagement with education, and scholarly and technical contributions). The chapter concludes by suggesting that the growth of the specialty of school psychology, in part, is contingent on the degree to which collaboration occurs among international colleagues. Potts & Watts (2003). Conceptualization and models: The meaning(s) of difference in racial and ethnic minority psychology. In G. Bernal, J. E. Trimble, A. K. Burlew, & F. T. L. Leong (Eds.), Handbook of racial and ethnic minority psychology (pp ). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publication. This chapter presents a critique of major theoretical models of conceptualizing racial and cultural differences in psychology. It begins with an overview of four models: universalistic, hierarchical, racial and ethnic minority, and equivalent and complementary models. In the overview of each model, a concise critique is incorporated. For instance, the universalistic view indicates explicitly or implicitly that works in psychology apply to all populations while in fact they are undergirded by a particular cultural worldview. In this model, cultural variations are marginalized to maintain the façade of a univocal science. Influenced by this model, Euro- American psychological concepts and methods are held as universals, whereas indigenous conceptualizations of the self and ways of knowing are regarded as particulars. Another example is the analysis of the hierarchical model that acknowledges cultural differences but ranks them hierarchically. In this model, difference from Euro-American middle-class cultural standard is interpreted as incipient and less adequately developed. Both models reflect cultural biases and may contribute to cultural oppression. The chapter highlights the contributions of racial and ethnic minority psychology (REMP), acknowledging its affirmation of pluralism and the variety of culturally distinctive ways of knowing and providing relief from human suffering. The authors also point out the weaknesses of current REMP while critiquing existing anti-diversity perspectives in the field. In addition, the authors provide a thoughtprovoking discussion on ideas of difference in racial and ethnic minority psychology and how these ideas have influenced research and practice, including a) difference as antagonism, b) difference as complementary relationship, and c) shared and distinctive themes in racial and ethnic minority psychology. The shared themes are cultural identity, oppression and culture, salience of context, population-specific psychologies, and quest for liberation. The chapter provides multiple perspectives for understanding racial and cultural differences. It is clearly conceptualized, well organized and well written. It would be a useful reference for multicultural school psychology. Many of the issues discussed in the chapter have transnational implications and applications. For example, the Euro-centric hierarchical view of cultural differences, the need for awareness of difference as antagonism, and the need for further development of population-specific psychologies. 65

14 Yang, K. S. (2000). Monocultural and cross-cultural indigenous approaches: The royal road to the development of a balanced global psychology. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 3, The author compares and presents systematically the cross-cultural, cultural, and indigenous psychologies by reviewing their goals, theoretical orientations and methodological perspectives to argue in favor of their meaningful integration into indigenous psychology in order to create a psychological science that is highly compatible with psychological and behavioral phenomena with or without their ecological, economic, social, cultural, and historical contexts in various cultures across the world. Specifically, cross-cultural psychology applies a positivism paradigm as in natural sciences to generate a universal psychology by testing the generality of existing psychology knowledge and theories (mostly from the Western cultures) in other cultures and exploring psychological variations of other cultures. Cultural psychology integrates psychology and anthropology favoring a human science model and prefers to set the developing of culture-bound knowledge systems by constructing theories within as well as across specific cultures as its primary goal. Lastly, indigenous psychology develops a scientific knowledge system that effectively reflects, describes, explains, or understands the psychological and behavioral activities in their native contexts. Its primary goal is to construct a specific indigenous psychology for each society with a given population or a distinctive culture and to also develop the indigenous psychologies of progressively larger populations. Finally, the highest indigenous psychology, a universal, or more properly a global psychology for all human beings on the earth will be formed by integrating lower-level indigenous psychologies. According to the author indigenous psychology is broader and more inclusive than cross-cultural and cultural psychologies as both natural science and human science models are acceptable applying multiple paradigms of research. Thus, culturally unbiased cross-cultural and cultural psychologies may be regarded as special cases of indigenous psychology. The author also proposes and discusses the two different types of indigenous approaches, monocultural and cross-cultural. The main purpose of the monocultural indigenous approach is to study the psychological and behavioral functioning of people in a given culture in order to develop an evolving system of psychological knowledge specific to the culture. To develop a monocultural indigenous psychology efficiently, each empirical study has to consider its indigenous compatibility - to be conducted in a manner such that the researcher s concepts, theory, methods, tools, and results adequately represent, reflect, or reveal the natural elements, structure, mechanism, or process of the studied phenomenon embedded in its context. The author distinguishes three major kinds of indigenous compatibility- contextindependent, context-dependent, and reflective- and presents examples of effective measures for indigenizing psychological research in non-western societies. On the other hand, the author discusses the essential features and procedures of the crosscultural indigenous approach in research. The advantages of this approach include native scholars studying their own cultures, to be less likely biased by ethnocentric tendencies, the cross-cultural etics are systematically and naturally identified at a higher level from the various indigenous sets of behavior at the basic level, and to be especially useful in cross-cultural research with markedly different cultures. There are two ways to generate cross-culturally indigenous psychological knowledge, to conduct multicultural empirical studies with the cross-cultural indigenous approach or to compare and integrate results separately established on the basis of research 66

15 conducted with monocultural indigenous approach that are available in the indigenous psychologies literature. The final goal of cross-cultural indigenous psychology is to construct an indigenously derived global psychology. The author notes that monocultural indigenous approach is the most effective way to turn a monocultural Westernized psychology into a monocultural indigenous psychology and the crosscultural indigenous approach is the most effective way to turn cross-cultural Westernized psychology into cross-cultural indigenous psychology. Finally, the author presents the pyramid model in deriving a global psychology from indigenous psychologies (with the most specific indigenous psychologies at the bottom and the indigenously derived global psychology at the top) and discusses five kinds of cross-cultural integrations that psychologists can fulfill the academic enterprise of creating a balanced, genuine global psychology solidly based on monocultural and cross-cultural indigenous psychologies from all over the world. Among these integrations, empirical integration, assimilative integration, and integration by the cross-cultural indigenous approach are most useful for integration at the lower levels in the pyramid model, and theoretical integration and integration by the cross-indigenous method may be applied to integration at all levels in the model. The author includes tables and graphs to explain and compare the different research paradigms and methodologies of cross-cultural, cultural, and indigenous psychologies. This article is a valuable resource for individuals who are interested in the definitions, aims, methodologies and conceptualization of cross-cultural, cultural, and indigenous psychologies, and global psychology. 67

16 Training in Multicultural and International Psychology Bernal, G., Trimble, J. E., Burlew, A. K., & Leong, F. T. L. (Eds.) (2003). On teaching multiculturalism (Chapter 5). In: Handbook of Racial or Ethnic Minority Psychology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. The chapter, On Teaching Multiculturalism in the Handbook of Racial or Ethnic Minority Psychology (Bernal et al., 2003), summarizes the events that launched the movement to include multicultural education into graduate-level curriculum. In this chapter, the author outlines critical topic areas and the methodology that should be addressed when educating professionals about the complexities of practicing psychology in a multicultural environment. The origins of a multicultural curriculum began at the historic 1973 Vail conference. At the conference, the idea of including multicultural training into curricula for psychologists and other mental health professionals was transformed from a topic which many desired to be more widely addressed to an issue of ethical concern. The author points out that many were hesitant to adopt this model, preferring to rely on traditional curricula, citing a lack of research and text books as a inhibitors to creating successful courses. This chapter specifically highlights the struggle to have graduate programs include even one course on this subject, with the goal of helping students understand that there are different multicultural perspectives to the traditional models of psychopathology, assessment, and treatment. Over the course of the ensuing years, many graduate education programs have evolved to include multicultural curricula. This began with single courses, to clusters of courses, and finally a completely integrated model, suggesting that multiculturalism should be weaved into the entire curriculum of a graduate training program. This chapter showcases three opposing attitudes which seek to undermine the inclusion of a multicultural curriculum into graduate course work. The first approach, a naïve view of the world minimizes the complexity of people and its importance when considering treatment, because it assumes that all people are the same and everyone faces the same issues. The next approach is dubbed by the author as a racist stance. The holders of this viewpoint believe that general models of therapy are superior, and the inclusion of diversity is a nuisance that should be ignored. The final attitude which opposes the inclusion of multicultural curriculum is the intellectual lazy stance. Those with this view admit that there is importance to the issue of diversity, but they are too lazy or rigid to modify traditional curricula. The author of this chapter presents these mind-sets as the opposing forces creating road blocks to implementing multicultural curriculum as a standard in graduate education. It is believed that those who are exposed to a multicultural curriculum in graduate courses grow to become more culturally competent therapists. This belief has elevated the necessity to include multicultural classes into the standard course curriculum. Conversely, there is a perceived notion that those therapists who do not have training in this area are somehow behind and perhaps doing their clients a disservice. Several models have been suggested on implementing this curriculum into graduate-level studies. The author believes that it is important to appropriately and efficiently expose students to different culture groups and sensitize them to the need for this education, even though students enrolled in the courses may initially experience uncomfortable or resistant feelings. There have been many effective models that were described in this chapter including works by; Mio (1989); Pederson 68

17 (1977,1988); Ridley, Mendoza, and Kanitz (1994); Cross (1971); Sue (1982); and McDavis and Parker (1977), which all contribute invaluably to teaching models of multiculturalism. One of the most important sections of this chapter discusses the core issues which need to be addressed in all multicultural curricula. These include: defining culture, assimilation/acculturation of immigrants, intelligence testing, majority privilege, racism, attribution theory, personal worldviews, emic versus etic distinctions, individualism versus collectivism, research/methodological issues, acculturative stress and psychopathology, racial identity development, and general therapy issues. The author provides general outlines for these topics, including what each class should cover. This provides an excellent structure and framework for designing an integrative multicultural curriculum. In addition to the curriculum focal points outlined in this chapter, the author also offers an assortment of resources for learning more on multiculturalism, including citations, providing an excellent resource guide to a professional practicing in a multicultural environment. This chapter in The Handbook of Racial and Ethnic Minority Psychology presents the challenges and the benefits of teaching courses on multiculturalism. Though there have been numerous challenges to integrating multicultural courses into graduate level curriculum, the author highlights some successful opportunities that have emerged from its inclusion. This chapter successfully provides the novice with various models of teaching multiculturalism, as well as key issues to cover in a multicultural curriculum. Hatzichristou, C., Lampropoulou, A. Lykitsakou, K., & Dimitropoulou, P. (2010). Promoting university and schools partnership: Transnational considerations and future directions. In J. Kaufman & T. Hughes (Eds.) Handbook of Education, Training and Supervision of School Psychologists in School and Community, (Vol. II, pp ). New York: Taylor & Francis/ Routledge. This article presents ways of bridging the gap between theory, training and practice in school psychology through University, schools and community partnership. In particular, the authors attempt (a) to describe the current situation regarding training and supervision at an national and international level, (b) to describe the development and evolution of an alternative model of school psychological services, in a specific cultural and educational setting-the Greek educational system, (c) to present specific projects that were developed for the promotion of university, schools, and community partnership, and (d) to elaborate on critical issues and future perspectives regarding the challenge of bridging the gap between theory and practice at a national and transnational level. The article starts with a brief description of several international training and supervision models that are presented in the relevant literature along with a presentation of the preparation and training status in school psychology in the Greek educational system. It is then pointed out that, in spite of the progress that can be identified regarding the evolution of school psychology, Greece is still one of the countries with limited provision of school psychological services in mainstream public schools. The lack of school psychological services in the Greek public schools led to the development of a data-based model of alternative school psychological services, which is described in the article. 69

18 The model aims to link theory, research and practice, to implement intervention programs in schools and to link University, schools, professional bodies and institutions mainly through the establishment and activities of the Center for Research and Practice in School Psychology, in the Department of Psychology at the University of Athens. The process of the model's development and evolution and the goals and activities of the Center are presented. Various projects were developed within the proposed model. These projects that aimed to link theory and practice and to promote university, schools and community partnerships are described in the article. In particular, the authors present as indicative examples of the Center s projects a) the development of prevention programs in the school community, b) the link between the Future of School Psychology Conference and the data-based model of alternative school psychological services, and c) the community outreach-provision of alternative services in the community. The importance of this article lies to the fact that it deals with the main issue of concern for school psychologists worldwide. The way to put into practice the theories and research data and especially to find a way for bridging the gap between the knowledge produced in universities with the application of such knowledge by school psychologists and teachers in schools. The article provides with a better insight in the field of school psychology and highlights the future perspectives regarding training and preparation of school psychologists. Newell, M. L., Nastasi, B. K., Hatzichristou, C., Jones, J. M., Schanding, G. T., & Yetter, G. (2010). Evidence on multicultural training in school psychology: Recommendations for future directions. School Psychology Quarterly, 25, doi: /a Multicultural competence in school psychology is essential to providing effective services to children and families because of the vastly changing demographics of the U.S. population. As the population continues to grow and more people immigrate to the U.S. the need for school psychologists who are multiculturally and linguistically competent is high however, the cultural and linguistic differences of school psychologists do not meet the cultural and linguistic needs of the population. There are a number of barriers to providing adequate training for school psychologists to be multiculturally competent including lack of guidance in incorporating multicultural content in graduate programs as well as the limited evidence based guidelines for competency in working with diverse populations. In order to understand the needs of future research and training in multicultural competence Newell et al. s (2010) study evaluated past research on multicultural competence and multicultural training within the global context to inform research, training, and practice. Several aspects of multicultural training were examined in this comprehensive review. The authors first reviewed the historical, legal and organizational basis for multicultural competence in the literature. Then a thorough examination of the standards for training in multicultural practice was conducted to investigate the ideal approach to multicultural training and research. The authors suggested seven components that should be addressed to develop better culturally appropriate services. For example, one component included the need for training programs to included integration of multicultural concentrations in all courses with separate courses available to increase the knowledge and awareness of specific populations of interest. 70

19 Another component included the need for evaluation of students multicultural knowledge and skills to further ensure their competence in working with diverse populations. This study provides a better understanding of what is needed to prepare future professionals in the field to be culturally competent. It also offers the basis for examining the effect of cultural competence of service delivery for children, families and communities. With better understanding the barriers of cultural competence for school psychologists research and training programs are better able to make appropriate changes to become more culturally competent. 71

20 Multicultural Competency A. ARTICLES Lopez, E. C. & Rogers, M. R. (2001). Conceptualizing cross-cultural school psychology competencies. School Psychology Quarterly, 16(3), The need to develop cultural competencies for psychologists has been increased by the vastly changing demographics of the nation. In the U.S., the role of school psychologists is to provide appropriate psychological services that are sensitive to the struggles and needs of all children and families. With legal statutes such as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act, (IDEIA) mandating the use of appropriate nondiscriminatory and nonbiased assessment, school psychologists must be culturally competent in order to adhere to the law and adequately provide services for children. The National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) and APA have created ethical standards for the need to develop cross-cultural competencies, however there are few empirically based standards for school psychologists to be culturally competent. Lopez & Rogers (2001) study aimed to indentify cross-cultural competencies for school psychologists based on what expert school psychologists find to be essential and not based on the literature. The Dephi technique was utilized to poll experts in the field to identify and reach a consensus on the most relevant competencies. The researchers used specific criteria to select the panelists that included authors, presenters, faculty and practicing school psychologists who have past experience doing research or work in cultural competence. The technique utilizes a pole of panelists and develops open-ended questions to elicit responses. The study included 11 experts in the field and the procedure included three rounds of data collection and data analysis to extract essential themes and consolidate the most relevant competencies among the panelists. The results indicated that Assessment, Consultation, Language, Professional Characteristic, and Report writing were the top five categories in which cross-cultural competence was essential. One example of why Assessment was rated critical was because school psychologists must have knowledge of the limitations of standardized tools and consider cultural and language factors in assessment results. This study is important to the field because it is one of the first to use the perspectives of experts in school psychology to elicit essential cross cultural competencies to inform training programs and prepare professionals to become more culturally competent. Pederson, P. B. (2003) Cross-cultural counseling developing culture-centered interactions. In Bernal G., Trible, J. E., Burlew, A. K. & Leong, F.T. L., Handbook of Racial & Ethnic Minority Psychology (pp ). Sage Publications: Thousand Oaks ( ) Cross-cultural counseling encompasses any helping relationship where the contextual variable of culture is incorporated into that process. When culture is central to the process, the authors maintain that behavior can be more accurately measured, consequences understood and personal identity clarified. Culture therefore, is considered central and not marginal. The cross-cultural counseling approach is directly focused on culturally learned assumptions that direct behavior, define personality and negotiate problems. 72

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