1 Impact of Katrina on U.S. Housing Markets: Building Codes Change in Response to Catastrophic Risk 49 th Annual Convention Society of Wood Science and Technology Delton Alderman USDA Forest Service Al Schuler USDA Forest Service
2 Outline Building Code Changes: Opportunity for Wood? North America Statistics Offshore Observations Evolving Construction Techniques U.S. Home Construction Statistics Implications Wood Products Industry Conclusion
3 Most Damaging Natural Disasters 400,000 $120 $ ,000 $80 200,000 $60 $40 100,000 $20 0 Katrina/Rita Andrew Charley SF Earthquake Hugo $0 Homes Destroyed Damage ( $2000 Billions) Sources: APA, Red Cross, McGraw-Hill Construction
4 Building Codes Code Background & Evolution: Building codes & Federal law: States not required to follow model or umbrella code Code employed discrete state s prerogative & even counties within a state Consequently, codes differ confusing for builders & general public
5 Building Codes Code Background & Evolution: Changes have occurred: Why? After Andrew (1992) Florida adopted & implemented tougher codes S. FL Hurricanes Katrina & Rita forced similar action by LA & Gulf Coast states
6 Building Codes Codes consolidated in mid-1990 s 1990 s: International Code Council formed: Combined BOCA, ICBO, & SBCCI into a model code with 2-parts: IBC & International Residential Code Simplified code environment more effective for promoting better construction practices can greatly reduce hurricane & earthquake damage An opportunity for wood building materials?
7 Building Codes Attention to code & code enforcement increased throughout U.S. Improved Code Knowledge: (1) FL s State Building Code based on IBC & IRC; (2) LA approved adopted IBC & IRC (12/05): Insure new homes built in the Gulf Coast can withstand winds of 130 to 150 mph Applies to buildings rebuilt after Katrina & Rita & all buildings built/rebuilt in LA in 07
8 Building Codes (3) Significant tougher standards for any state adopting the ICC code: Areas where winds > mph Building standards tougher: 19/32 sheathing vs. 3/8 Better tie downs: Roof to frame Bigger & more nails Impact resistant windows, etc. FL homes built to ICC code fared better than older homes (less demanding state code)
9 Building Codes & Katrina: The Aftermath Homes with wood shear walls & bracing usually performed well Fully sheathed homes performed better than partially sheathed homes Most observers: Gulf Coast s older homes poor construction contributed to severity of Katrina damage Newer homes built to ICC design codes performed well
11 North America Statistics Hurricanes: More frequent & violent? Earthquakes: Steady?
14 Wind Speed Map Eastern U.S.
15 Housing Affected by Hurricanes: Wind Speeds (> 110 mph) State, % of permits where winds > 110mph 2005 Permits Affected Permits* Florida 50% 285, ,530 Texas 20% 208,980 41,796 Louisiana 35% 21,790 7,626 Mississippi 20% 12,990 2,600 South Carolina 20% 53,760 10,752 North Carolina 20% 100,220 20,000 NY 10% 59,310 5,931 PA 10% 44,180 4,418 MA 20% 23,840 4,768 RI 25% 2, AL 15% 30,270 4,540 CT 15% 11,670 1,750 NJ 20% 38,480 7,696 GA 10% 104,360 10,430 VA 10% 60,960 6,096 Sub-Totals 1,058, ,552 U.S. Permits 2,147,600 13% of U.S. permits
16 Problematic Seismic Areas: U.S. West Source: ASCE, Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures; ASCE 7-05
17 Problematic Seismic Areas: U.S. East Source: ASCE, Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures; ASCE 7-05
18 Housing Affected by Potential Seismic Activity State and % of permits within earthquake zones 2005 Permits Affected Permits* California 35% 202,220 70,770 Washington 30% 52,780 15,834 South Carolina 20% 53,760 10,752 Colorado 15% 46,260 6,939 Missouri 15% 31,280 4,692 Sub-Totals 386, ,987 U.S. Permits 2,147,600 5% of U.S. permits
19 Housing Affected by Hurricanes & Earthquakes State Permits* 2005 Permits Affected Hurricanes 1,058, ,552 Earthquakes 386, ,987 Totals 1,444, ,539 U.S. Permits 2,147,600 18%
20 Offshore Observations Kobe earthquake huge impact on Japanese residential construction U.S. Housing Markets Will wood & the wood industry capture the opportunity as in Japan? What does the wood industry need to do?
21 Seismic Issues
22 Japan: Precut Homes Increasing Drivers: Demographics New government building regulations Quality assurance law: 10-yr home warranty program Kobe earthquake Post & Beam construction: Moving to factory components with CAD Cut to length Machine cut mortise & tenon components Numbered parts Using more glulam & engineered wood products
23 Japan: Precut Homes Precut Home Starts 350, , , , , ,000 50,000 % Post & Beam (Precut) 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% Precut Home Starts % Precut Post & Beam 0% Source: APA (Japan Wood Housing, Precut Assoc.; Daily Wood Products J.)
24 Impact of Prefab Use in Japan: Drives Use of Glulam & Laminated Lbr Thousand cubic meters Laminated structural lumber 10 15% annually Domestic production Imported glulam Imported laminated lumber
25 Glulam: Japanese Output & Imports % growth in 9-yrs Kobe earthquake Japanese Production Imports Source: APA
26 Glulam: Japanese Output & Imports Drivers: Demographics (skilled labor shortages), Kobe earthquake: tougher building regulations (e.g., quality assurance law, 10-yr warranty) End Result: Better materials in home construction More EWPs & factory built components & less conventional (e.g., green) Lbr products
27 Japanese LVL: Production & Imports Kobe earthquake
28 U.S. Home Construction Statistics
29 Building Material Trends: Concrete Concrete Steel Lumber Joists I-Joists Open Web wood truss Others making significant inroads South mostly (45% of starts) Structural Floor Materials: New Housing % < % < % < % < % < % < < % < < % < <1 Source: NAHB Research Center annual survey of home builders, published in Structural building components, December 2003 (
30 Wall Sheathing Critical to structural performance in high winds & seismic events Wood products: Facing more competition Need to develop novel & improved wood products or CONTINUE to lose market share Proper Sheathing vital for damage reduction
31 Residential Wall Sheathing 2004 Market Share Foam 16% Fiberboard 2% Kraft Board 1% Other 10% Gypsum 2% Wood Structural Panels - 69% Other includes stucco walls without sheathing, plywood, or OSB siding directly to studs & structural insulated panels.
32 New Products: Wood-Wall Wall Sheathing Potential Loss to Steel AD: The principle benefits of the Strong- Wall Shearwall are its consistency and strength this allows for more windows and doors in the house design because you use 30-70% less shearwall than typically required.
34 Insulated Concrete Form: < 1% of U.S. single family homes Source: Oke Woodsmith Building Systems, Canada
35 ICF Basement Insulating Concrete Form Assoc.
36 ICF Concrete House Insulating Concrete Form Assoc.
37 Homebuilding Methods: Wall Structure Type Basis 1,000 units Stick Built 1,146-78% 1,365-70% 1,455-70% Panelized 115-8% % % Masonry % 10% % % Modular 45-3% 43-2% 43-2% Steel Frame 10-1% 9-0.5% % SIPs 5-0.3% 9-0.5% % Other 8-0.5% % % Total 1, % 1, % 2, % Manufactured % 130-6% 147-7% Grand Total 1, % 2, % 2, % Source: Estimates by APA-The Engineered Wood Association. Based on wall construction.
38 Evolving Construction Techniques Favor wood or other building materials? Outlook for wood building materials in new code environment: Shear wall strength/racking strength is key for good performance in hurricanes Full-wood sheathing is great there are alternatives: Simpson s Strongwall-Shearwall product Reinforced concrete Steel ICF insulated concrete form
39 Evolving Construction Techniques Building methods are evolving with code changes: In response to: Skilled labor shortages, site waste, competitive pressures (e.g., volatile building material prices) Builders are consolidating & using more EWPs, more factory built components, installed sales, & Substituting non-wood materials steel & engineered concrete products
40 Implications for the Wood Products Industry Residential construction should remain strong for at least another decade Drivers: Positive demographics, demand for 2 nd homes, & aging housing stock Work with your customers builders & remodelers: Develop products & systems that help them solve problems Large, national builders lead by adopting new products/systems (e.g., EWPs)
41 Implications for the Wood Products Industry Building codes evolution will continue & force builders to build more durable homes utilizing the best materials Work with code officials to ensure wood materials are consistent with code changes Develop new products/systems that add value for the end-user Can we stay ahead of the competition steel, concrete, etc.?
43 U.S. Single Floor Space SF / House Total Single Family Floor (sq ft) (E) SQ FT per house Total Residential SQ FT Source: U.S. Census Bureau & APA forecast.
44 Consolidation in U.S. Homebuilding Top 100 use an estimated 20% of all structural panels & about 30% % of all EWP Larger companies have $$$; streamlining delivery; building faster; increasing quality; & willing to try new technology 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% Top 10 Top 100 * Homes closed by largest for-sale builders Source: Builder Magazine by Hanley Wood & Builder 100 annual survey
45 Building material manufacturers & suppliers consolidation continues Big builders adopt new construction techniques (e.g., panelized walls) & new building materials faster than most smaller builders Increasing efforts to build homes to withstand hurricanes & earthquakes 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10%
46 Wood Products Life Cycle Many of our wood building materials are either mature or in decline Susceptible to competition industry needs to be innovative
47 Efficiency, Cost, Quality, & Design Issues Drive demand for new EWP products
48 Engineered wood plants have doubled in past 15 yrs Growth: Environmental pressure Consistent quality Fewer callbacks More consistent price Less jobsite waste Glulam LVL I-Joist PSL LSL/OSL Source: APA, March 2006
49 Conclusion There is opportunity for wood products & the industry Will we meet it?
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