# POWER AWARE QOS MULTIPATH ROUTING PROTOCOL FOR DISASTER RECOVERY NETWORKS

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3 protocols. But our proposed protocol differs from other multipath routing protocols because the protocol has been developed for hybrid nodes with heterogeneous link characteristics also consider QoS metrics for energy consumption. 3. MATHEMATICAL MODEL In this work we model energy for heterogeneous network, It is a collection of wired, wireless and mobile networks. The convergence of this network is the success of the next generation networking. It has some challenge like Maximize network resources utilization, and Minimize operational costs, delay and bandwidth on all the types of wired-wireless-mobile networks Mix the QoS associated with Fixed, Mobile and Core networks. Consider a heterogeneous network that is represented by a directed graph G = (V,E). Where V is the set of wired and wireless nodes and E is the set of links between different networks. Each link(i,j) E is associated with a primary cost parameter c(i,j) and energy e ij is additive QoS parameter for multiple path P = 1,2,..p. The problem is to find a shortest path from source to destination and minimize energy. (i) A Heterogeneous network is a collection of wired, wireless and mobile networks. It is denoted as N = (N1,N2,N3 Nn). N is the heterogenous network. N1,N2. Nn may be wired, wireless and mobile node. (ii) Multiple path is denoted as P. P = P1,P2..Pn n is a number of paths. Message passed over mulitiple paths. Load is shared between various links between source to destination (iii) The set Ri=R1,R2,R3..Rn represents the distribution of the load across the set of the resources. Total traffic sent from the source is R = Ri 3.1 Power Aware Model This model is discussed below. The Energy is calculated by using this formula. Energy = Power * Time (1) The energy consumption is measured by the transmitting power or receiving power multiply the transmitted time. Pt= 8 Packet size Bandwidth 2 The Transmitting Energy E tx is defined as E tx = P tx * P t _ (3) The Receiving Energy E rx is defined as 49

4 E rx = P rx * P t (4) Energy consumption of a node after time t is calculated using the following equation. E con (t) = N t * C 1 + N r * C 2 (5) Where E con (t), energy consumed by a node after time t. N t, no. of packets transmitted by the node after time t. N r, no. of packets received by the node after time t. C 1 and C 2 are constant factors having a value between 0 and 1. Let E be the initial energy of a node and the residual energy E Res of a node at time t, can be calculated by using the formula E Res = E E con (t) (6) Total energy consumption of all Nodes is measured as the summation of all node s residual energy plus the product of initial energy and number of nodes. TE con = N * Initial Energy - E Res (7) Here N is denotes as the number of nodes used in the network. Table 1. Notation for the Mathematical Model Symbol P t E tx E rx P tx P rx E Int E Res E Con TE Con Description Transmitted Time Transmitted Energy Received Energy Transmitted Power Received Power Initial Energy Residual Energy Consumed Energy Total Consumed Energy 4. PROTOCOLS FOR HETEROGENEOUS NETWORK 4.1. Hierarchical Addressing The network hierarchy is arrangement of the nodes in the network. OSPF or IS-IS are examples of hierarchic protocols, these are link-state protocols in connection oriented network. This mechanism is helpful for scalability and reduce the amount of traffic inside network. The flat networks use only two levels of address which is not support scalability. 50

8 5. WIRED CUM WIRELESS SIMULATION 5.1. Simulation Environment Wired-cum-wireless allows simulation using both wired, wireless nodes and mobile IP integrated into the wireless model. Base station Node is created which plays the role of a gateway for the wired and wireless domains, it is responsible for delivering packets into and out of the wireless domain Table 3. SIMULATION PARAMETERS Simulator Routing Protocols Simulation Time(Sec) Simulation Area Number of Wired Nodes Number of Mobile Nodes Transmission Range(m) Mobility Model Maximum Speed Pause Time Connection Rate Data Payload Traffic Type NS2 AODV,AOMDV,PAQMR * ,20 10,20,30,40,50,60, m Random way point 10 m/sec 10,20,30,40,50,60,70 5 packets /sec 512 CBR 5.2. Traffic Model Random traffic connection of Continuous Bit Rate (CBR) can be setup between mobilenodes using a traffic scenario generator script. The source to destination pairs are spread randomly over the mobile and fixed network. The number of clusters and the packet sending rate in each cluster is varied by change the traffic load and pause time Mobility Model The mobility model for the simulation is random waypoint model in a rectangular field. The field configurations used is 800m * 800m field with 10 to 70 nodes. Each packet starts its transmission from random location to random destination with randomly chosen speed. After the destination is reached it select another random destination after a pause. The pause time affects the relative speed of the mobile. 54

9 6. RESULT ANALYSIS The Network Simulator 2 (NS-2.34) tool is used to measure the energy efficiency and routing efficiency of AODV, AOMDV and PAQMR protocols using End to End delay, Packet delivery ratio and energy consumption against number of nodes and pause time Packet Deliver Fraction Packet Delivery Fraction is defined as the ratio between total number of packets delivered with number of packets sent. The effect of pause time and number of nodes on packet delivery ratio is evaluated. Packet Delivery Fraction PDF Vs Pause Time Pause Time AODV AOMDV PAQMR Packet Delivery Fraction PDF Vs No. of Nodes Number of Nodes AODV AOMDV PAQMR Figure 2. PDF Vs Pause Time Figure 3. PDF Vs No. of Nodes Figure 2 and 3 illustrate the packet delivery fraction against pause time and number of nodes. It shows that packet delivery ratio of PAQMR protocol is higher than other remaining two protocols Energy Consumption The energy consumption of new protocol is lesser than AODV and AOMDV routing protocol. The total energy consumption is computed from initial energy and residual energy of all nodes connected in the network. Energy Consumed(J) No. of Nodes Vs Energy Consumed Number of Nodes AODV AOMDV PAQMR Figure 4. Energy Consumed VS No. of Nodes 55

10 In figure 4, 10 to 50 nodes network considered with a pause time of 100 seconds. It can be seen from the figure that in PAQMR, the consumed energy is reduced by including energy constraint during the path selection End to End Delay The average end to end delay includes the queue delay and the propagation delay from the source to the destination. End to End Delay (ms) End to End Delay Vs Pause time Pause Time AODV AOMDV PAQMR End to End Delay (ms) End to End Delay Vs No. of Nodes Number of Nodes AODV AOMD V Figure 5. End to End Delay Vs Pause Time Figure 6.End to End Delay Vs No of Nodes The multipath routing could effectively reduce the queue delay because the traffic is distributed among different routes and energy constraint is implemented in every node to select the optimal path. By varying the nodes from 10, 20 to 50, the average end to end delay measured against pause time and number of nodes in figure 5 and 6. It seems that the delay of new protocol is reduced when comparing AODV and AOMDV protocols. 7. CONCLUSION In this paper, we propose a new hybrid routing protocol for disaster recovery management. The Power Aware QoS Multipath Routing protocol(paqmr) considers energy stability for route reconstruction to avoid packet loss. The goal of our scheme aims to find an optimal path in terms of bandwidth and energy-constrained applications. Performance evaluation has been done using NS2 simulator tool and comparison with AODV, AOMDV shows that our protocol can effectively reduce end to end delay and energy consumption while maintaining a good packet delivery ratio. The enhanced protocol has been developed for hybrid network with heterogeneous characteristics. REFERENCES [1] E. M. Royer and C. K. Toh, (1999) A Review of Current Routing Protocols for Ad Hoc Mobile Wireless Networks, IEEE Personal Communications, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp [2] T.Bheemarjuna Reddy, I.Karthigeyan, B.S.Manoj and C.Siva Ram Murthy, (2006) Quality of service provisioning in ad hoc wireless networks: a survey of issues and solutions, Elsevier B. V., Vol.4,No.3. 56

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