Eye-tracking. Benjamin Noël

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1 Eye-tracking Benjamin Noël

2 Basics Majority of all perceived stimuli through the eyes Only 10% through ears, skin, nose Eye-tracking measuring movements of the eyes Record eye movements to subsequently analyze different research questions 2

3 The structure of the eye Pupil: aperture in the iris that allows light to enter appears black Iris colored part of the eye, controls the pupil size sclera white part of the eye 3

4 Types of eye movements Fixations Focus on a certain location Minimal fixation duration: 100ms Most often less than 200oms Most analyses concern number of fixation and fixation duration 4

5 Types of eye movements Saccades Fast, sudden movements between fixations Very short (10-80ms) No processing of any information 5

6 Types of eye movements Others Drift: slow deviation from location of fixations Microsaccades: Correction for drifts Trembling Changes in pupil dilation 6

7 How does eye tracking work? Different techniques Most common: Corneal Reflection technique 7

8 Corneal Reflection technique relationship between two eye features: the black pupil mirror reflection from the front surface of the cornea allows to compute gaze within a scene 8

9 Corneal Reflection technique a set of 3 near infra-red lights is projected on the eye relative position of mirror reflection to the pupil is important eye rotation in its socket pupil moves relative to the reflection of lights pointing direction of the eye teaching the system how it relates to the image of a second camera 9

10 Eye-tracking devices different devices: mobile systems external systems 10

11 Eye-tracking devices different devices: mobile systems external systems 11

12 Mobile devices head-mounted eye-tracker attached to the head (usually glasses) eye camera and environment camera advantage: mobility disadvantage: statistical analysis used to be more extensive 12

13 Mobile devices recording of eye and visual field data saved on memory card very important: calibration of the system to ensure data quality! 13

14 Asl mobile eye lightweight Wifi mode computes gaze coordinates and pupil diameter durable (to a certain extent) 14

15 gaze = attention 15

16 Analysis/Output Landscape of attention: Distribution of attention across areas 16

17 Analysis/Output Scanpath analysis: fixations and saccades sequence of all events circles = fixations lines = saccades bigger circles = longer fixations 17

18 Analysis/Output Object-related analysis: predefined areas of interest (AOI) relative and total number of fixations fixation durations 18

19 Analysis/Output Others: heat map 19

20 Advantages: allows to analyze gaze behavior quite reliable field studies 20

21 Disadvantages: why is gaze directed at a certain stimulus gaze not the same as perception no peripheral vision eye tracker affects behavior 21

22 Thank you very much for your attention! contact: contact 22

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