Dual Enrollment: Lessons Learned on School Level Implementation

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1 DualEnrollment:LessonsLearnedonSchool Level Implementation LaurenCassidy KaeliKeating VikiYoung SRIInternational

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3 ThispaperwaspreparedfortheU.S.DepartmentofEducation(ED),OfficeofElementary andsecondaryeducation,smallerlearningcommunitiesprogramundercontract NumberED 07 CO 0106withEDJAssociates,Inc.inHerndon,VA.Theviewsexpressedin thispublicationdonotnecessarilyrepresentthepositionsorpoliciesofed,nordo referencestotradenames,commercialproducts,services,ororganizationsimply endorsementbytheu.s.government.

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5 TABLEOFCONTENTS Introduction... 1 DefiningDualEnrollment... 1 BenefitsofDualEnrollment... 2 PrevalenceofDualEnrollment... 4 School LevelImplementation... 5 EstablishingRelationshipswithCollegePartners... 5 StructuringDualEnrollmentCourses... 7 FacultyCollaboration... 9 Articulation FundingDualEnrollment Tuition Textbooks Transportation StudentAttendance StudentAdmissions,Access,andSupports FulfillingEquityGoals StudentSupports Conclusion References... 23

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7 Introduction Acceleratedlearningopportunitiesarebecomingincreasinglycommonstrategiesto promotehighschoolgraduationandencouragecollegeenrollment.through mechanismssuchasdualenrollment,advancedplacement(ap),andinternational Baccalaureate(IB)courses,studentsgetaheadstartonearningcollegecreditwhilestill inhighschool.thegoalsforenrollingstudentsinthesecoursesaretoprovidethem withmorerigorouscurriculaandpreparethemforcollegecourseworkand expectations.inaddition,acceleratedlearninggivesthemthemotivation,financial incentive,andself confidencetocontinueontocollege.earningcollegecreditsearly canlessenthetimeandcosttoobtainingacollegedegree. DualEnrollment,inparticular,isastrategythatmoreandmoredistrictsandschoolsare usingtoadvancethehighschoolcurriculumandpromotecollegeforawiderangeof students.however,dualenrollmentprogramscanbequitechallengingtoimplement forpractitioners,includinghighschoolordistrictprogramdirectors,guidance counselors,andcollegestaffandfaculty.highschool collegepartnerships,articulation, funding,andstudentaccessandsupportsareallcriticalareastoaddressinorderto successfullyimplementtheseprograms.thispaperisbasedonasynthesisoffindings frompriorresearch.afterfirstreviewingthestatusofdualenrollmentacrossthe Nation,weidentifylessonslearnedandpotentialsolutionstoovercomingcommon barriersinimplementingdualenrollmentprograms. DefiningDualEnrollment Despitecommongoals,DualEnrollmentpresentssomestrikingdifferencesfromAPand IB.APandIBeachhaveanationalcurriculum.Thecollege levelcoursesareofferedby thehighschool,wherestudentstakethemwiththeirpeers.studentsreceivecollege creditbypassinganend of courseexam. Incontrast,DualEnrollmentprogramsrequireapartnershipbetweenaschoolordistrict andalocalinstitutionofhighereducation.coursesofferedcanbeacademicor career/technical,andstudentsearncollegecreditbypassingthecourse.studentsmay ormaynotsimultaneouslyearnhighschoolcredit(i.e.,dualcredit),buttheircollege performanceisdocumentedonacollegetranscript.althoughdualenrollmentbeganas anoptionforacademicallyadvancedstudents,similartoapandib,itisnowalsoseenas amechanismtopromotecollegeaccessforawiderrangeofstudents.someprograms focusspecificallyonstudentstraditionallyunderservedincollege. DualEnrollmentprogramsfallintothreecategories: singleton, comprehensive, and enhancedcomprehensive. Singletonofferingsarestudent directedandinvolvean individualenrollinginregularcollegeclasses(astudentcantakeasfewasonedual Page 1

8 Enrollmentcourseduringhisorherhighschoolcareerunderthisscenario).Typically, thisoptionisforstudentswhohavefulfilledthemajorityoftheirhighschool requirementsandareinterestedinearningcollegecreditwhileinhighschool. Comprehensiveandenhancedcomprehensiveprogramsprovidestudentswithintensive exposuretocollegedemands,anddualenrollmentcoursesconstituteasignificant portionoftheirhighschoolexperience,especiallyduringthelastyearortwoofhigh school.anexampleofthistypeofprogramisacareerortechprepacademy.enhanced comprehensiveprogramsprovideadditionalacademicsupportsandcounselingto facilitatethesecondary postsecondarytransition(baileyandkarp,2003).forexample, earlycollegehighschools(echss)blendhighschoolandcollegeinarigorousyet supportiveprogram,enablingstudentstoearnupto60collegecreditsoranassociate s degreebythetimetheygraduatefromhighschool. BenefitsofDualEnrollment Increasinghighschoolgraduationandcollegeenrollmentandretentionratesarean ongoingchallengeintheunitedstates.accordingtotheconditionofeducation2010, 1 74percentofstudentswhostartedninthgradein graduatedfromhigh schoolin2008,thelastyeartheaveragefreshmengraduationdatawereavailable(aud etal.,2010).graduationrateswerelowerthanthenationalaverageforlatinos(64 percent),africanamericans(62percent),andnativeamericans(64percent)(audetal., 2010).Highschoolcompletionisonlythefirststepinthebattle,becausemanyhigh schoolgraduatesentercollegeill prepared.morethantwo thirdsofhighschool graduatesin2008enrolledinpostsecondaryeducationthefollowingfall(audetal., 2010),andalthoughitisimpossibletopinpoint,anestimated60percentofstudentsin 2 yearinstitutionsand30percentofthosein4 yearinstitutionsofhighereducation neededremediationcourses(kirst,2007).furthermore,onlyabouthalfofallentering studentsgraduatewithin6years(marksanddiaz,2009),indicatingthatstudentsmay needmorepreparationtobeabletograduatefromcollegeinatimelymanner. Inthe surveysofhighschoolgraduates,collegeinstructors,andemployers commissionedbyachieve,inc.,39percentofcollegestudentsreportedhavingagapin theskillsandabilitiesexpectedofthemincollege,andcollegeinstructorsestimated that42percentoftheirstudentswerenotadequatelyprepared.yet,nearlyaquarterof highschoolgraduatesfelttheywerenotchallengedinhighschooland82percentof collegestudentssaidtheywouldhaveworkedharderiftheirhighschoolshadhigher academicexpectationsanddemandsofthem.thevastmajority(94percent)ofcollege studentsbelievedthatofferingchallengingcoursessuchashonors,ap,oribwouldhave improvedtheirpostsecondarypreparation(achieve,inc.,2005).theseresultssuggest lostopportunitiestobetterpreparesecondarystudentsforcollege. 1 See for more information about the average freshmen graduation rate. Page 2

9 Page 3 DualEnrollmentisonepotentialsolutionforsuch matters.theseprogramscanprovidestudentswith moreadvanced,rigorouscourseworkinorderto improvehighschooleducationandpreparestudents fortheacademicandbehavioralexpectationsof college.also,theprogramscanpromotehighschool studentmotivationandengagementintheirlearning throughmoreinterestingclasses,theopportunitytoattendthemonacollegecampus (inmanycases),andtheexperienceofhigherexpectationsandsuccess(karpandjeong, 2008;LernerandBrand,2006).Inaddition,studentswhoareabletotakeclassesona collegecampuslearnaboutandbecomeaccustomedtothecollegeenvironment,as theymasterlogisticalissuessuchaslocatingtheregistrar sofficeandthebookstore. Researchhasshownthatthisexperiencehelpsstudentsfeelmorecomfortableandless intimidatedregardlessofwhichcollegetheyattendafterhighschool(air/sri,2009). AstudyonDualEnrollmentparticipationinFloridaandNewYorkCityrevealeda positiverelationshipbetweendualenrollmentparticipationandhighschoolgraduation andcollegeenrollment.studentswhotookdualenrollmentweremorelikelytoearna highschooldiploma,toenrollincollegeingeneralandata4 yearinstitutionin particular,andtoenrollincollegefulltimethanpeerswhodidnotparticipateindual Enrollment(Karpetal.,2007). DualEnrollmentbenefitshighschoolstudentsbeyondthosewhoaremoreacademically advancedandwhotraditionallytakeadvantageofsuchcourses.dualenrollmentis believedtohelplow achievingstudentsmeethighacademicstandards.forexample, thebillandmelindagatesfoundation searlycollegehighschoolinitiative(echsi) specificallytargetsstudentswhoaretraditionallyunderservedincollegeandoften begintheechsacademicallybelowgradelevel.notonlydothevastmajorityofechs studentsearnatleast30collegecreditsbythetimetheygraduatehighschool,they werefoundtohaveoutperformedtheirpeersinmatchedcomparisondistrictsonstate assessmentsinmathandenglish(air/sri,2009). DualEnrollmentisalsobeingofferedaspartofcareerandtechnicaleducationprograms asawaytoincreasetheirrigor,topreparestudentsforcollegeaswellastheworkforce, toenablehighschoolstooffercareerandtechnicaleducationprogramswithout purchasingexpensiveequipment(karpetal.,2007),andmoregenerallytobuildcollege awarenessinstudentswhomaynottypicallyconsiderenrollingincollege. StudentcollegeperformancehasbeenpositivelyaffectedbyDualEnrollmentaswell. Severalstudiesconcludedthathighschoolstudentswhotakecollegecourses subsequentlyperformbetterincollegethanthosewithnohistoryofdualenrollment course taking(spurlingandgabriner,2002;richardson,1999;windhamandperkins, 2001). DualEnrollmentcanraise academicrigorandstudent motivation.studentsalsogain earlyexposuretocollege expectationsand college knowledge.

10 Page 4 DualEnrollmentalsohasbeenshowntomediatetheneedfordevelopmentaleducation classes(adelman,2004),whichcanfacilitatestudents completionofadegreeand potentiallytheirearningahigherdegree.forexample,theabilityofstudentsto completeintermediatecoursesincommunitycollege,suchascollege levelmathand writingcourses,increasesthechancesthatstudentswilltransfertoa4 yeardegree program(roksaandcalcagno,2008). CollegestudentswhohadparticipatedinDual Enrollmentashigh schoolershadhigher persistenceandretention,gradepointaverage (GPA),andcreditaccumulationthanstudents whodidnotparticipate(karpetal.,2007).in particular,dualenrollmentstudentsearned 15.1morecollegecreditsthantheirnon DualEnrollmentpeers3yearsafterhighschool graduation(karpetal.,2007). ResearchalsohasshownthatDualEnrollmentdecreasesthetimetocompletionofa collegedegree.specifically,anationalstudyfoundthatstudentswhoearnedcollege creditsindualenrollmentandsimilarprogramscompletedtheirdegreein4.25years comparedto4.65yearsforstudentswithnopreviouscredit(adelman,2004).similarly, anotherstudyfoundthatstudentssave1.2semestersduringtheirbaccalaureate programbecauseoftheirparticipationindualenrollment(marshallandandrews,as citedinsmithetal.,2007).finally,compressingthetimetoadegreeresultsin significantcostsavings,withonestudyestimatingsavingsof$5,000to$24,000foreach fullyearofdualenrollmentparticipation(marshallandandrews,ascitedinsmithetal., 2007). PrevalenceofDualEnrollment GiventheseearlyfindingsaboutthebenefitsofDualEnrollment,itisnotsurprisingthat itisgrowinginprevalenceacrossthecountry.allstatesallowdualenrollment,with46 havingatleastonestatewidedualenrollmentprogramestablishedbystatepolicies;the otherfourstatesleaveprogramstothediscretionoflocaldistrictandcollegepolicies (ECS,2008c).Althoughhavingtheseprogramsinplacedoesnotnecessarilymeanthat highschoolsandinstitutionsofhighereducationmustparticipate,manyhighschools acrossthecountryareofferingstudentsdualenrollment opportunities. Accordingtothemostrecentnationaldata,collectedin ,71percentofpublichighschoolsoffered coursesfordualcredit.amongtheseschools,92percent reportedofferingcourseswithanacademicfocusfordualcredit,and51percent StudentswhoparticipatedinDual Enrollmenthadhigherhighschool persistenceandretentionand shortenedtheiryearsinattaininga bachelor sdegree. AllstatesallowDual Enrollment;46stateshave atleastonestatewidedual Enrollmentprogram.

11 reportedofferingdualcreditcourseswithacareerfocus.however,lessthan5percent ofallhighschoolstudentsin participatedinDualEnrollment(Waitsetal., 2005). Sincethattime,manystateshaveinvestedinprogramsthatexpandDualEnrollment opportunities.forexample,in2008,theohiogovernorcreateda Seniorsto Sophomores pathway,allowingohiohighschoolstudentstheopportunitytotake collegecoursesduringtheirsenioryearofhighschool,earningtheirhighschool diplomasand1yearofcollegecreditsimultaneously. Texasalsohaspromotedtheuseofdualcreditcoursestoadvancethehighschool curriculum.participationindualenrollmenthasincreasedmorethansevenfoldoverthe lastdecade,from11,921studentsinthefallof1999to91,303inthefallof2009(texas HigherEducationCoordinatingBoard,2010).Participationofminoritystudents,in particular,hasrisen,constituting52percentofallparticipantsin2009comparedto29 percentin1999(thevenot,2010).someofthisincreaseisdueinpartto2006legislation thatmandatedthatalltexashighschoolsprovidestudentswiththeopportunitytoearn atleast12collegecredits(texaseducationcodesec ). School LevelI mplementation Acrossvariouscontexts,schoolsattemptingtoincreaseDualEnrollmentfacecommon implementationchallenges.highschool collegepartnershipsworkwithinavarietyof stateandlocalpolicycontextsthatnecessarilyimpacthowtheyimplementdual Enrollmentprograms.Statepoliciesvaryinspecifyingcomponentsofhighschoolcollegepartnerships,thearticulationofcollegecreditsearned,fundingrequirements, andstudentpopulationsandattendantsupports.california,forexample,doesnot providestrictguidelinesfordualenrollmentandhasa permissiveedcode. Local practitionersmustfigureoutwaystoaddresstheseareas,whetherthepoliciesare supportiveorprohibitive. Thissectionincludeslessonslearnedbypartnershipsastheynavigatedtheirlocaland statecontextstoimplementdualenrollmentprogramsandsuggestionsfor implementingeffectivedualenrollmentprograms.theseexamplesstemfromprior researchthatsriconductedontheechsi,texashighschoolreforminitiatives,andstate DualEnrollmentpolicies,aswellasotherresearchfromthefield. EstablishingRela tionshipswithc ollegepartners Bydefinition,DualEnrollmentrequiresapartnershipbetweenaschoolordistrictanda college.insomestates,policymakersestablishexplicitexpectationsfordistrict college relationships.forexample,inonestate,communitycollegesaremandatedtoenterinto agreementswiththeirlocaldistrictstooffercollegecourses.thestateexaminesthe Page 5

12 agreementsforinconsistencieswithstatutesaswellasbestpractices.yetinmany states,localschools,districts,andcollegeshaveconsiderableflexibilityintheprovisions oftherelationship(air/sri.2009).notsurprisingly,thehistoryandnatureofthe relationshipcanimpactthepartners engagementandcommitmenttoofferingdual Enrollmentcourses. SuccessandsustainabilityofDual Enrollmentprogramsrestsonthe strengthofthelocaldistrict college partnership. collegesanddistrictssharefourcharacteristics: Thelevelofsuccessinestablishingandsustaining DualEnrollmentprograms fromsingletonto enhancedcomprehensive restslargelyonthe qualityofthedistrict collegepartnership.findings ofthenationalevaluationoftheechsisuggest thatthemosteffectivepartnershipsbetween acommonunderstandingoftheprograms purposesorgoals; flexibilityamongpartners,particularlyintermsofpoliciesandprocedures; closeproximitybetweenthecollegeanddistrict;and anactiveandengagedcollegeliaison(air/sri,2009). Toformalizethepartnership,schoolsordistrictsandcollegessignamemorandumof understanding(mou).themououtlineseachpartner sresponsibilitiesandtypically coversissuesrelatedtothedevelopment,implementation,andsustainabilityofthe DualEnrollmentprogram.SomeMOUsarerevisedonanannualbasis,whileothers extendforseveralyears.theprocessofdevelopingthemou,especiallythefirsttime, providestheopportunityforthepartnerstoagreeupontheintendedgoalsofthe programandtoengagefacultyonbothsidesintheprocess.themou,alegallybinding document,specifieshowfinancialresponsibilitieswillbesharedacrosstheinstitutions, whatcourseswillbeoffered,whereandhowtheywillbeoffered,whowillteachthe courses,ifandhowhighschoolandcollegefacultywillcollaborate,andstudentaccess tocollegefacilities. DependingonthedegreetowhichtheDualEnrollmentprogramcoversadistrict,its directioncanbeunderthepurviewofadistrictcoordinatororaschoolprincipal(if individualhighschoolsnegotiatetheirownpartnershipswithlocalcolleges).intheirrole asdirectoroftheprogram,theseindividualsareoftenresponsibleforworkingwiththe collegepartners,handlingfinancialissues,collectingandanalyzingstudentdata,and ensuringstudentsareabletoenrollincollegecoursesperthemou.district coordinatorsalsomakesuredualenrollmentopportunitiesareavailabletoallstudents inthedistrict. Onthecollegeside,aliaisonisoftencentraltoestablishingjointdecisionmakingbythe twoinstitutions.theliaisoncanbeacollegevicepresident,dean,departmenthead,or staffmemberwhosesoleresponsibilityisthedailymanagementofdualenrollment Page 6

13 programs. 2 Theliaisonhelpsinschedulingstudents collegeclasses,easesstudents transitiontothecollegecampusbyprovidingsupportwhiletheyarethere,andserves astheconduitbetweenthehighschoolandthecollegefaculty.selectingtheright persontofillthisroleisconsequentialbecauseheorshebringsstabilitytothe partnershipifeitherdistrictorcollegeleadersturnover.thispersonalsoplaysan importantroleinsolicitingbuy infromcollegefaculty.althoughinmanycasesthe liaisonisahigh levelstaffmember,itisalsoimportantforthepartnershiptohavethe supportofthecollegepresidentorprovost.such Ahigh level,designatedcollege liaisoniscentraltoestablishingjoint decisionmakingbetweenthehigh schoolandcollegeandprovides unityandstability. partnership(air/sri,2009). StructuringDualEnrollmentCourses buy inhelpscommunicatethe importanceofdualenrollmenttotherestofthe collegefacultyandstaff(air/sri,2009).the initialinvolvementofahigh levelcollegeleader, collegeliaison,andschoolordistrictcoordinator isimportantforthesuccessandongoing implementationandsustainabilityofthe ManyeducatorswhohavestartedDualEnrollmentprogramsbelievestudentsbenefit fromthe powerofplace associatedwithbeingonacollegecampus.studentslearn howtonavigateacollegecampus,interactwithcollegeprofessorsandstudents,and feelmorelikecollegestudents(air/sri,2009).however,layingthefoundationforthat kindofprogramtakeseffortandcanbeachallengingprocess.forexample,highschool teachersmayfeelthreatenedbydualenrollmentclasses,fearingthattheirpositions maynotbeneededasmorecoursesaretaughtatthecollege.someteachershave concernsthatcollegeinstructorsdonotknowthecontentstandardshighschool studentsneedtomeetforstateassessmentsorgraduationtests. Similarly,itcanoftenbedifficulttosolicitcollegefacultybuy infordualenrollment, especiallyat4 yearcolleges.sometimesfacultymemberssimplydonotwanttoteach highschoolstudents.facultymembersexpressconcernsabouttheabilityofhighschool studentstohandlecollegecoursework,fearingthattheywillhavetodecreasetherigor ofthecoursetoaccommodatethemandthatthestudents behaviorwilldisruptthe classorcampus.yet,often,duallyenrolledstudents academicperformanceinclass impressescollegefaculty.asacollegerepresentativenoted, Progressivelythey [faculty]haveembracedit.[eventhe]morestrenuoustheclass,likechemistry, microbiology...instructorsarefindingthatstudentsareverywellprepared. 2 The college liaison may be an employee of the district or the institution of higher education; liaisons are most frequently college staff members. Page 7

14 OrientingcollegefacultymembersearlyabouttheintenttoeitherofferDualEnrollment coursesorbeginadualenrollmentprogramoncampuscanincreasebuy in.not Orientingcollegefacultyearlyinthe processmayimprovebuy inand assuageconcernsthathighschool studentscannotmeetcollegedemands. surprisingly,iffacultyarenotofferedthe opportunitytoparticipateinplanningthe program,orevenworse,arenotinformedof theprogrambeforeitbegins,theirwillingness toparticipateisminimal(air/sri,2009). Collegescanutilizeavarietyofstrategiesto increasefacultycommitmenttotheprogram.onestrategyistoprovideincentivesfor teachingdualenrollmentcourses.forexample,atonecollege,facultymembersearned pointsaspartoftheirperformanceevaluations.anotherstrategyistoaskanamenable professortoteachacoursethatwillincludeduallyenrolledstudents.acollege administratorsharedthat youdefinitelywantsomeonewhocanappreciatethe youngerstudents. Furthermore,sharingpositiveoutcomedataofpreviousDual Enrollmentstudentswithfacultymembersmayhelpalleviatetheirconcerns. DualEnrollmentprogramscanbeorganizedinmanyways.Themostcommonstrategy istointegratehighschoolstudentsintotraditionalcollegecoursesonthecollege OfferingDualEnrollmentclasses toacohortofhighschool studentscanhelpthemacclimate tocollegeexpectations,aswellas concentrateparticipationamong facultyinterestedinteaching DualEnrollmentstudents. campustaughtbyacollegeprofessor.oftenthe collegefacultyarenotawarethathighschool studentsareintheirclasses.acollege representativesharedthatthe majorityoffaculty donotknowthattheyaredualenrolledstudents, theyjusttakeclasswithregularstudents.welike thisphilosophyalittlebitbetter.itgetsthemtothe campus,theyseealittlebitofcollegelife,and [they]seewhatcollegeprofessorsarelike. Insomecases,partnershipsmayofferthecoursestocohortsofhighschoolsstudents onthecollegecampus.thisstrategyprovidescost savings 3 andgraduallyexposes studentstocollegeclasses(i.e.,theymayhavecohortclassestostart,butthentake traditionalclasseslater).anotheroptionisforhighschoolinstructorstoserveasadjunct facultyfordualenrollmentcoursesofferedonthehighschoolcampustoacohortof highschoolstudents.manyhighschoolteachersalreadyhavethegraduatedegreesor necessarygraduatecourseworktoqualifyasadjunctfaculty,andinsomecasesthey mayalreadybecertifiedtoteachthecollegecourses.asanadjunctfacultymember, highschoolteachersreceiveoversightfromthecollegeandusethesamesyllabias coursesofferedatthecollege.thisstrategycanalleviatehighschoolteachers fearsand providestudentswithinstructionalsupportstrategiesthatarenotnormallyprovidedby 3 Some partnerships hire an adjunct professor to teach the cohort courses.thislimits the cost to the adjunct s salary for the courses rather than paying full-tuition for each student if they were integrated into regular college courses. Page 8

15 Page 9 collegefaculty(duffyetal.,2009),butmanycriticsfearthesecoursesarelessrigorous thanthosetaughtbycollegefaculty. Whenclassesaretaughtbyhighschoolinstructors,partnershipsmaywanttoconsider havingcollegeinstructorsworkwithandoverseethehighschoolteachers.thecollege facultycanhelphighschoolteachersaddresscourselogistics,suchaswhattextstouse andhowtonavigatecollegepoliciesandsystems.moreimportantly,accordingto Hughes(2010), theteachersmightwellneedinputaboutcollegestandardsand expectations.suchadialoguebetweeninstructorsfromthetwoeducationsectorsmay resultnotonlyinhigherqualitycollegecoursesfordualenrollmentstudentsbutalsoin thedevelopmentofamorecollege likeatmosphereandincreasedrigor. Less frequently,partnershipsfacilitatethisinteractionbyhavingacollegeandhighschool staffmemberteam teachacollegecourse.inoneexample,thecollegeprofessortaught thefirstsemesterofayearlongmathclasswhilethehighschoolteacherprovided supporttostudentsintheclass.bythesecondsemester,thehighschoolteachertaught theclasswithsupportfromthecollegeprofessor. FacultyCollaboration PartnersmayfindthatofferingDualEnrollmentcoursesincreasesthetypeand frequencyoffacultycollaboration,particularlyforcomprehensiveorenhanced comprehensiveprograms.collaborationisbestfosteredwhendualenrollmentcourses areofferedonthecollegecampus,whencollegeinstructorsteachcohortsofhigh schoolstudents(air/sri,2007,2008),orwhencollegecoursesareteam taught,asthe exampleaboveillustrates.facultycollaborationisoftenhinderedbyscheduling difficulties,particularlywhenthehigh schoolandcollegearelocatedindifferent areas,andteacherreluctancetolose instructionaltimetomeetings.to facilitatefacultycollaborationwithout pullingtoomanyhighschoolteachers awayfromclassatonetime,oneechs hadteachersmeetweeklywithcollege facultybutrotatedtheteachersthatmeteachweek.asaresult,eachteachermetwith hisorhercollegecounterpartsevery3weeks. Alongwithcollaborationoninstructionandpreparation,practitionerscanofferjoint professionaldevelopmentforbothhighschoolandcollegefacultytoencouragecrossinstitutionconversation.yet,evenintheechsi,wherefosteringcollaborationisa specificfocusoftheinitiative,suchworkisnotcommon(air/sri,2009).inprograms, particularlysingleton,wherecollegefacultymaynotevenknowtheyhavehighschool studentsintheirclasses,collaborationmaynotbearealisticexpectation.also,itismore difficultforadjunctsatthecollegetocollaboratebecausetheyarenotatthecollege veryfrequently. Dedicatedcollaborationtimeforcollegeand highschoolfacultyfacilitatessolutionsto schedulingandinstructionaltimeconflicts, offersjointprofessionaldevelopment,and improvescollegeinstructors knowledgeof highschoolstudents.

16 Page 10 Articulation DualEnrollmentasastrategytoencouragecollege goingthroughlesstimetodegree completionandlessexpenseonlyworksifthecreditsstudentsearnaretransferableto thecollegestheyattendafterhighschool. Articulationagreementsgoverntheequivalency andtransferabilityofcoursesandcredits.most stateshavearticulationagreementsbetweenall public(andsometimesprivate)2 yearand4 year institutionsofhighereducation,typicallyfor academiccourses.theseagreementsmayinclude acommoncorelistofcourses,acommoncoursenumberingsystem,andrulesonhow creditsaregivenandthetransferabilityofcollegecreditsbetweeninstitutions. Thecoursesoutlinedinarticulationagreementsfortransfertypicallyaregeneral educationrequirements,andareoftenchosenfordualenrollmentprograms. Theoreticallythen,DualEnrollmentcoursestakenatpublic2 yearor4 yearinstitutions shouldbeacceptedfortransferbyotherpublicinstitutions.asof2008,15statesclearly requiredallpublic2 and4 yearinstitutionstoacceptcollegecreditsearnedthrough DualEnrollmentprograms,15didnot,and2requireditforoneparticularstateprogram only(theremainingstateswereunclear;ecs,2008b). Somestates,likeFlorida,havelistsofdualcreditclassesthatallpostsecondary institutionsmustacceptaseitheranelectiveorgeneraleducationcourse.aflorida Staterepresentativenoted, Wearehopingtoget30coursesorso,[so]thatwecanuse itasanadvisingtoolforstudentstosay, Ifyoudon tknowwhereyouwanttogoto schoolandyouwanttoexperiencesomegeneraleducation[courses] here[is]the courselistyoushouldreallychoosefromfirst. Suchlistsgenerallydonotinclude careerandtechnicaleducationclasses. Forcareerandtechnicaleducationclasses,secondaryschoolstypicallyhaveTechPrep agreementswithspecificpostsecondaryinstitutions.unlikedualenrollment,inwhich studentsenrolldirectlyincollegecourses,techprepusesa 2+2 sequenceinwhich studentsfollowaparticularcareerandtechnicaleducationtrackinhighschoolfor2 yearsandthencontinueonthattrackinthepartneringcollegefor2years.intheend, theyearneitheranassociate sdegreeoracertificate.typically,toearnthecollege credits,studentsmustenrollinthespecificpartneringcollegeandstudentsearncollege creditretroactivelyforclassestakeninhighschooliftheyfollowaspecifictrackortake specificcoursesincollege.researchsuggeststhatfewstudentsearncollegecreditsin thismanner,however,leadingsometechprepprogramstoshifttodualenrollment (GolannandHughes,2008). Somestatesallowpartnershipstoenterintolocalarticulationagreements.Withlocal articulation,secondaryinstitutionsorlocaleducationagenciesandinstitutionsofhigher Articulationagreementsgovern theequivalencyandtransferability ofcoursesandcreditsbetween institutions.statesvaryinwhether stateorlocalpolicygoverns transferability.

17 Page 11 educationnegotiatewhichcourseswillbeofferedfordualcreditratherthanhavinga setlistoftransferablecourses.somestateswithstatewidearticulationagreementsstill providesomeflexibilityforlocalsitestocreateprogramsthroughlocalarticulation agreementsthatsupersedethestatewideagreementandallowpartnershipstotake intoaccountlocalcontextandeconomicneeds.anorthcarolinapolicymakerexplained thatthestate intentionallyleft[localadministrators]withsomelatitudesothatlocal entitiescandesignprogramsthatmeettheirlocalneeds,theneedsoftheirstudents, [and]theneedsofthebusinessindustryinthearea. Incaseswherethestatewide articulationagreementdoesnotofferawideenoughrangeofcoursestoelicitthe interestofallstudents,localschoolsanddistrictsmayconsiderinvestigatingtheir optionsforenteringintolocallydevelopedarticulationagreements. Incaseswherearticulationagreementsarelocallynegotiated(e.g.,intheabsenceof explicitstateguidelines),thelackofexplicitguidanceallowsformoreautonomyand flexibilityinthetypesofdualenrollmentclasses.however,locallynegotiated agreementsalsorequiremoretimeandattentionfromthepartneringinstitutionsand canpotentiallyleadtoredundanteffortsacross districtsandcolleges.toreducethatrisk,local practitionerscouldcommunicateandcollaborate withothernearbyschoolsanddistrictstoidentify anydualenrollmentcoursesthathavealready beennegotiatedwithlocalcolleges.districtscould facilitatethisprocessbynetworkingschoolswithinthedistrictorconsolidatingalldual Enrollmenteffortswithinthedistrict.Furthermore,thelocallynegotiatedcoursesfora particularpartnershipmaynotnecessarilybetransferabletoothercolleges.insuch cases,programdirectorsmaywanttofirstenrollstudentsinthegeneraleducation coursesthataremorelikelytobetransferable. Whetherastatewideorlocalagreementisinplace,practitionersfaceanumberof challengestoensurethatstudentscantakeavarietyofdualenrollmentcourses,that thecoursesdonotdetractfromtheirhighschoolgraduationplans,andthatthecredits cantransfertoavarietyofcolleges.inmanycases,regardlessofstate orlocal level agreement,aligningstandardsandhighschoolgraduationrequirementsischallenging. DualEnrollmentcoursesmaynotcoverthe standardsstudentsneedtomasterforhigh schoolachievementandgraduationtests,like end of courseexams.thisdisconnectisoften thecasewhendualenrollmentcoursesare taughtbycollegefaculty,whohavenoreasonto knowhighschoolstandards.partnershipsmay wanttoconsiderbuildinginregular collaborationbetweenhighschoolandcollege facultyaroundcoursecontent.practitionersalsomaywanttobemoredeliberatein directingstudentstotakespecificdualenrollmentcourses.forexample,tomakesure Wherearticulationislocally negotiated,districtscanachieve economiesofscalebynetworking allschoolsunderoneagreement. Highschool collegecollaboration focusedoncoursecontentmayhelp aligndualenrollmentcoursestohigh schoolstateexams.alternatively, schoolscandirectstudentstodual Enrollmentcoursesunaffectedby highstakesexams.

18 Page 12 studentsarepreparedforthestatetests,someschoolspreservecontroloverthe standardhighschoolcoursesandchanneldualenrolleesintocollegecoursesthatare notincludedintheirstate shigh stakeshighschoolassessmentsorintocoursesthatare atahighercontentlevelthanthatcoveredonthetests(adelmanetal.,2008). StatepoliciesmayalsolimitthenumberofDualEnrollmentcoursesstudentscantake. SomecriticscontendthatstudentsshouldnottaketoomanyDualEnrollmentcourses becauseitdetractsfromtheirhighschoolexperienceorbecausethequalityandrigorof DualEnrollmenthasnotbeenproperlydocumented(ECS,2008a).Settinganexplicit limitisrare,withonlyfourstatescappingthenumberofdualenrollmentcredits studentscanearn(ecs,2008a).however,highschoolgraduationrequirements, includingstateassessments,maylimitthenumberofdualenrollmentcoursesstudents canfitintotheirschedules.forexample,somestatesmandatethatstudentstakethe highschoolcoursesforwhichthereisanassociatedend of courseexam(i.e.,adual Enrollmentcoursecannotsupplantthem). Similarly,insomestatesDualEnrollmentcourses canonlybecountedaselectivesintheirhighschool plans;inotherwords,theycannotcounttoward thecoreacademiccoursesthatallhighschool studentsmusttakeinordertograduate.insuch states,somelocalprogramshavebeenableto acquirewaiverstoallowdualenrollmentclassestocounttowardgraduation requirementsortoletstudentstakeanend of courseexamwithouttakingthe associatedhighschoolcourse(theytakeadualenrollmentcourseinstead).for example,asdescribedbyastateadministrator,northcarolinaprovidesanexemption processthroughitsinnovativeeducationinitiativesact,underwhich ourboards[the StateBoardofEducationandtheStateBoardofCommunityColleges]couldwaive statutes,rules,andpoliciesthatinhibitedthegrowthanddevelopmentofinnovative programsbetweenpublicschoolsand2 and4 yearcolleges. Localpractitionersmaywanttochecktheiroptionsforexemptionsfromstatepolicies; exemptionsmaybeprecedentsettingsoifanotherschoolordistricthasreceiveda waiver,otherschoolsordistrictsshouldbeabletoreceivethatsamewaiverifthey applyforit.otherwise,studentsmayhavetotaketheirdualenrollmentcoursesafter regularschoolhoursinordertocompletealloftheirhighschoolrequirements.despite statepoliciesthatmayhindertheallowablenumberandtransferabilityofdual Enrollmentcourses,localpartnershipscanbecreativeintheirthinkingaboutDual Enrollmentofferings.Theymaybeabletonegotiateatthelocalandstatelevelsto provideprogramsthatservetheirstudents needs. FundingD ualenrollme nt KeytoofferingDualEnrollmenttoalleligiblestudentsarefundingmechanismsthat coverthemyriadassociatedcosts.dualenrollmentaddssignificantexpensestothe WherestatepoliciesdeemDual Enrollmentcoursesaselectives, waiversmayallowthemtocount towardhighschoolgraduation requirements.

19 traditionalhighschoolprogram,whichmustbepaidbythestate,thedistrict,the partneringinstitutionofhighereducation,orthestudents.thesecostsincludetuition, textbooks,andtransportation,aswellasotherexpensesincludingcollegeplacement testsandlabfees.programsalsomustconsidertheindirectcostsofhowstudents attendanceiscalculated.manyofthesefactorsaredeterminedbystatepolicy,but programsstillmustberesourcefulinhowtheypayforthevariouselementsofdual Enrollment. Tuition TuitionisthelargestexpenseassociatedwithDualEnrollmentcourses.Nationally,six statespaytuitionfordualenrollees(ecs,2008g). 4 Fifteenstatesrequiredistrictstopay tuitiononbehalfofdualenrollees,orthestateorcollegeswaivetuitionfordual enrollees.in22states,studentsarerequiredtopaytuition,andafewstatesmakeno provisionfortuition,leavingittolocalinstitutionstodeterminewhethertopassthis costontostudents(karpetal.,2005).atleasttwostates,georgiaandtennessee,have Dependingonstatepolicy,local collegesmaywaivetuitioncosts. extendedtheircollegescholarshipprograms(funded throughstatelotteryproceeds)todualenrollment studentswhomeetacademiceligibilitycriteria. 5 Ofteneveninstateswithfavorablefundingpolicies,strictguidelinesexistaboutthe typeofdualenrollmentcoursesthatwillbecovered.forexample,innorthcarolina, thestatedoesnotpayforcollegecoursesthatsupplanthighschoolacademiccourses requiredforgraduationorcoursesthatarealreadyofferedbyhighschoolsinthe district.toincreasetheopportunityforstudentstoparticipateindualenrollment programs,collegescandevelopnichecoursesnottypicallyofferedatthehighschool. Forexample,staffatonecollegedevelopedacareerandtechnicaleducationprogram basedonnationalsecurityissuesbecausenohighschoolinthepartneringdistrict offeredsuchcourses(adelmanetal.,2008). IntheabsenceofstatefundingforcostsrelatedtoDualEnrollment,collegesand districtscanestablishagreementsatthelocalleveltoofferdualenrollmentcourses. ResearchfromtheECHSIsuggeststhatcollegeleadersarewillingtowaivetuitionfor DualEnrollmentcoursesforseveralreasons,whichincludetheneedto: 4 Some states that do not fund Dual Enrollment will cover tuition costs for students attending middle college/early college programs and are not included in this count. 5 High school students who take college courses are currently ineligible for federal financial aid. Postsecondary institutions cannot admit as regular degree-seeking students individuals that have not received a high school diploma or its equivalent or who are below the age of compulsory education. Institutions that do so risk jeopardizing their Title IV eligibility. Title IV eligible institutions participate in the Federal Student Financial Aid program. Page 13

20 Page 14 createapipelineofstudentswhowilllikelychoosetoremainatthecollegeafter highschoolgraduationtocompletetheirdegree; garnerpositivepublicityaboutthecollege scommitmenttothecommunity; fulfillmanypubliccolleges missiontoenrollunderrepresentedstudents;and improvethepreparationofhighschoolstudentsfortherigorofcollege,andthus reducetheneedforremediationoncetheyareatthecollegefulltime(air/sri, 2009). AnotherstrategythatsignificantlylowersthecostoftuitionistoofferDualEnrollment coursesonhighschoolcampusestaughtbyhigh schoolteachers.ifclassesaretaughtduringthe schooldayandarepartoftheteachers workload,districtstypicallydonotincurany additionalsalarycostsfortheteachers. However,asmentionedpreviously,students maymissoutonthebenefitsassociatedwith beingonacollegecampus. Textbooks AlthoughcoveringtuitionisthemostsignificantchallengeinprovidingDualEnrollment courses,dualenrollmentprogramsalsohaveaparticularlydifficulttimefinancing collegetextbooks.statestypicallydonotfundtextbooks,withonly12statesexplicitly addressingtextbookcostissuesinpolicy.amongthose,threerequirestudentstocover thesecosts,sixrequireeitherthedistrictorcollegetopaysomeportion,andthree providesomestategrantfundstoprogramsorstudentstooffsettextbookcosts (WICHE,2006).Districtsthatchoosetoorare mandatedtocovertextbookcostsfordual enrolleesdosoatnotableandongoingexpense. Whereprogramsdonotcovertextbookcosts, requiringstudentstodosocoulddrastically reduceparticipation,particularlyamong traditionallyunderrepresentedstudentswho arelessaffluentthantypicalcollege boundstudents.asuperintendentofadistrictthat coverstextbooksthroughlocalfundssaid, Mypointisthatifyouaregoingtotake[an] underprivilegedchildandgivethatchildanopportunity,ithinkwhenyousaytothose kids, Noyou vegottopayforthisoryou vegottopaythat, theywon thaveresources todothatandtheywon ttakethecourses. SchoolsimplementingDualEnrollmentprogramshaveidentifiedseveralcostconservationstrategies.Someschoolsaskprofessorstoselectfromstate adopted textbooklists,becausethosebooksareoftencoveredbystatefunds.othersaskfaculty tousethesametextbookformultiplesemesterssothatbookscanbepassedalongto Havingqualifiedhighschoolteachers offercollegecoursesmaylowercosts butmayreducebenefitsassociated withstudents beingoncollege campuses. Usingstate adoptedtextbooksthat carrystatefunding,maintainingthe sametextsformultipleyears,or providingreferencecopiescanreduce costsforhighschoolsandfamilies.

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