An Executive Briefing on EDI

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1 A Drummond Report An Executive Briefing on EDI with Electronic Funds Transfer and Bar-code Rik Drummond

2 Copyright 1992 by Richard V. Drummond 2nd. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. No part of this book may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system without the prior written permission of the publisher. Neither Richard V. Drummond 2nd nor Drummond Company assume responsibility for any errors that may appear in this document. Drummond Company Suite 227, 6080 Hulen St. South Fort Worth, TX 76132

3 Contents Contents...i Acknowledgments...iv Purpose...v Introduction and Organization...1 Introduction...1 Book Organization - EDI, EFT and Bar-code Interaction...2 Definitions...4 EDI, EFT and Bar-code Interaction Example...6 Section 1 - EDI Implementation Considerations...7 EDI Drivers - Why Companies Implement EDI...7 EDI Benefits...8 Tactical Benefits...8 Increased Accuracy and Timeliness of Information...8 Increased Customer Service Ratings...8 Reduced Inventory Costs...8 Strategic Benefits...9 Automotive Industry...9 Grocery Industry...9 Retail Industry...9 General Benefits...9 Legal Issues...10 Introduction...10 The Statute of Frauds...10 Uniform Commercial Code (UCC)...10 Federal Government and EDI...11 IRS Revenue Procedure EDI Trading Partner Agreement...11 i

4 Auditing Issues...13 Introduction...13 Audit Trail...14 American Bar Association and Auditing...15 Security Issues...16 Introduction...16 Trusted Computer Base Evaluation Criteria...16 End-to-End Data Encryption...17 Sender or Recipient Non-repudiation of Messages...18 EDI Project Stages...19 Re-engineering Internal Processes...21 Industry Trade Associations...21 EDI Implementation Cost Model...22 EDI Cost Range Example...23 Section 2 - Electronic Data Interchange...24 Electronic Data Interchange Diagram...24 Definitions...25 Invoice Processing Example...25 Communication Methods / Options...26 Direct Connection...26 Value Added Networks...27 EDI Software...29 Existing In-house and EDI System Mapping...29 Mapping Example...30 X12 Data Format Description...31 Introduction...31 Definitions...32 X12 Data Structure Overview...34 X12 Interchange Control Structure...40 An X12 Encoded Data File Example...44 ii

5 Section 3 - Electronic Funds Transfer...47 Electronic Funds Transfer Diagram...47 Definitions...48 Automated Clearing House...49 ACH Electronic Funds Transfer Formats...50 Reconciling Accounts Receivable Records Using EFT...50 ACH Electronic Funds Transfer Formats...50 EFT Description Example...51 ACH and EDI Service Integration...52 Section 4 - Bar-code...53 Bar-code Diagram...53 Introduction...54 Definitions...55 Company-specific Bar-code Applications...55 Industry-wide Bar-code Applications...56 Introduction...56 Industry Use Overview...56 UPC-A Bar-code...57 Bar-code Interleave 2 of Appendix A - ASC X12 Organization...1 Appendix B - X12 Transaction List...3 Appendix C - Value Added Network Vendors...7 Glossary...9 Bibliographies...17 Acknowledgments I would like to thank the following people for reviewing, editing and commenting on the manuscript: Jesse Alderson, Richard Branch, Jack Becker, Ph.D., Kay Cecil, Larry Clark, Sara Drummond, Rosie Horvath, Don Huckaby, Esther Huckaby, Ph.D., Debbie Welch, and Charles Wright, Ph.D. RVD2 iii

6 Purpose Over the years as I managed large corporate-wide technical projects in Fortune 100 firms and as technology rapidly changed, it became more and more difficult to maintain the appropriate level of technical expertise necessary to manage the projects to an adequate depth. Most technical books are written in too much detail for people who only need to understand the architecture and the overall concepts of the technology they manage - - not the technical specifics. To that end, this book is written to be easily read, yet convey the primary technical concepts of Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) at a manager's or executive's level. Additionally, two companion technologies, Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT) and Barcode, are reviewed. Unlike most books on the subjects of Electronic Data Interchange (EDI), Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT), or Bar-coding that are 250 to 350 pages in length and require several days of dedicated attention to digest, this manuscript avoids extraneous information and focuses on key concepts and relationships to enhance comprehension. The average reading time is less than three hours. Please send comments or inquiries to: Rik Drummond DRUMMOND COMPANY Suite 227, 6080 Hulen St. South Fort Worth, TX (817) DRUMMOND COMPANY is an Electronic Messaging and Electronic Data Interchange Consultancy offering on-site seminars and consulting to Fortune 1000 clients. i

7 Introduction and Organization Introduction It is said that the implementation of Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) requires 80 percent people, political, and project management skills, and 20 percent technical expertise. The implementation of electronic inter-company business documents such as purchase orders, invoices and sale catalogs affects several parts of an organization, such as warehouse, finance, audit, legal, security, and MIS. EDI affects people's responsibilities! EDI will change the tools a company uses to conduct business with other organizations. When the tools change, the personnel and skill-mix requirements of an organization change. Employees' jobs and careers change. The personal impact on people causes significant resistance to an EDI implementation if those being affected do not feel involved in the EDI Project. Many EDI implementations have stalled by passive or outright resistance because the internal organizations being affected had too little or no buy-in to the EDI concept and project. It is very important that the EDI objectives and plans be sold to (and buy-in received from) all affected organizations and personnel. Unless all personnel feel non-threatened by t h e changes, it is not possible to receive total organizational buy-in. For all subdivisions of an organization to participate fully in an EDI project, it is important that the project be "owned" by an executive at a high enough level in the organization to "own" all the affected sub-divisions of the organization. It is not appropriate to have MIS executives responsible for an EDI Implementation Project, unless they are responsible for the finance, the warehouse and all other affected organizations. This book focuses on supplying information on all parts of the EDI implementation to a sufficient depth to impart a thorough education on the subject without going into unnecessary detail. 1

8 Book Organization - EDI, EFT and Bar-code Interaction Electronic Data Interchange, Electronic Funds Transfer and Bar-coding are three related technologies that often work in concert to reduce greatly paper transactions, speed information flow, and enhance data accuracy. The book is divided into the following sections: Section 1- deals with general non-technical EDI implementation considerations ranging from a general project plan to auditing issues. Section 2 - this section deals with the technical aspects of EDI in areas such as data communications protocol, interfacing to existing computer systems, EDI software, and the cross-industry X12 EDI Standards. (See Figure 1.) Section 3 - this section deals with the technical aspects of EFT and its interaction with EDI. (See Figure 1.) Section 4 - this section deals with the technical aspects of Bar-coding in transportation and retail industries. (See Figure 1.) Appendix A - ASC X12 Organization Appendix B - X12 Transaction List Appendix C - Value Added Network Vendors Glossary Bibliography 2

9 EDI, EFT and Bar-code Interaction Diagram The subjects covered in Sections 2, 3, and 4 are keyed to Figure #1 below to enhance the understanding of the technology interaction. Section 2 Company A Purchase Order Invoice Remittance Advice Company B Payment Order/ Remittance Advice Remittance Advice Company A's Bank Section 3 Corporate Trade Exchange (CTX) Company B's Bank Product Transportation Using Bar-coding Company A's Shipping Agent Section 4 Product Product Transportation Using Bar-coding Company B's Shipping Agent Figure 1 Note: It is impossible to cover all the ways companies use the EDI tool in 50 to 60 pages. The examples used throughout this book are real working implementations and are used by many organizations. There are many more options available. 3

10 Definitions EDI - Electronic Data Interchange EDI, Electronic Data Interchange, is the exchange of business documentation, such as shipping notices, invoices, and purchase orders, in a structured computerprocessable format through data communication protocols. In the United States, the primary computer-processable formats are defined by the X12 Organization. X12 is accredited by ANSI, the American National Standards Institute, a not-for-profit organization. Other industry-specific EDI formats have historically existed. They are rapidly being incorporated into X12. In Europe and many other parts of the world, EDIFACT is the primary EDI format. X12 is currently aligning with the international United Nations EDIFACT format. If the EDI industry works as most computer related industries, then X12 products will automatically align with the EDIFACT Standards at little or no conversion cost to the user community through version releases. Purchase Order Item 1 Item 2 Total Figure 2 4

11 EFT - Electronic Funds Transfer EFT, Electronic Funds Transfer, is the inter-bank exchange of value (dollar amounts) in a structured, computer-processable format. It is the equivalent of an electronic check. Other inter-bank value transfer networks exist. However, NACHA is the primary one used by general business. Several different Automated Clearing House (ACH) formats exist for inter-bank funds transfer. These inter-bank standards are managed by the banking industry organization NACHA. NACHA is an acronym for National Automated Clearing House Association. Pay To: $ /100 Figure 3 Bar-code Bar-codes are printed codes consisting of lines and spaces that may be read by a bar-code scanner. Several different bar-code methodologies are in used in commerce today. The UPC, Uniform Product Code, is used for product identification. Another bar-code, Interleave Code 2 of 5, is used for shipping container tracking in the grocery industry. In some bar-code methodologies the combination of spaces and lines can only represent the numerals zero (0) through nine (9). In other methodologies the bars and spaces can represent the entire alphanumeric character set plus several special characters such as $, %, *, /, etc. Figure

12 EDI, EFT and Bar-code Interaction Example Two companies interact because one offers a product or service the other needs or wants. A product purchase interaction between two companies is described below, using Figure #1 as the basis. Company-A requests price information, refers to Company-B's product catalog, and sends a purchase order to Company-B to buy the product. Company-B may respond to Company-A in many ways depending on product availability and price changes. We will assume the product is still available at the catalog price. Company-B sends an Advanced shipping notice to Company-A to notify them of the product, quantity, and the shipping date. Company-B ships the product to Company-A using the transportation industry. The transportation industry uses bar-coding to mark shipping containers and packages to facilitate package handling and tracking. Company-A receives the product package, scans the bar-code on the container, and matches the bar-code value against the value contained in the Advanced shipping notice to verify that the Advanced shipping notice belongs to the package. The verified Advanced shipping notice is used to automatically update Company- A's inventory. After the product arrives, Company-B may invoice Company-A. Some companies who use EDI pay many of their providers from information in the Advanced shipping notice and forgo the Invoice. Company-A sends Company-B remittance advice and instructs its bank to pay Company-B the appropriate amount. Company-A's bank transmits a CTX transaction (electronic check and remittance advice) to Company-B's bank for the proper amount. The bank debits Company- A's account. Company-A's bank attaches to the CTX the electronic remittance advice information received from Company-A. Company-B's bank receives the CTX, credits Company-B's account, uses the remittance advice from the CTX, and forwards the information on to Company-B through either an EDI or private network connection. 6

13 Section 1 - EDI Implementation Considerations EDI Drivers - Why Companies Implement EDI Most Fortune 500 firms are implementing EDI to reduce costs, enhance competitiveness, improve inventory turnover, improve customer service, reduce data entry errors, or reduce the overall personnel cost of processing transactions such as purchase orders, invoices, shipping notices, and payment order / remittance advice. Many of the smaller Fortune 2000 firms implementing EDI are doing so at the request of larger trading partners and customers. The benefits of EDI are often overlooked by small companies because they implement EDI only to appease their larger customers, not for the direct benefits. Several organizations have documented the savings from their EDI implementations. The Automotive Industry Action Group, AIAG, the purveyor of EDI in the Automotive Industry, believes EDI has reduced the cost of each car by over $200. The two Arthur D. Little Grocery Industry Studies projected administrative savings of over $700 million per year through the implementation of EDI, direct store product delivery, and bar-coding. Over 47 percent of the savings is passed on to customers. SuperValu has projected savings of over $600,000 per year by shortening the order cycle. Many companies have found that the cost to process an EDI purchase order is less than one-fourth of the paper purchase order cost. HP recorded purchase order processing cost decreases from $1.65 to $0.58, RCA $62 to $7.50 and DEC $125 to $32 as they left paper purchase orders behind and implemented electronic purchase orders. Many companies have found the cost of processing a n EDI purchase order is less than one-fourth the cost o f processing a paper purchase order. Some have found even larger savings. EDI Benefits The implementation of EDI has many tactical and strategic benefits. 7

14 Tactical Benefits Increased Accuracy and Timeliness of Information One of the first benefits of implementing EDI is increased timeliness and accuracy of information. Without the direct computer-to-computer exchange of information, data must be entered by hand into the destination computer system. Most organizations have time lags ranging from a few days to several weeks between the receipt of information on paper and entry into the computer system. Because of this time lag, the computer information database does not normally reflect up-to-date information. Information reentered by Data Entry personnel has a significantly higher error rate than information received directly from another computer. Increased Customer Service Ratings Some companies have implemented EDI to serve their customers more effectively. With EDI, customers can enter and track order status, receive shipping order notices, and receive catalog and catalog price updates, all electronically in a timely and costeffective manner. Reduced Inventory Costs The Automotive Industry effectively implemented Just-In-Time (JIT) inventory concepts with their suppliers through the use of EDI. Through this JIT method a company keeps minimal inventory on hand and continually re-orders and replenishes -- sometime several times a day -- directly from the supplier. The order and order status are exchanged between trading partners through EDI. The implementation of JIT can greatly decrease an organization's cost of maintaining inventory stock by reducing (1) warehouse-floor-space cost, (2) warehouse-personnel cost and (3) the cost of maintaining idle inventory. 8

15 Strategic Benefits Automotive Industry The Auto Industry implemented EDI in the early 1980's to help reduce costs and regain market share. Grocery Industry The Grocery Industry became much more cost-effective and timely by implementing bar-coding, point-of-sale bar-code scanners, and EDI. The industry saves hundreds of millions of dollars a year because of EDI and related technologies. Retail Industry The Retail Industry, following the Grocery Industry's lead, implemented bar-coding, point-of-sale bar-code scanners, and EDI. Several large retail companies such as Levi and Haggar Apparel have implemented Quick Response. The Quick Response initiative through the use of point-of-sale data, bar-coding, and EDI helps keep a retail outlet's shelves stocked with the best-selling sizes, styles, and colors. Data from the point-of-sales bar-code scanners are used to compute current seasonally adjusted inventory needs. A purchase order with the appropriate replenishment quantity, size, style, and color is posted nightly to the manufacturer. The manufacturer may "overnight deliver" the order to the retail pointof-sale. The companies involved in this initiate have shown a sizable percentage increase in sales because the best selling sizes, styles, and colors are always available to the buying public. General Benefits Many industries have improved relationships with customers and suppliers during the EDI implementation process. Many companies re-engineer and reorganize supporting administrative processes, departments, and functions to take advantage of EDI. The re-engineering often significantly reduces personnel and administrative costs. A major effort is being made in the retail industry to collect and analyze point-of-sale data to project customer needs, wants, and buying habits. If Quick Response in the retail industry is any indicator, having the right product at the right place at the right time will significantly increase sales volume and profit for a company. 9

16 Legal Issues Introduction It is important to involve your company's legal counsel and auditor in EDI planning sessions to work out the legal and audit issues. The discussion below is not meant to replace legal counsel: it is offered merely as a summary of issues that may concern your organization. The Statute of Frauds The Statute of Frauds specifies what constitutes a contract between two entities. The statute differs somewhat from state to state. Usually it describes a time, a dollar amount, or a value over which a signature is required for a contract to be valid. Contracts over that amount are not considered contracts unless signed. An EDI purchase order is a contract to buy goods or services with no place for a conventional signature. An umbrella EDI Trading Partner Agreement is usually signed between the parties to cover the legal contingency. The Trading Partner Agreement specifies the conditions under which each party will exchange EDI transactions and when they are considered to be valid contracts. The X12 EDI envelopes have authentication fields. When the field is occupied by the appropriate secret code it is accepted as an authentic signature. The codes are often shared only between each pair of trading partners. Note: If the EDI software is not sophisticated enough to record and check these codes for many trading partners, people will pick a single code and pass it on to many others, nullifying a major control. Uniform Commercial Code (UCC) The Uniform Commercial Code (UCC) is a set of model statutes that govern most commercial transactions. Versions of UCC have been implemented in all states except Louisiana. Both the Statute of Frauds and the Uniform Commercial Code assume a paper audit trail. Paper is exactly what EDI is attempting to eliminate. Some companies believe EDI transactions are adequately covered in both sets of statutes. (See IRS RP below.) Most believe that until a clearer ruling on the subject is made by the judiciary, extra insurance is needed. The extra insurance is in the form of a Trading Partner Agreement. 10

17 Federal Government and EDI The federal government is interested in implementing EDI to reduce administrative overhead and paper work. With the largest employer and organization in the nation implementing EDI, the legal issues should be resolved rapidly. IRS Revenue Procedure Recently the IRS, in Revenue Procedure (RP) 91-59, stated that an organization need not keep a paper evidence trail under the following conditions: The IRS must have access to electronic records. The EDI user must have a system of internal controls covering the electronic records. The electronic records must support information reported on the tax statement. The EDI user must comply with the standards set by the National Archives and Record Administration for the physical handling and periodic check of records. EDI Trading Partner Agreement Companies participating in an EDI exchange normally sign a Trading Partner Agreement that specifies what constitutes a signature, who is responsible for loss, security assumptions and conditions, confidentiality requirements, etc. Some companies issue three-page Trading Partner Agreements while others have agreements over 20 pages long. A few companies believe that EDI fits within the existing laws and business practices and requires no additional contractual instruments. A company's legal counsel should choose the contents of a company's Trading Partner Agreement. The American Bar Association (ABA) has released a Model Trading Partner 11

18 Agreement that may be used as the basis for a company's agreement. The model agreement with comments, discussion and conditions is 25 pages long. Below is a brief description of several sections to give an idea of the focus of the model agreement: Document Standards - specifies the type of EDI transactions each party will accept, such as purchase orders or invoices. Third Party Providers (VANs) - specifies who pays for the services. Usually each party pays for what it uses. Systems Operations - specifies that each party will operate the required hardware and software to send and receive EDI at its own expense. Security Procedures - details the required minimum security to be used by each party. Signatures - states what constitutes a signature for the exchange. Receipt - describes the conditions that are necessary to say a party has received a transaction. Verification - specifies that the receiving party will notify the sender of delivery upon receipt of the document. Acceptance - states conditions under which a document is deemed accepted. Unintelligible Transmission - states the conditions and responsibilities of the receiver to notify the sender during transmission problems. Terms and Conditions - lists terms and conditions which apply to the exchange. Confidentiality - states what is confidential between the parties. Governing Laws - lists laws under which the exchange will take place. Force Majeure - states that no party is responsible for conditions out of its control. Arbitration - details how conflicts and disagreements will be resolved. 12

19 Auditing Issues Introduction The methods used by an auditor to review a system are common in overall composition. In any system, whether computer or paper process, auditing progresses through several steps: Evaluate the documented internal controls and procedures for appropriate audit control coverage. Evaluate the internal controls and procedures for consistency in use. Determine any overlooked items in the control processes to assure there are no undocumented or overlooked risks. Test the system controls and procedures. Issue the audit opinion. Normally, the auditor has paper copies of documents and reports to test the controls and procedures. With the arrival of EDI, paper copies no longer exist for EDI transactions. On-line data is used to evaluate the system. Assurance that the on-line audit trail is at least as good as the previous paper trail is paramount. 13

20 Audit Trail EDI data may be moved through five different systems as it is exchanged between two companies. It moves through the following systems: Company-A's internal existing system Company-A's EDI software VANs or other communication systems Company-B's EDI software Company-B's internal existing system EDI Interchange Components End-to-End Internal Existing Systems EDI Software A B Networks C Networks EDI Software D Internal Existing Systems 1 A E Figure 5 Given that the five systems involved in the exchange have the appropriate audit controls, the only components involved in the exchange that have not previously been assured are the interfaces A, B, C, D, E, and the end-to-end document security and exchange procedures. 14

21 American Bar Association and Auditing The interfaces A, B, C, D, and E should be audited to verify that the appropriate procedures and controls are in place to retain the audit integrity among the five existing components. Once this is complete, end-to-end system integrity procedures and mechanisms should be implemented through the Trading Partner Agreement. Several items in the American Bar Association's Model Trading Partners Agreement that are pertinent to end-to-end audit trails are listed below: Document Standards Systems Operations Security Procedures Signatures Proper Receipt Verification Procedures Acceptance Confirmation Garbled Transmission Reconciliation Most off-the-shelf EDI software packages have controls which track and report on information flowing in and out of the system. The VANs serve thousands of EDI partnerships that have the same security, legality, and audit concerns as discussed above. With these considerations, there is nothing new with EDI auditing compared to existing internal computer systems. Some people say that in the previous systems they had external signed-paper evidence to verify the internal system and with EDI they lose the external paper evidence. The external evidence exists in the VAN transaction records and the EDI communications software of both parties. It should be easier to verify on-line external computerized evidence than external paper evidence. These issues will only be resolved when electronic signature and nonrepudiation standards are widely implemented. 15

22 Security Issues Introduction EDI security issues are not any different from those of current computer and data communications systems. Just ensure that all three divisions, (1) the internal existing systems, (2) the EDI software products, and (3) the intermediate communication networks, have the proper physical and logical access, event tracing, and archival control procedures in place. See Figure #5. Trusted Computer Base Evaluation Criteria The specification for rating the level of computer security in a computer complex is the Department of Defense's Trusted Computer Base Evaluation Criteria. The Criteria defines the required software security components and procedures to manage the entire computer complex to a rated level of security. The Criteria rating methodology is much like a school's grading system. A system rated "A" is the most secure; one rated "B" is a little less secure; a system rated "C" is even less secure. A system rated "D" is the least secure of all. Several grade levels are subdivided into levels using numbers such as C1 and C2, with C1 being less secure than C2. If the existing in-house EDI software and intermediate communications network are each rated as C2 or B1 capable, and each is managed in a manner that implements the security capabilities, then the whole system is at the appropriate level of security for most EDI endeavors. 16

23 End-to-End Data Encryption The only remaining security consideration is end-to-end encryption of the transmitted EDI data. At the present time, the continuous administrative effort to implement encryption between several trading partners is cost prohibitive for many companies. The problem with encryption of EDI data is not t h e technology, but rather how to manage the encryption keys for many trading partners. Cost-effective, PCbased encryption products are currently available f o r use. They may be sufficient for smaller applications. New software and procedures that allow the implementation of end-to-end encryption in a cost-effective, administratively-efficient manner are on the horizon. The new techniques will use the Public Key Encryption Algorithms. Watch for forthcoming EDI software products a n d releases that support and effectively manage Public Key Encryption for many trading partners. 17

24 Sender or Recipient Non-repudiation of Messages Non-repudiation is the ability to verify without question that a message was sent by a certain party, or alternately, that a message was received by a specific party. The implementation of this feature uses variations of Public Key Encryption that are not normally part of the EDI envelope architecture. The X.400 International Messaging Standard section X.435 has the non-repudiation of messages function built into the architecture. This feature is important to EDI exchanges. Look at the items in the American Bar Association's Model EDI Trading Partner Agreement. Procedures such as return receipt, who is at fault for message loss, and message loss prevention are addressed in the contract. VANs can add a form of non-repudiation between trading partners by recording the receipt and delivery of messages between parties. However, this does not implement a form of nonrepudiation between the sender and its VAN, the receiver and its VAN, or between the interconnected VANs. 18

25 EDI Project Stages An EDI project has a number of stages and critical issues that must be addressed for the project to be successful. Below is an example EDI Implementation Plan. The early involvement of key executives, affected departments and trading partners in defining t h e schedule, events, and issues is critical to project success. Tie EDI implementation to the Company's Business plan. Recruit the executive EDI project champion. Create an Advisory Board composed of executives from affected subdivisions of the organization. Define the EDI strategy. Create an internal project team, which reports to the Advisory Board, with representatives from affected organizations such as accounting, purchasing, auditing, sales and marketing, manufacturing, security, and legal. Choose the X12 transaction sets to implement. Train the project team. Identify EDI information sources such as EDI software, VANs, and trade associations. Initiate RFI (Request for Information) to EDI software vendors and VANs. Select the best products and service for the company. Review and study existing external and internal information process flows in the areas which EDI will initially affect. Categorize these processes by trading partners, owners, anticipated problems, affected procedures, ease of modification, and effort and cost to modify. Identify key trading partners. Categorize by transaction volume, dollar volume, influence, relationship, EDI expertise, and the positive and negative aspects of an EDI implementation on the relationship. Investigate and create the company's Trading Partner Agreement using legal counsel in concert with the EDI Project Team. Define and review EDI components such as software, communications, and procedures for the appropriate audit and evidence trail. Estimate the cost of implementation in areas such as process re-engineering, personnel, capital (hardware and software), and impact on the organization. Estimate the ongoing production costs in personnel, capital, in-house and off-theshelf software maintenance, and VAN usage. Select and train the EDI operations staff. 19

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