1 Generic Business Process (1) Expenditure Cycle & Revenue Cycle
2 Topik Bahasan Expenditure Cycle Revenue Cycle
3 Sumber Materi Romney / Steinbart, Accounting Information Systems, 9th Edition ch.11-12, Prentice Hall
4 Revenue Cycle Sales and Cash Collections
5 Learning Objectives 1. Describe the major business activities and related data processing operations performed in the revenue cycle. 2. Discuss the key decisions that need to be made in the revenue cycle and identify the information needed to make those decisions. 3. Document your understanding of the revenue cycle. 4. Identify major threats in the revenue cycle and evaluate the adequacy of various control procedures for dealing with those threats. 5. Read and understand a data model (REA diagram) of the revenue cycle.
6 Learning Objective 1 Describe the major business activities and related data processing operations performed in the revenue cycle.
7 Revenue Cycle Business Activities The first function of the AIS is to support the performance of the organization s business activities. The revenue cycle is a recurring set of business and related information processing operations associated with providing goods and services to customers and collecting cash payment for those sales.
9 Revenue Cycle Business Activities What are the four basic revenue cycle business activities? 1 Sales order entry 2 Shipping 3 Billing and accounts receivable 4 Cash collections
10 Learning Objective 2 Discuss the key decisions that need to be made in the revenue cycle and identify the information needed to make those decisions.
12 Sales Order Entry (Activity 1) This step includes all the activities involved in soliciting and processing customer orders. Key decisions and information needs: decisions concerning credit policies, including the approval of credit information about inventory availability and customer credit status from the inventory control and accounting functions, respectively
13 Sales Order Entry (Activity 1) The sales order entry function involves three main activities: 1 Responding to customer inquiries 2 Checking and approving customer credit 3 Checking inventory available
15 Information Needs and Procedures The AIS should provide the operational information needed to perform the following functions: Respond to customer inquires about account balances and order status. Decide whether to extend credit to a customer.
16 Sales Order Entry (Activity 1) Regardless of how customer orders are initially received, the following edit checks are necessary: Validity checks A Completeness test Reasonableness tests Credit approval General authorization Credit limit Specific authorization Limit checks
17 Sales Order Entry (Activity 1) Next, the system checks whether the inventory is sufficient to fill accepted orders. Internally generated documents produced by sales order entry: sales order packing slip picking ticket
19 Information Needs and Procedures Determine inventory availability. Decide what types of credit terms to offer. Set prices for products and services. Set policies regarding sales returns and warranties. Select methods for delivering merchandise.
20 Shipping (Activity 2) Warehouse workers are responsible for filling customer orders by removing items from inventory. Key decisions and information needs: Determine the delivery method. in-house outsource
21 Shipping Sales Order Entry Picking List 2.1 Pick and Pack Goods, Packing List Sales order Billing and A/R Bill of Lading, Packing Slip 2.2 Ship Goods Goods, Bill of Lading, Packing Slip Inventory Shipments Carrier
23 Shipping (Activity 2) Documents, records, and procedures: The picking ticket printed by the sales order entry triggers the shipping process and is used to identify which products to remove from inventory. A physical count is compared with the quantities on the picking ticket and packing slip. Some spot checks are made and a bill of lading is prepared.
24 Billing and Accounts Receivable (Activity 3) Two activities are performed at this stage of the revenue cycle: 1 Invoicing customers 2 Maintaining customer accounts Key decisions and information needs: Accurate billing is crucial and requires information identifying the items and quantities shipped, prices, and special sales terms.
25 Billing and Accounts Receivable (Activity 3) The sales invoice notifies customers of the amount to be paid and where to send payment. A monthly statement summarizes transactions that occurred and informs customers of their current account balance. A credit memo authorizes the billing department to credit a customer s account.
28 Billing and Accounts Receivable (Activity 3) Types of billing systems: In a postbilling system, invoices are prepared after confirmation that the items were shipped. In a prebilling system, invoices are prepared (but not sent) as soon as the order is approved. The inventory, accounts receivable, and general ledger files are updated at this time.
29 Billing and Accounts Receivable (Activity 3) Methods for maintaining accounts receivable: open invoice method balance-forward method To obtain a more uniform flow of cash receipts, many companies use a process called cycle billing.
32 Information Needs and Procedures What are examples of additional information the AIS should provide? response time to customer inquires time required to fill and deliver orders percentage of sales that require back orders customer satisfaction analysis of market share and trends profitability analyses by product, customer, and sales region
33 Cash Collections (Activity 4) Two areas are involved in this activity: 1 The cashier 2 The accounts receivable function
34 Cash Collections (Activity 4) Key decisions and information needs: Reduction of cash theft is essential. The billing/accounts receivable function should not have physical access to cash or checks. The accounts receivable function must be able to identify the source of any remittances and the applicable invoices that should be credited.
35 Cash Collections (Activity 4) Documents, records, and procedures: Checks are received and deposited. A remittance list is prepared and entered online showing the customer, invoice number, and the amount of each payment. The system performs a number of on-line edit checks to verify the accuracy of data entry.
36 Learning Objective 3 Document your understanding of the revenue cycle.
37 Opportunities for Using Information Technology What are some opportunities of using information technology for sales order entry (Activity 1)? on-line processing of sales orders with electronic data interchange (EDI) linking EDI with customers point-of-sale (POS) optical character recognition (OCR) the Internet
38 Opportunities for Using Information Technology What are some opportunities of using information technology for shipping (Activity 2)? automated warehouse systems consisting of: computers bar-code scanners conveyer belts forklifts
39 Opportunities for Using Information Technology What are some opportunities of using information technology for billing and accounts receivable (Activity 3)? on-line processing of invoices electronic data interchange (EDI) imaging to create and store digital versions of all paper relating to a customer s account.
40 Opportunities for Using Information Technology What are some opportunities of using information technology for cash collections (Activity 4)? lockbox (a postal address to which customers send their remittances) The bank picks up the checks from the post office box and deposits them to the company s account.
41 Opportunities for Using Information Technology electronic lockbox electronic funds transfer (EFT) financial electronic data interchange (FEDI)
42 Learning Objective 4 Identify major threats in the revenue cycle and evaluate the adequacy of various control procedures for dealing with those threats.
43 Control Objectives, Threats, and Procedures The second function of a well-designed AIS is to provide adequate controls to ensure that the following objectives are met: Transactions are properly authorized. Recorded transactions are valid. Valid, authorized transactions are recorded. Transactions are recorded accurately.
44 Control Objectives, Threats, and Procedures Assets (cash, inventory, and data) are safeguarded from loss or theft. Business activities are performed efficiently and effectively.
45 Control Objectives, Threats, and Procedures What are some threats? credit sales to customers with poor credit shipping errors theft of cash and inventory failure to bill customers billing errors loss of data
46 Control Objectives, Threats, and Procedures What are some exposures? uncollectible sales and losses due to bad debts customer dissatisfaction loss of assets and overstated assets loss of revenue and inventory incorrect records and poor decision making loss of confidential information
47 Control Objectives, Threats, and Procedures What are some control procedures? credit approval by credit manager and sales function reconciliation of sales order with picking ticket and packing slip restriction of access to inventory and data lockbox arrangement segregation of duties
50 Purchasing and Cash Disbursements Expenditure Cycle:
51 Learning Objectives 1. Describe the basic business activities and related data processing operations performed in the expenditure cycle. 2. Discuss the key decisions that need to be made in the expenditure cycle, and identify the information needed to make those decisions. 3. Document your understanding of expenditure cycle activities.
52 Learning Objectives 4. Identify major threats in the expenditure cycle, and evaluate the adequacy of various control procedures for dealing with them. 5. Read and understand a data model (REA diagram) of the expenditure cycle.
53 Introduction Linda Spurgeon, Alpha Omega Electronics (AOE) president, asked Elizabeth Venko, the controller, to address the following issues: What must be done to ensure that AOE s inventory records are current and accurate? What can be done to ensure timely delivery of quality components?
54 Introduction Is it possible to reduce AOE s investment in materials inventories? What must be done to ensure that available discounts are taken? How could the information system provide better information to guide planning and production? How could IT be used to reengineer expenditure cycle activities?
55 Learning Objective 1 Describe the basic business activities and related data processing operations performed in the expenditure cycle.
56 Expenditure Cycle: Main Objective The primary objective of the expenditure cycle is to minimize the total cost of acquiring and maintaining inventories, supplies, and the various services necessary for the organization to function.
57 Expenditure Cycle: Key Decisions What is the optimal level of inventory and supplies to carry? Which suppliers provide the best quality and service at the best prices? Where should inventories and supplies be held? How can the organization consolidate purchases across units to obtain optimal prices?
58 Expenditure Cycle: Key Decisions How can information technology be used to improve both the efficiency and accuracy of the inbound logistics function? Is sufficient cash available to take advantage of any discounts suppliers offer? How can payments to vendors be managed to maximize cash flow?
59 Expenditure Cycle Business Activities The expenditure cycle is a recurring set of business and related information processing operations associated with the purchase of and payment for goods and services. The first function of the AIS is to support the effective performance of the organization s business activities.
60 Expenditure Cycle Business Activities What are the five basic expenditure cycle business activities? 1 Requesting the purchase of needed goods 2 Ordering goods to be purchased 3 Receiving ordered goods 4 Approving vendor invoices for payment 5 Paying for goods purchased
63 Request Goods (Activity 1) The first major business activity in the expenditure cycle involves the request to purchase inventory or supplies. The traditional inventory control method (often called economic order quantity [EOQ]): This approach is based on calculating an optimal order size so as to minimize the sum of ordering, carrying, and stockout costs.
64 Request Goods (Activity 1) Alternative inventory control methods: MRP (material requirement planning) This approach seeks to reduce required inventory levels by scheduling production, rather than estimating needs. JIT (just in time) JIT systems attempt to minimize both carrying and stockout costs.
65 Request Goods (Activity 1) What is a major difference between MRP and JIT? MRP systems schedule production to meet estimated sales need, thereby creating a stock of finished goods inventory. JIT systems schedule production to meet customer demands, thereby virtually eliminating finished goods inventory.
66 Request Goods (Activity 1) Documents and procedures: The purchase requisition is a document that identifies the following: requisitioner and item number specifies the delivery location and date needed specifies descriptions, quantity, and price of each item requested may suggest a vendor
68 Order Goods What is a key decision? determine vendor What factors should be considered? price quality of materials dependability in making deliveries
69 Order Goods Documents and procedures: The purchase order is a document that formally requests a vendor to sell and deliver specified products at designated prices. It is also a promise to pay and becomes a contract once it is accepted by the vendor. Frequently, several purchase orders are generated to fill one purchase requisition.
71 Receive and Store Goods (Activity 2) The second major business activity involves the receipt and storage of ordered items. Key decisions and information needs: The receiving department has two major responsibilities: 1 Deciding whether to accept a delivery 2 Verifying quantity and quality
73 Receive and Store Goods (Activity 3) Documents and procedures: The receiving report documents details about each delivery, including the date received, shipper, vendor, and purchase order number. For each item received, it shows the item number, description, unit of measure, and count of the quantity received.
75 Approve Vendor Invoices (Activity 3) The third activity entails approving vendor invoices for payments. Key decisions and information needs: The objective of accounts payable is to authorize payment only for goods and services that were ordered and actually received. This requires internally generated information from both the purchasing and receiving function.
77 Approve Vendor Invoices (Activity 3) Documents, records, and procedures: There are two basic ways to process vendor invoices: 1 Nonvoucher system 2 Voucher system disbursement voucher voucher package
79 Pay for Goods The final activity is the payment of approved invoices. What is a key decision? taking vendor discounts A short-term cash flow budget is useful for making this decision.
80 Pay for Goods Documents, records, and procedures: The cashier receives and reviews each voucher package, computes a batch total, and enters the disbursement data. The system uses the voucher file to update the accounts payable, open invoice, and the general ledger files.
81 Evaluation of receipt settlement Traditional three way Two way match
84 Opportunities for Using Information Technology What are some opportunities of using information technology for requesting goods (Activity 1)? online data entry instead of paper documents bar-code technology that facilitates the maintenance of accurate perpetual inventory records
85 Opportunities for Using Information Technology - electronic data interchange (EDI) - procurement cards - Internet
86 Opportunities for Using Information Technology What are some opportunities of using information technology to receive and store goods (Activity 2)? vendor requirement to bar-code all of their products passive radio frequency identification satellite technology
87 Opportunities for Using Information Technology What are some opportunities of using information technology to approve vendor invoices (Activity 3)? electronic data interchange (EDI) elimination of vendor invoices entirely image processing and optical character recognition (OCR) corporate credit cards
88 Opportunities for Using Information Technology electronic funds transfers (EFT) financial electronic data interchange (FEDI)
89 Learning Objective 2 Discuss the key decisions that need to be made in the expenditure cycle, and identify the information needed to make those decisions.
90 Information Needs The third function of the AIS is to provide information useful for decision making. Usefulness in the expenditure cycle means that the AIS must provide the operational information needed to perform the following functions: Determine when and how much additional inventory to order.
91 Information Needs Select the appropriate vendors from whom to order. Verify the accuracy of vendor invoices. Decide whether purchase discounts should be taken. Monitor cash flow needs to pay outstanding obligations.
92 Information Needs What are examples of additional information the AIS should provide? efficiency and effectiveness of the purchasing department analyses of vendor performance such as on-time delivery, quality, etc. time taken to move goods from the receiving dock into production percentage of purchase discounts taken
93 Learning Objective 4 Identify major threats in the expenditure cycle, and evaluate the adequacy of various control procedures for dealing with them.
94 Control Objectives, Threats, and Procedures The second function of a well-designed AIS to provide adequate controls to ensure the following objectives are met: Transactions are properly authorized. Recorded transactions are valid. Valid, authorized transactions are recorded. Transactions are recorded accurately. is that
95 Control Objectives, Threats, and Procedures Assets (cash, inventory, and data) are safeguarded from loss or theft. Business activities are performed efficiently and effectively.
96 Control Objectives, Threats, and Procedures What are some threats? stockouts purchasing too many or unnecessary goods purchasing goods at inflated prices purchasing goods of inferior quality purchasing from unauthorized vendors kickbacks
97 Control Objectives, Threats, and Procedures receiving unordered goods errors in counting goods theft of inventory failure to take available purchasing discounts errors in recording and posting purchases and payments loss of data
98 Control Objectives, Threats, and Procedures What are some exposures? production delays and lost sales increased inventory costs cost overruns inferior quality of purchased goods inflated prices violation of laws or import quotas payment for items not received
99 Control Objectives, Threats, and Procedures inaccurate inventory records loss of assets cash flow problems overstated expenses incorrect data for decision making
100 Control Objectives, Threats, and Procedures What are some control procedures? inventory control system vendor performance analysis approved purchase requisitions restricted access to blank purchase requisitions price list consultation budgetary controls
101 Control Objectives, Threats, and Procedures use of approved vendor lists approval of purchase orders prenumbered purchase orders prohibition of gifts from vendors incentives to count all deliveries physical access control recheck of invoice accuracy cancellation of voucher package
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