1 Toxicology Letters 173 (2007) DDT and its metabolite DDE alter steroid hormone secretion in human term placental explants by regulation of aromatase activity Anna K. Wójtowicz a,, Tomasz Milewicz b, Ewa Ł. Gregoraszczuk a a Department of Physiology and Toxicology of Reproduction, Chair of Animal Physiology, Institute of Zoology, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 6, Krakow, Poland b Department of Gynecological Endocrinology, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland Received 19 March 2007; received in revised form 6 June 2007; accepted 12 June 2007 Available online 16 June 2007 Abstract Placental explants were used to compare the effects of two isomers of DDT (1,1,1,-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane), p,p -DDT and o,p -DDT and their metabolites p,p -DDE and o,p -DDE (1,1,-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene) on steroid hormone secretion (estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4)). Explants were treated with 1, 10, 100 ng/ml or 1 g/ml of each compound for 24 h. We found that all investigated compounds at all doses caused reductions of estradiol secretion. Moreover, it was shown that the inhibition of estradiol secretion was due to direct action on aromatase activity. Twenty-four-hour exposure to p,p -DDE, o,p -DDT or o,p -DDE at doses of 100 ng/ml or 1 g/ml increased P4 secretion, suggesting that these compounds act on P450scc. The fluorometric assay confirmed that all investigated compounds inhibited aromatase activity at a concentration of 100 ng/ml. Our findings suggest that by decreasing estradiol secretion with concomitant stimulation of progesterone secretion, DDT could be a factor that influences the outcome of pregnancy Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Human term placenta; DDT; DDE; Progesterone; Estradiol; Aromatase 1. Introduction DDT (1,1,1,-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)- ethane), a well-known organochlorine pesticide, is still present in the environment. Moreover, in living cells, DDT is metabolized to DDE (1,1,-dichloro-2,2- bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene) and DDD (1,1-dichloro- 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane) (Fox et al., 1998). Because 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane Corresponding author. Tel.: ; fax: address: (A.K. Wójtowicz). (DDD) are degradation and metabolic products of DDT, humans are usually exposed to a mixture of these three compounds. In addition, DDT, DDE, and DDD can each exist in different isomeric forms determined by the chlorine position on the two chlorophenyl rings of the molecule. Technical-grade DDT typically consists of 77% p,p -DDT, 15% o,p -DDT, 4% p,p -DDE, and less than 1% o,p -DDE, p,p -DDD and o,p -DDD (ATSDR, 2002; World Health Organization, 1979). Analyses of maternal adipose tissue, maternal blood serum, umbilical cord serum, mature milk and amniotic fluid indicate circulation of these compounds through all compartments of the maternal body (Longnecker et al., 1997; Covaci et al., 2002; James et al., 2002). It is well known that DDT and its metabolites are able /$ see front matter 2007 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. doi: /j.toxlet
2 A.K. Wójtowicz et al. / Toxicology Letters 173 (2007) to cross the placental barrier, and that they accumulate in a placental tissue (Sala et al., 2001; Bjerregaard and Hansen, 2000). There have also been epidemiological studies reporting an association between levels of these compounds in maternal blood and miscarriage rate, premature rupture of fetal membranes, preterm birth and fetal development (Dewailly et al., 1993; Gladen et al., 2003; Karmaus and Zhu, 2004). It is well known that human placenta is responsible for the production of a number of hormones necessary for normal fetal development and pregnancy maintenance, like human chorionic gonadotropin and progesterone (Spencer and Bazer, 2004; Pepe and Albrecht, 1995). During late pregnancy, the placenta is the major source of estrogens (Myers and Nathanielsz, 1993; Mitchell and Wong, 1993; Chibbar et al., 1995). There are several possible mechanisms by which DDT and DDE could act as endocrine disruptors: through a steroidogenic pathway as was suggested by Crellin et al. (2001) and Younglai et al. (2004), through receptor-mediated changes in protein synthesis (Kelce et al., 1995) or through their anti-androgenic and estrogenic actions (Andersen et al., 1999). The main enzyme responsible for converting androgens to estradiol is aromatase and it has been detected in placenta. Aromatase has also been reported to be a target for DDE (You et al., 2001; Younglai et al., 2002). Decreased aromatase activity has been described under the influence of DDT in H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cells (Sanderson et al., 2002), and by lindane and bisphenol- A, pesticides and antifungal drugs (azoles) in human placental JEG-3 cells (Nativelle-Serpentini et al., 2003; Vinggaard et al., 2000; Laville et al., 2006; Trosken et al., 2004, 2006). On the other hand the increase of aromatase activity under the influence of p,p -DDE was reported in cultures of endometrial stromal cells (ESC) and human granulosa cells (Holloway et al., 2005; Younglai et al., 2004). The aim of the present study was to investigate the action of two isomers, p,p -DDT and o,p -DDT, and their metabolites, DDEs, on specific endocrine endpoints (progesterone and estradiol secretion) and to determine the actions of these compounds on aromatase activity and protein expression. 2. Materials and methods 2.1. Reagents Dulbecco s Modified Eagle s Medium (DMEM), heatinactivated fetal bovine serum (FBS), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), TRIS, HEPES, CHAPS, DTT, EDTA, Tween 20, bromophenol blue and DMSO were purchased from Sigma (Chemical Co. St. Louis, MO, USA). DDT compounds (p,p - DDT, o,p -DDT, p,p -DDE and o,p -DDE) were purchased from Reference Standards, EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA. Stock solutions of these test compounds were prepared in DMSO and added to DMEM supplemented with 5% charcoal-stripped FBS. The final concentration of DMSO in the medium was always 0.1%. The nonsteroidal aromatase enzyme system inhibitor, CGS 16949A (fadrozole) [4-(5,6,7,8-tetrahydroimidazol [1,5- ] pyridin/5- yl)benzonitrile monochloride], was generously provided by Ciba-Geigy Ltd., Switzerland Placental explant cultures Placentas were collected at a gynecological hospital in Krakow, Poland where the clinical information on pregnancy outcome was gathered. Collection of placenta and recording of clinical histories followed previously established protocols that were given ethical approval by the local institutional review board. Patients gave their informed consent for the study. Clinical information recorded on each pregnancy included: smoking history, neonatal mortality and pregnancy outcome. Normal term placentas were obtained from non-smoking women undergoing elective Caesarian section with normal pregnancies at term (37 41 weeks of gestation). Placental cotyledons were harvested and immediately placed in ice-cold PBS and transported to the laboratory within 30 min of delivery. Placental tissues were rinsed three times with PBS containing 100 IU/ml penicillin and 100 g/ml streptomycin. Decidual tissue and blood vessels were removed from villous placenta by blunt dissection and the tissue was finally minced into 2 3 mm pieces. Explants with a total wet weight of approximately mg were dispersed to wells in 12-well plates (NUNC) containing 1.5 ml of DMEM supplemented with 5% charcoalstripped FBS, 5 ng/ml dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and penicillin/streptomycin. The explants were incubated in triplicate for 24 h at 37 C in a humidified atmosphere of 95% air and 5% CO Experimental procedure Experiment 1 was designed to study the dose response effect of the test compounds on progesterone secretion and on conversion of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to estradiol. Placental explants were cultured in DMEM supplemented with 5% FBS and 5 ng/ml of DHEA in the presence of 1, 10, 100 ng/ml or 1 g/ml of p,p -DDT, p,p -DDE, o,p -DDT or o,p - DDE. These concentrations cover the range of concentrations of DDT and DDE reported to be present in serum of a pregnant woman (Farhang et al., 2005; Hamel et al., 2003; Law et al., 2005). After 24 h of culture, at the end of the experiment, media was collected for hormone analyses and tissue was weighed so that the hormone values could be expressed per mg wet weight. Experiment 2 was performed to demonstrate the effect of DDT isomers and their metabolites on (1) aromatase activ-
3 26 A.K. Wójtowicz et al. / Toxicology Letters 173 (2007) ity by measuring direct action on aromatase activity and (2) expression of aromatase protein by immunoblotting. Placental explants were cultured in DMEM containing 5% FBS supplemented with 5 ng/ml DHEA. The experimental cultures were maintained in the presence of 100 ng/ml p,p -DDT or o,p -DDT or their metabolites. After 24 h of exposure, media was discarded and tissue was frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at 70 C. For aromatase activity measurement and immunoblotting, the tissue was homogenized twice in 50 l of ice-cold lysis buffer containing 50 mm HEPES, 100 mm NaCl, 0.1% CHAPS, 1 mm EDTA, 10% glycerol and 10 mm DTT. The lysates were clarified by centrifugation at rpm at 4 C for 20 min and supernatants were used for the aromatase assay and immunoblotting. The protein concentration of lysates was determined with Bradford reagent (Bio Rad Protein Assay; Bio Rad Laboratories, Munchen, Germany) using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the standard Hormone analysis The concentrations of progesterone (P4), and estradiol (E2) were determined in the media by EIA using commercially available kits (DiaMetra, Italy) according to the manufacturer s instructions. All samples were run in duplicate in the same assay. Inter- and intrassay coefficients of variation for progesterone kits were 2.9% and 4.8%, respectively. For estradiol kits, inter- and intra-run precision had coefficients of variation of 3.2% and 5.4%, respectively Aromatase (CYP19) activity measurement Aromatase (CYP19) converts C19 androgens to aromatic C18 estrogenic steroids. We estimated the activity of CYP19 enzyme using the fluorometric substrate dibenzylfluorescein (DBF). The fluorescence assay of aromatase activity using dibenzylfluorescein was performed in 96-well plates according to the method of Stresser et al. (2000). The DBF metabolite, fluorescein, was measured using an excitation wavelength of 485 nm and an emission wavelength of 538 nm. Apart from CYP19 (aromatase), DBF is also a substrate for other cytochromes, such as CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP3A. In order to determine whether aromatase was involved in production of the DBF metabolite, fluorescein, we used the selective aromatase inhibitor, CGS 16949A. Bio Rad Mini Trans-Blott apparatus. Following the transfer, membranes were washed and non-specific binding sites were blocked with 5% dried milk and 0.2% Tween 20 in 0.02 M TBS for 2 h. Then, the membranes were incubated overnight with anti-aromatase antibody (mouse anti-human cytochrome P450 aromatase, MCA2077S, AbD Serotec Ltd., UK) diluted at 1:200 in TBS/Tween at 4 C. After incubation with the primary antibody, the membranes were washed with TBS and 0.02% Tween 20 and incubated for 2 h with horseradish peroxidase-conjugated antibody (anti-mouse IgG- HRP, P-0447, DakoCytomation, Denmark) diluted at 1:500 in TBS/Tween. To control for the amounts of protein that were loaded onto the gel, the membranes were stripped and reprobed with anti- -actin antibody. Signals were detected by chemiluminescence (ECL) using a Western Blotting Luminol Reagent (sc-2048, Santa Cruz Biotechnology) and visualized with the use of a PhosphoImager FujiLas Statistical analysis Data are presented as the mean ± S.E.M. of four independent experiments. Each treatment was repeated four times (n = 4) in triplicate, and, thus, the total number of replicates was 12. The average of the triplets was used for statistical calculation. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistica 6.0. Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by the Tukey honestly significant difference (HSD) multiple range test. 3. Results 3.1. Progesterone secretion In control cultures, progesterone secretion into the medium during 24 h of culture was 0.49 ± 0.03 ng/ml (Fig. 1). A significant increase in progesterone secretion 2.6. Immunoblotting Twenty micrograms of protein was reconstituted in the appropriate amount of sample buffer consisting of 125 nm Tris ph 6.8, 4% SDS, 25% glycerol, 4 mm EDTA, 20 mm DTT and 0.01% bromophenol blue. Samples were separated by 7.5% SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in a BIO-RAD Mini-Protean II Electrophoresis Cell and then proteins were transferred to nitrocellulose membranes using a Fig. 1. Effect of increasing concentrations of p,p-ddt, p,p-dde, o,p -DDT and o,p -DDE on progesterone secretion in placental explant cultures after 24 h of exposure. Each point represents the mean ± S.E.M. of four independent experiments, each of which consisted of three replicates per treatment group. (*) indicates statistically (p < 0.05) significant differences between control and experimental groups.
4 A.K. Wójtowicz et al. / Toxicology Letters 173 (2007) Fig. 2. Effect of increasing concentrations of p,p-ddt, p,p-dde, o,p - DDT and o,p -DDE on conversion of DHEA to estradiol in placental explant cultures after 24 h of exposure. Each point represents the mean ± S.E.M. of three independent experiments, each of which consisted of four replicates per treatment group. (*) indicates statistically (p < 0.05) significant differences between control and experimental groups. was noted after the addition of 100 ng/ml p,p -DDE, o,p - DDT or o,p -DDE (1.9-, 2.4-, and 2.2-fold, respectively) and 1 g/ml p,p -DDE, o,p -DDT or o,p -DDE (2.5-, 1.4-, and 1.8-fold, respectively); (p < 0.01). The second isomer of DDT, p,p-ddt, had no effect on progesterone secretion Conversion of DHEA to estradiol All investigated compounds significantly decreased the conversion of DHEA into estradiol (Fig. 2). In control cultures, estradiol secretion into the medium was pg/ml. The decreased level of estradiol in experimental cultures were similar after the addition of 1, 10, 100 ng/ml and 1 g/ml of both DDT isomers: p,p -DDT and o,p - DDT as well as both DDE Effects of DDT isomers and their metabolites, DDEs, on aromatase activity All investigated compounds, p,p -DDT, p,p -DDE o,p -DDT and o,p -DDE, in a concentration of 100 ng/ml, inhibited aromatase activity by 1.8-, 1.5-, 1.6- and 2.3-fold, respectively (p < 0.05) (Fig. 3). We observed that CGS 16949A did not affect control fluorescein production or p,p -DDT-, p,p -DDE-, o,p -DDT -, or o,p -DDE-induced inhibition of fluorescein production Immunoblotting There are differences in the degree of aromatase protein degradation caused by 100 ng/ml of p,p -DDT and Fig. 3. Effect of 100 ng/ml of p,p-ddt, p,p-dde, o,p -DDT and o,p - DDE on aromatase activity in placental explants cultured for 24 h. Each point represents the mean ± S.E.M. of three independent experiments, each of which consisted of four replicates per group. Statistically significant (p < 0.05) differences between groups (control and treated) are indicated with different letters. The same letter indicates no significant difference, with a < b. There were no statistically significant differences between explants treated with the reagents and CGS 16949A. Fig. 4. Effect of 100 ng/ml of p,p-ddt, p,p-dde, o,p -DDT and o,p - DDE on the expression of the aromatase protein in placental explants cultured for 24 h. Representative Western blot of aromatase protein levels in placental tissue homogenates without treatment (control), and following p,p-ddt, p,p-dde, o,p -DDT or o,p -DDE treatment. Blots were stripped and re-probed with anti- -actin antibody to control for the amounts of protein loaded onto the gel. o,p -DDT treatment. In the cases of p,p -DDT and p,p - DDE, the band had a higher intensity than the band from protein lysates of o,p -DDT and o,p -DDE treated explants (Fig. 4). 4. Discussion Progesterone, a major steroid hormone produced by the ovarian corpus luteum and by the placental syncytiotrophoblast during the second trimester, is considered to be essential for the successful maintenance of pregnancy. A disturbance in progesterone synthesis and secretion is a cause of abortion and preterm birth (Spencer and Bazer, 2004; Pepe and Albrecht, 1995). The production of estradiol rises during human pregnancy. Estrogens influence various aspects of placental function and play an important role in parturition (Myers and Nathanielsz, 1993; Mitchell and Wong, 1993; Chibbar et al., 1995). Results of the presented study clearly show that short term exposure to high concentrations of p,p -DDE, o,p - DDT and o,p -DDE stimulated progesterone secretion,
5 28 A.K. Wójtowicz et al. / Toxicology Letters 173 (2007) while p,p -DDT treatment did not have an effect on progesterone secretion. Surprisingly, this data is the first to show action of both isomers of DDT and their metabolites on progesterone secretion by human placental explants. Similar data which shows an increase in basal progesterone production has been obtained with rat granulosa-luteal cells (Nejaty et al., 2001), pig granulosa cells and the stable pig granulosa cell line, JC-410 (Crellin et al., 1999). Crellin et al. (1999) found that changes in progesterone synthesis corresponded with changes in the level of mrna for cytochrome P450scc, an enzyme that is involved in the first step of progesterone synthesis. This mechanism of action was also suggested for PCB 126 and PCB 153 in porcine granulosa cells (Wójtowicz et al., 2005) and for TCDD in testicular steroidogenesis (Kleeman et al., 1990; Moore et al., 1991). Thus, stimulation of P450scc gene expression is a possible mechanism of action for DDT and its metabolites in placental cells. Increased progesterone secretion under the influence of p,p -DDE, o,p -DDT and o,p -DDE was concomitant with decreased conversion of DHEA to estradiol suggesting additional action on aromatase activity. Different situations have been noted in the case of p,p -DDT. Decreased estradiol secretion did not parallel increased progesterone secretion and no effect on progesterone secretion was observed. The most likely mechanism of action is an influence on aromatase activity and a lack of influence on enzymes involved in progesterone synthesis. Results from the presented data clearly show a decrease in aromatase activity in placental cells exposed to all investigated reagents. Decreased aromatase activity under the influence of DDT has been described in H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cells (Sanderson et al., 2002), and by lindane and bisphenol-a, pesticides and antifungal drugs (azoles) in human placental JEG-3 cells (Nativelle-Serpentini et al., 2003; Vinggaard et al., 2000; Laville et al., 2006; Trosken et al., 2004, 2006). The inhibitory effects of phytoestrogens on aromatase activity in human placental microsomes was first reported by Kellis and Vickery (1984) and then by Lacey et al. (2005). There are some differences in the degree of inhibition of aromatase protein expression by the two DDT isomers despite the same degree of inhibition of aromatase enzyme activity. Our data is in agreement with data of Lacey et al. (2005) who observed decreased aromatase and 3 -HSD activity under the influence of phytoestrogens, without any significant effect on protein expression as determined by Western blots. Another interesting finding is the difference in the degree of protein degradation following treatment with wither p,p - DDT or o,p -DDT. It is possible that p,p -DDT forms an enzyme-inhibitor complex that slows the degradation of the enzyme. This has been suggested as a mechanism for aromatase inhibitor activity (Harada and Hatano, 1998). Moreover, it should be considered that different isomers could modulate ER activity/expression in different ways (Di Lorenzo et al., 2002; Wójtowicz et al., 2007). Further investigations should concentrate on particular stages of placental steroidogenesis at the levels of mrna, protein and enzymatic activity. In conclusion, this data demonstrates the direct effect of DDT and its metabolites on steroid secretion by human placental tissue for the first time. Out data indicates that antiestrogenic action occurs by inhibition of aromatase activity and stimulation of progesterone secretion, which is a well known function of an aromatase inhibitor in ovarian cells (Fortune and Vincent, 1983). Taking into consideration that aromatase activity is important for the maintenance of pregnancy and for regulation of parturition in late pregnancy, inhibition of the activity of this enzyme could impair the outcome of pregnancy. Acknowledgment This work was supported by grant number 2P05D from the State Committee for Scientific Research (KBN; Warszawa, Poland). References Andersen, H.R., Andersson, A.M., Arnold, S.F., Soto, A.M., et al., Comparison of short-term estrogenicity tests for identification of hormone-disrupting chemicals. Environ. Health Perspect. 107 (Suppl. 1), ATSDR, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological profile for DDT, DDE, and DDD: update. In: Syracuse Research Corporation, US Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA, pp Bjerregaard, P., Hansen, J.C., Organochlorines and heavy metals in pregnant women from the Disko Bay area in Greenland. Sci. Total Environ. 245, Chibbar, R., Wong, S., Miller, F.D., Mitchell, B.F., Estrogen stimulates oxytocin gene expression in human chorio-decidua. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 80, Covaci, A., Jorens, P., Jacquemyn, Y., Schepens, P., Distribution of PCBs and organochlorine psticides in umbilical cord and maternal serum. Sci. Total Environ. 298, Crellin, N.K., Kang, H.G., Swan, C.L., Chedrese, P.J., Inhibition of basal and stimulated progesterone synthesis by dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene and methoxychlor in a stable pig granulosa cell line. Reproduction 121, Crellin, N.K., Rodway, M.R., Swan, C.L., Gillio-Meina, C., Chedrese, P.J., Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene potentiates the effect
6 A.K. Wójtowicz et al. / Toxicology Letters 173 (2007) of protein kinase A pathway activators on progesterone synthesis in cultured porcine granulosa cells. Biol. Reprod. 61, Dewailly, E., Ayotte, P., Bruneau, S., Laliberte, C., Muir, D.C., Norstrom, R.J., Inuit exposure to organochlorines through the aquatic food chain in arctic Quebec. Environ. Health Perspect. 101, Di Lorenzo, D., Villa, R., Biasiotto, G., Belloli, S., Ruggeri, G., Albertini, A., Apostoli, P., Raviscioni, M., Ciana, P., Maggi, A., Isomer-specific activity of dichlorodyphenyltrichloroethane with estrogen receptor in adult and suckling estrogen reporter mice. Endocrinology 143, Farhang, L., Weintraub, J.M., Petreas, M., Eskenazi, B., Bhatia, R., Association of DDT and DDE with birth weight and length of gestation in the Child Health and Development Studies , Am. J. Epidemiol. 162, Fortune, J.E., Vincent, S.E., Progesterone inhibits the induction of aromatase activity in rat granulosa cells in vitro. Biol. Reprod. 28, Fox, S.D., Roman, J.M., Issaq, H.J., Nims, R.W., Metabolic conversion of 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDD) to 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDD) on the male F344/NCr rat. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 35, Gladen, B.C., Shkiryak-Nyzhnyk, Z.A., Chyslovska, N., Zadorozhnaja, T.D., Little, R.E., Persistent organochlorine compounds and birth weight. Ann. Epidemiol. 13, Hamel, A., Mergler, D., Takser, L., Simoneau, L., Lafond, J., Effects of low concentrations of organochlorine compounds in women on calcium transfer in human placental syncytiotrophoblast. Toxicol. Sci. 76, Harada, N., Hatano, O., Inhibitors of aromatase prevent degradation of the enzyme in cultured human tumor cells. Br. J. Cancer 77, Holloway, A.C., Stys, K.A., Foster, W.G., DDE-induced changes in aromatase activity in endometrial stromal cells in culture. Endocrine 27, James, R.A., Hertz-Picciotto, I., Willman, E., Keller, J.A., Charles, M.J., Determinants of serum polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides measured in women from the child health and development study cohort, Environ. Health Perspect. 110, Karmaus, W., Zhu, X., Maternal concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls and dichlorodiphenyldichlorethylene and birth weight in Michigan fish eaters, a cohort study. Environ. Health 3, 1. Kelce, W.R., Stone, C.R., Laws, S.C., Gray, L.E., Kemppainen, J.A., Wilson, E.M., Persistent DDT metabolite p,p -DDE is a potent androgen receptor antagonist. Nature 375, Kellis, J.T., Vickery, L.E., Inhibition of human estrogen synthetase (aromatase) by flavones. Science 225, Kleeman, J.M., Moore, R.W., Peterson, R.E., Inhibition of testicular steroidogenesis in 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxintreated rats: evidence that the key lesion occurs prior to or during pregnenolone formation. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 106, Law, D.C., Klebanoff, M.A., Brock, J.W., Dunson, D.B., Longnecker, M.P., Maternal serum levels of polychlorinated biphenyls and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE) and time to pregnancy. Am. J. Epidemiol. 162 (6), Lacey, M., Bohday, J., Fonseka, S.M., Ullah, A.I., Whitehead, S.A., Dose response effects of phytoestrogens on the activity and expression of 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and aromatase in human granulose-luteal cells. J. Steroid. Biochem. Mol. Biol. 96, Laville, N., Balaguer, P., Brion, F., Hinfray, N., Casellas, C., Porcher, J.M., Ait-Aissa, S., Modulation of aromatase activity and mrna by various selected pesticides in the human choriocarcinoma JEG-3 cell line. Toxicology 228, Longnecker, M.P., Rogan, W.J., Lucier, G., The human health effects of DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and PCBS (polychlorinated biphenyls) and an overview of organochlorines in public health. Ann. Rev. Public Health. 18, Mitchell, B.F., Wong, S., Changes in 17 beta, 20 alphahydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity supporting an increase in the estrogen/progesterone ratio of human fetal membranes at parturition. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 168, Moore, R.W., Jefcoate, C.R., Peterson, R.E., ,3,7,8- Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin inhibits steroidogenesis in the rat testis by inhibiting the mobilization of cholesterol to cytochrome P450scc. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 109, Myers, D.A., Nathanielsz, P.W., Biologic basis of term and preterm labor. Clin. Perinatol. 20, Nativelle-Serpentini, C., Richard, S., Seralini, G.E., Sourdaine, P., Aromatase activity modulation by lindane and bisphenol- A in human placental JEG-3 and transfected kidney E293 cells. Toxicol. In Vitro 17, Nejaty, H., Lacey, M., Whitehead, S.A., Differing effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals on basal and FSH-stimulated progesterone production in rat granulosa-luteal cells. Exp. Biol. Med. 226, Pepe, G.J., Albrecht, E.D., Actions of placental and fetal adrenal steroid hormones in primate pregnancy. Endocr. Rev. 16, Sala, M., Ribas-Fito, N., Cardo, E., de Muga, M.e., Marco, E., Mazon, C., Verdy, A., Grimalt, J.O., Sunyer, J., Levels of hexacglorobenzene and other organochlorine compounds in cord blood: exposure across placenta. Chemosphere 43, Sanderson, J.T., Boerma, J., Lansbergen, G.W., van der Berg, M., Induction and inhibition of aromatase activity by various classes of pesticides in H295R human adrenocortical carcinima cells. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 182, Spencer, T.E., Bazer, F.W., Conceptus signals for establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. Reprod. Biol. Endocrinol. 2, Stresser, D.M., Turner, S.D., McNamara, J., Stocker, P., Miller, V.P., Crespi, C.L., Patten, C.J., A high-throughput screen to identify inhibitors of aromatase (CYP19). Anal. Biochem. 284, Trosken, E.R., Fisher, K., Volkel, W., Lutz, W.K., Inhibition of human CYP19 by azoles used as antifungal agents and aromatase inhibitors, using a new LC MS/MS method for the analysis of esatrdiol product formation. Toxicology 219, Trosken, E.R., Sholz, K., Lutz, R.W., Volkel, W., Zarn, J.A., Lutz, W.K., Comparative assesment of the inhibition of recombinant human CYP19 (aromatase) by azoles used in agriculture and as drugs for humans. Endocr. Res. 30, Vinggaard, A.M., Hnida, C., Brenholt, V., Larsen, J.C., Screening of selected pesticides for inhibition of CYP19 aromatase activity in vitro. Toxicol. In Vitro 14, World Health Organization, Environmental health criteria 9. DDT and Its Derivatives. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. ehc009.htm. Wójtowicz, A.K., Goch, M., Gregoraszczuk, E.L., Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB 153 and PCB 126) action on conversion of 20-hydroxylated cholesterol to progesterone, androstenedione to testosterone, and testosterone to estradiol 17beta. Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes 113,
7 30 A.K. Wójtowicz et al. / Toxicology Letters 173 (2007) Wójtowicz, A.K., Kajta, M., Gregoraszczuk, E.L., DDT- and DDE-induced disruption of ovarian steroidogenesis in prepubertal porcine ovarian follicles: a possible interaction with the main steroidogenic enzymes and estrogen receptor b. J. Physiol. Pharmacol., in press. You, L., Sar, M., Bartolucci, E., Ploch, S., Whitt, M., Induction of hepatic aromatase by p,p -DDE in adult male rats. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 178, Younglai, E.V., Holloway, A.C., Lim, A.L., Foster, W.G., Synergistic effects between FSH and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(pchlorophenyl)ethylene (p p -DDE) on human granulosa cell aromatase activity. Hum. Reprod. 19, Younglai, E.V., Foster, W.G., Hughes, E.G., Trim, K., Jarrell, J.F., Levels of environmental contaminants in human follicular fluid, serum, and seminal plasma of couples undergoing in vitro fertilization. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 43,
Protocol for Western Blotting Materials Materials used on Day 3 Protease inhibitor stock: 1 μg/μl pepstatin A in DMSO 200 μm leupeptin in OG Buffer 200 mm PMSF: Freshly made. Ex) 34.8 mg PMSF in 1 ml isopropanol
Technical Manual ECL Western Blotting Substrate INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE OF PRODUCTS W1001 AND W1015. PRINTED IN USA. 6/09 ECL Western Blotting Substrate All technical literature is available on the Internet
A Cell Culture Based Assay for the Measurement of Xenobiotic Effects on Steroid Production P.D. Jones, M. Hecker, T. Gracia, X. Zhang, J. T. Sanderson*, J. P. Giesy, J. L. Newsted Aquatic Toxicology Laboratory,
Anti-ATF6 α antibody, mouse monoclonal (1-7) 73-500 50 ug ATF6 (activating transcription factor 6) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane-bound transcription factor activated in response to ER stress.
Western Blot SOP Protein transfer from SDS-PAGE to nitrocellulose membrane using the Trans-Blot SD cell (Western). Date: 8/16/05, 10/31/05, 2/6/06 Author: N.Oganesyan, R. Kim Edited by: R. Kim Summary:
Endocrinology of the Female Reproductive Axis girlontheriver.com Geralyn Lambert-Messerlian, PhD, FACB Professor Women and Infants Hospital Alpert Medical School at Brown University Women & Infants BROWN
See external label 2 C-8 C Σ=96 tests Cat # 2924Z Free Testosterone Cat# 2924Z Direct immunoenzymatic determination of Free Testosterone in serum or plasma. For in vitro diagnostic use only INTENDED USE
Running protein gels and detection of proteins 1. Protein concentration determination using the BIO RAD reagent This assay uses a colour change reaction to give a direct measurement of protein concentration.
Western Blotting All steps are carried out at room temperature unless otherwise indicated. Recipes for all solutions highlighted bold are included at the end of the protocol. SDS-PAGE 1. Construct an SDS-PAGE
S R A nstitute for Risk Assessment Sciences Æ Mechanism of Action of ominated Flame Retardants mplications for risk assessment Martin van den Berg nstitute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University,
Western Blotting Sive Lab Protocol March 2007 Prepare samples: For zebrafish embryos: Option 1: Take live embryos and put into 1.5 ml tube with E3. Centrifuge gently for 1-2 minutes -yolk lipids will rise
Rat creatine kinase MM isoenzyme (CK-MM) ELISA Kit Catalog Number. CSB-E14405r For the quantitative determination of rat creatine kinase MM isoenzyme (CK-MM) concentrations in serum, plasma, tissue homogenates.
The most recent statistics show that 2 out of every 10 couples trying to achieve pregnancy will be diagnosed with infertility. For many, this can be an extremely difficult diagnosis to accept and to understand.
PROTOCOL Western Blotting Transfer and Detection Procedure 1850 Millrace Drive, Suite 3A Eugene, Oregon 97403 02-11 DESCRIPTION Western Blotting Transfer and Detection Procedure ADDITIONAL MATERIALS REQUIRED
Product Manual Pure-IP Western Blot Detection Kit Catalog Number PRB-5002 20 blots FOR RESEARCH USE ONLY Not for use in diagnostic procedures Introduction The technique of immunoprecipitation (IP) is used
Overview: Human Health Effects of Environmental Contaminants 1 1 OVERVIEW: HUMAN HEALTH EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS Human activity has led to the production and release into the environment of
WESTERN BLOTTING TIPS AND TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE TIPS FOR SUCCESSFUL WESTERB BLOTS TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE 1. Suboptimal protein transfer. This is the most common complaint with western blotting and could
PR110 G-Biosciences 1-800-628-7730 1-314-991-6034 email@example.com A Geno Technology, Inc. (USA) brand name Dot Blot Analysis Teacher s Guidebook (Cat. # BE 502) think proteins! think G-Biosciences
DuoSet IC Human Phospho-EGF R Catalog Number DYC1095-2 Catalog Number DYC1095-5 For the development of sandwich ELISAs to measure phosphorylated Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGF R) in cell lysates.
Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) Day 1 A) DNA shearing 1. Samples Dissect tissue (One Mouse OBs) of interest and transfer to an eppendorf containing 0.5 ml of dissecting media (on ice) or PBS but without
In Vivo and In Vitro Screening for Thyroid Hormone Disruptors Kevin M. Crofton National lhealth and Environmental Research Laboratory California Environmental Protection Agency Human Health Hazard Indicators
Sex Hormone Testing by Mass Spectrometry Robert L. Fitzgerald, PhD, DABCC Professor of Pathology University of California-San Diego San Diego, CA, 92161 firstname.lastname@example.org Learning Objectives After this
Rat Creatine Kinase MB Isoenzyme (CKMB) ELISA For the quantitative determination of rat CKMB in serum, plasma, tissue homogenates and other biological fluids. Cat. No. KT-12247 For Research Use Only. Not
Western Blot Analysis with Cell Samples Grown in Channel-µ-Slides Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and subsequent analyses are common tools in biochemistry and molecular biology. This Application
SDS-PAGE and western blot for low molecular weight proteins (2-20kDa) Merav Marom Shamur, Smart Assays Aim: Analysis of low molecular weight proteins by SDS-PAGE and western blot under reducing conditions.
Optimal Conditions for F(ab ) 2 Antibody Fragment Production from Mouse IgG2a Ryan S. Stowers, 1 Jacqueline A. Callihan, 2 James D. Bryers 2 1 Department of Bioengineering, Clemson University, Clemson,
292PR 01 G-Biosciences 1-800-628-7730 1-314-991-6034 email@example.com A Geno Technology, Inc. (USA) brand name Classic Immunoprecipitation Utilizes Protein A/G Agarose for Antibody Binding (Cat.
Human Adult Mesothelial Cell Manual INSTRUCTION MANUAL ZBM0025.01 SHIPPING CONDITIONS Human Adult Mesothelial Cells Orders are delivered via Federal Express courier. All US and Canada orders are shipped
Placental levels of halogenated organic compounds and cord immune markers PEACH study: Wilfried Karmaus, Cristin Larder Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, University of South Carolina Mark Knottnerus,
Exercise 8 Exercise 9 Direct Antiglobulin Test (DAT) Elution Study Task Aim Introduction To perform the DAT and elution procedure with correct interpretation of results. To perform with 100% accuracy the
CLONTECH Innovative Tools to Accelerate Discovery Antibodies Protocol Guide PT3407-1 (PR99224) Published 14 September 1999 FOR RESEARCH USE ONLY Table of Contents I. Introduction 3 II. Materials Required
Benchtop Mitochondria Isolation Protocol Note: Specific protocols are available for the following products: MS850 Mitochondria Isolation Kit for Rodent Tissue MS851 Mitochondria Isolation Kit for Rodent
THE His Tag Antibody, mab, Mouse Cat. No. A00186 Technical Manual No. TM0243 Update date 01052011 I Description.... 1 II Key Features. 2 III Storage 2 IV Applications.... 2 V Examples - ELISA..... 2 VI
Cat. # T7111A For Research Use Western BLoT Product Manual Table of Contents I. Description... 3 II. Components... 3 III. Storage... 3 IV. Materials Required but Not Provided... 3 V. Precautions... 3 VI.
Human IGFBP-3 ELISA Kit (higfbp-3-elisa) Cat. No. EK0386 96 Tests in 8 x 12 divisible strips Background Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) is a major determinant of circulating levels
Concepts of Endocrinology: Issues Relevant to Endocrine Disruptor Screening Raphael J. Witorsch, Ph.D. Professor Emeritus Physiology and Biophysics School of Medicine Virginia i i Commonwealth University
Role of luteinizing hormone supplementation in the follicular phase and pregnancy, during controlled ovarian hyperstimulation in in vitro fertilization Systematic review by: Dr. Ashraf Ahmed ElDaly, M.Sc.,
1 INHIBIN - SYNTHESIS, SECRETION AND PRACTICAL USES Structure of inhibin Inhibin is a protein secreted by granulosa (female) and Sertoli (male) cells in response to FSH, and its major action is the negative
Welcome to chapter 5. The following chapter is called Ovulation Induction in the Polycystic Ovary. The author is Dr. Ernesto Bosch. ALT: Please use the navigation bar at the bottom of the viewing panel
Techniques in Reproductive Biology Bioassay Sex Reversal % Female @ 33 C 100 100 1ppt Use of a known biological response 80 Develop a dose 60 response curve Access unknowns 40 Still extensively used 20
9- Labeled Immunoassays Fluorescent & Chemiluminescent Immunoassays In 1944 it was demonstrated that antibodies could be labeled with molecules that fluoresce. These fluorescent compounds are called fluorophores
Hormonal Oral Contraceptives: An Overview By Kelsie Court A variety of methods of contraception are currently available, giving men and women plenty of options in choosing a method suitable to his or her
Infinite 200 PRO Gas Control Module (GCM ) Enabling long-term cell-based assays with eukaryotic cells via controlled CO 2 partial pressure inside the reader Introduction The investigation of biological
TRI Reagent For processing tissues, cells cultured in monolayer or cell pellets Catalog Number T9424 Store at room temperature. TECHNICAL BULLETIN Product Description TRI Reagent is a quick and convenient
Human Pancreatic Beta Cell Lines Culture Protocols (provided by the depositor) 1. Thawing Human Cell Lines for culture: Locate vials in liquid nitrogen and quickly remove with forceps. Take vial to sterile
Western Blotting: Mini-gels Materials a Protein Extraction Buffer (for callus or kernel), Solution Stock Final Volume Tris-HCl ph 80 1 M 200 mm 20 ml NaCl 4 M 100 mm 25 ml Sucrose 2 M 400 mm 20 ml EDTA
Advances in Steroid Panel Analysis with High Sensitivity LC/MS/MS Kenneth C. Lewis 1, Lisa St. John-Williams 1, Changtong Hao 2, Sha Joshua Ye 2 1 OpAns LLC, Durham, NC, USA; 2 Ionics Mass Spectrometry
PLASMA LEVELS OF TESTOSTERONE IN MALE RABBITS FOLLOWING COPULATION GARY C. HALTMEYER and KRISTEN B. EIK-NES Department of Physiology, Division of Physiology and Biochemistry of Reproduction, University
ELISA BIO 110 Lab 1 Immunity and Disease Introduction The principal role of the mammalian immune response is to contain infectious disease agents. This response is mediated by several cellular and molecular
KAMIYA BIOMEDICAL COMPANY Mouse krebs von den lungen 6 (KL-6) ELISA For the quantitative determination of mouse KL-6 in serum, plasma, cell culture supernatants, body fluid and tissue homogenate Cat. No.
Human serum albumin (HSA) nanoparticles stabilized with intermolecular disulfide bonds Wentan Wang, Yanbin Huang*, Shufang Zhao, Ting Shao and Yi Cheng* Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University,
SDS-PAGE Protocol Mutated from the SDS-PAGE protocol written by the Lord of the Flies Pouring the resolving gel 1. Clean glass plates with soap and water, then with ethanol. Assemble the glass plates and
Chromatin Immunoprecipitation A) Prepare a yeast culture (see the Galactose Induction Protocol for details). 1) Start a small culture (e.g. 2 ml) in YEPD or selective media from a single colony. 2) Spin
WESTERN BLOT PROTOCOL FOR LICOR ODYSSEY SCANNER (HAKE S LAB) WESTERN BLOT FOR ANALYSIS ON LICOR ODYSSEY SCANNER. 1) The Licor Odyssey protein marker is optimal as it is visible on channel 700 (2ul is enough
Studies on cortisol and prolactin concentrations in umbilical cord blood, amniotic fluid, maternal blood, and breast milk related to perinatal factors Summary of the thesis Doctoral Course of Applied Life
Creatine Kinase Activity Colorimetric Assay Kit ABE5487 100 assays; Store at -20 C I. Introduction: Creatine Kinase (CK) also known as creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and ATP: creatine N- phosphotransferase
Approaches that can be used to study expression of specific proteins Receptors and transporters Homogenate binding studies Receptor autoradiography Radiochemical Western blotting Immunohistochemistry/cytochemistry
GASTRIC ORGANOID CULTURE PROTOCOL THIS PROTOCOL PROVIDES THE PROCEDURE FOR SUBCULTURING NORMAL HUMAN GASTRIC ORGANOIDS WHICH WAS DERIVED FROM THE SUBMERGED METHOD AS DESCRIBED IN BARKER N, ET AL. LGR5+VE
Methionine Sulfoxide Immunoblotting Kit Item No. 600160 Customer Service 800.364.9897 * Technical Support 888.526.5351 www.caymanchem.com TABLE OF CONTENTS GENERAL INFORMATION 3 Materials Supplied 4 Precautions
KAMIYA BIOMEDICAL COMPANY Mouse Creatine Kinase MB isoenzyme (CKMB) ELISA For the quantitative determination of mouse CKMB in serum, plasma, cell culture fluid and other biological fluids Cat. No. KT-57681
Rat Creatine Kinase MB isoenzyme,ck-mb ELISA Kit Catalog No: E0479r 96 Tests Operating instructions www.eiaab.com FOR RESEARCH USE ONLY; NOT FOR THERAPEUTIC OR DIAGNOSTIC APPLICATIONS! PLEASE READ THROUGH
Page 1 of 8 Mouse IFN-gamma ELISpot Kit Without Plates With Plates With Sterile Plates Quantity Catalog Nos. 862.031.001 862.031.001P 862.031.001S 1 x 96 tests 862.031.005 862.031.005P 862.031.005S 5 x
6 Characterization of Casein and Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) Objectives: A) To separate a mixture of casein and bovine serum albumin B) to characterize these proteins based on their solubilities as a function
CHRISTIAN LAB WESTERN BLOT PROTOCOL There is actually 2 parts to a western blot: A. SDS-PAGE: Separates protein by size. Smaller proteins migrate faster through the gel than larger proteins. Size separation
BUFFERS and MEDIAS Coomassie Blue Staining Solution 2 g Coomassie Blue 2 L Methanol or Ethanol * 1.6 L 400 ml Glacial acetic acid *If you will be microwaving the gel in staining solution for rapid staining
Chem 405 Biochemistry Lab I Experiment 2 Quantitation of an unknown protein solution. Introduction: The determination of protein concentration is frequently required in biochemical work. Several methods
GE Healthcare Amersham Low Molecular Weight Calibration Kit for SDS Electrophoresis A lyophilized mixture of six highly purified well-characterized proteins for use in molecular weight determination in
148 Bishop s University 2015/2016 Biochemistry The Biochemistry program at Bishop s is coordinated through an interdisciplinary committee of chemists, biochemists and biologists, providing students with
Western Blot Protocol (updated on 05/20/14) Required Solutions 10x PBS (1L) 80 g NaCl 2 g KCl 14.4 g Na 2 HPO 4 or 22 g Na 2 HPO 4 7H 2 O 2.4 g KH 2 PO 4 or 2 g KH 2 PO4 Adjust ph to 7.4 Autoclave PBST
Hormones: Classification Hormones: Classification Be able to give types and example. Compare synthesis, half-life and location of receptor 1. Peptide or protein hormones Insulin from amino acids 2. Steroid
Method for Western Blotting Western Blotting ELECTROPHORESIS Prepare and run an SDS PAGE gel. Select a gel percent which will give the best resolution for the size of antigen being analyzed (if known).
ATTACHMENT: Useful remarks for patient and doctor, to be associated to the analytical results. Your doctor should interpret this report. Cod. ID: 123456 CCV: 6bf Date: 01/01/2013 Patient: Rossi Mario Rapport
STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE Title: Evaluation using Western Blot SOP#: M-103 Version #: 1 Author: R. Saul Date Approved: Feb. 5, 2009 Date Modified: 1. PURPOSE The purpose of this document is to describe
x TABLE OF CONTENT ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ENGLISH ABSTRACT THAI ABSTRACT LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES ABBREVIATIONS iii iv vii xv xvi xviii CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Statement of problems 1 1.2 Literature
METHOD USED TO EXTRACT TOTAL MUSCLE PROTEIN FOR WESTERN BLOT USING TRIS-EDTA BUFFER* SOLUTIONS FOR SAMPLE EXTRACTION 1. Tris-EDTA Buffer, ph 8.3 1 liter 50 mm Tris 6.06 g 10 mm EDTA 3.72 g Adjust ph to