Tuomioja commenced the event by welcoming Mogherini and presenting the theme of the day: Europe and the construction of peace.

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1 EU as a peacebuilder? Eurooppasali, Helsinki Tuomioja commenced the event by welcoming Mogherini and presenting the theme of the day: Europe and the construction of peace. Scepticism about the EU and Europe has been growing, but there has also been a long trend of understanding Europe s potential as a peace builder. The success of the EU in this role has been recognized. The EU in itself has been said to be the most successful peace project in the world. The question however is, what can Europe do as a global world actor to construct peace? MOGHERINI: Mogherini expressed her gratitude for these types of events. According to her, these types of meetings are important for drawing information and inspiration to answer difficult questions, such as those of peace and security. The EU has been in two main peace processes in the last 10 years, but the main one discussed at this event was the neighbourhood policy. The original idea of this policy was to create a successful peace process outside of Europe based on the model that has already worked so well inside the EU. Unfortunately this process has been under a large question mark, and has been so ever since Mogherini stepped into her position. Mogherini emphasized the importance of post crisis management as a part of the stabilisation process and peace building, in our neighbourhood and elsewhere. The importance of this is shown by the fact that many of the large crises of today are those that we thought had been solved already. For us in the EU the most important challenge is our own neighbourhood. If we cannot harbour peace in our neighbourhood, we will not be seen as a serious global player. Europe, even though we may forget it ourselves, is still seen as a

2 model for peace, regional integration and cooperation. We are the first donor of development aid, the first trade partner for many key players and an important security partner for the most of the world. The priorities of different capitals of European countries may differ in order, but the main challenges persist: the Mediterranean, Libya, Iraq, Syria and the Middle East and of course Russia. The EU has great potential to work in any and all of these areas, even the Middle East. Mogherini even expressed that she saw that the EU has great potential to play a concrete role in the Gaza peace process. The first great challenge that Mogherini wanted to discuss was Libya. In her opinion this is the next biggest threat to European security, the next big conflict that is going to explode. On the very same day, 5.3. the UN had restarted internal dialogues in Libya to solve the multitude of issues: amount of arms, lack of state structures, lack of control of borders, flow of asylum seekers and terrorist organisations. Mogherini emphasized that Libya should be seen as a common threat to all of us. The second great challenge is Syria and Iraq. The problem in this region is twofold; there is the issue of refugees and also the imminent problem of Daesh. Daesh is not only posing a threat to the international community, but most importantly to the local population in Iraq and Syria. The approach that Mogherini saw as the most possible, and the most relevant, would be an allinclusive approach. The problem of the Daesh rose form the exclusion of the Sunnis in post war Iraq, so supporting the Sunni communities in Iraq is the first step for fighting back. Iraq is filled with complexities with its multiple minorities, but Europe, with its history, its multiple languages and cultures, is an expert at managing diversity and complexity. Not a security threat per se, but something to keep in mind considering the Middle East, is Iran and facilitating the non-proliferation negotiations. Europe s role can be great in facilitating good technical agreements and building trust among different actors. Europe can play the role of guaranteeing that there will

3 be a good deal, made with good will and good faith. Mogherini also thanked Finland in particular for its efforts in helping make the Middle East a region free of weapons of mass destruction. Then Mogherini moved on to speak about the East, and most importantly the crisis in Ukraine. According to her, the real point in the crisis is Russia and Russia s relations with the west and specifically with the EU. To solve this crisis, there are three different tracks that the EU can follow: 1) A mix of economic pressure and unity 2) Support to Ukrainian transformation 3) Use of the diplomatic and political channels and that are constantly being supported and fed. The EU should be supporting the implementation of OSCE agreements and most importantly of all, keeping open the diplomatic channels. There needs to be an understanding of what kind of relations are possible between Russia, EU and the West. Is there still a possibility to continue with the cooperation with Russia that has been created, or is that time over forever? Mogherini however wanted to point out that the situation is not as negative as what the media seems to portray there is no risk of a new cold war. The cooperation spirit with our Eastern neighbour may have been harmed, and this is what should be seen as the challenge for EU as a peace builder. Sometimes it s important to also remember the good examples of how peace building in Europe has worked the Balkans. Today, Sarajevo is still up and fighting, but now politically whilst agreeing fully with EU commitments and agreements. This is the most powerful success story that we can tell, and it gives us hope that in 20 years a whole region can be transformed in the same way the Balkans were.

4 Questions: Tuomioja: Is there any alternative for dealing with the situation with Russia in the long term? M: It is not a cold war, there is still cooperation with issues such as Iran, Russia is still sitting in the UN Security Council, Russia is playing an important role in the Middle East and Syria and plenty of other global issues. These issues are threats that unite us, not ones that drive us apart. Raimo Väyrynen: Officially Turkey still wants to join the EU, but in reality it is far removed from our ideals and norms. What are the Turkish prospects in the long term? M: Prospects for Turkey are good. For them, this is an enormous political investment, but the message the Mogherini received during her visits was that they are committed, not for the sake of relations, but because of their own national interests. Also, from the point of view of the EU, it is a process that we cannot afford killing. For the sake of the future of the Turkish people who are very interested in the EU perspective, it is important to keep the discussions alive even for the credibility of the EU with this matter. However, it is very difficult, and there is still a long way to go. Embassy of Romania: Italians have criticized EU s stance with the situation of immigration coming from Libya. How can the EU help Italy with this? M: It s not so much about the EU helping Italy, but about the EU helping itself. We should be more aware of the benefits of migration, even from a very cynical economic approach. We need some form of migration. The problem of refugees is also massive, but we cannot have a schizophrenic approach when it comes to this. We cannot choose to help with development aid, but not accept refugees.

5 The EU could better handle this by having foreign ministers keep migration issues on their mind. Partners are very important when dealing with crises like these, and the first big step needed for the situation in Libya would be to find credible partners that could help with the flow of desperate people looking for asylum. It would also be important that ministers of individual countries brought this issue to the national level, creating the thought that this is a common issue and that it is in the European common interest to manage asylum seekers, immigration and work for the protection of human rights. All member states would benefit together from long-term policies on immigration and asylum seekers. Elisabeth Helander Have there been steps forward for the trade agreement between the EU and Russia? M: Teamwork is what brings the best results. The current dialogue for energy packages is still going on, and there is still a need to negotiate the following packages. The second phase would then be trilateral trade talks, on the implementation of the trade agreements between the European Union and Ukraine, and also on its consequences. It should also be made very clear that having an agreement with the EU is not in any case to be seen as a threat or a challenge to anyone. The fact that we build partnerships over our borders is cooperation that is open for everyone. It would be very important to pass along the message that we are in a cooperative moment, and there should be no choice between looking to the east or the west. To make sure this is possible, all implementation measures need to be made in full transparency. The EU Russia trade talks are yet to come, and they will be difficult, but there really is no alternative than to face these difficult negotiations.

6 ----- With this Arto Aniluoto ended the event and thanked Mogherini and Tuomioja for their participation on the behalf of all the organisers.

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